Details, datasheet, quote on part number: AN89001
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Features, Applications

Electro magnetic compatibility and printed circuit board (PCB) constraints

The routing of the traces on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) largely effect the ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) performance of the PCB with respect to both ElectroMagnetic (EM) radiation as susceptibility to EM-fields. The PCB will connect electronic components such as passive components, transistors and ICs. Furthermore, cables to interconnect the PCB with other system parts, e.g., another PCB, signal generator, CATV wall-outlet, DC power source or an AC-mains connection, will largely influence the PCB with respect to EMC [7]. In order to get a PCB on which the circuits function properly, the trace routing, the placement of components/connectors and the decoupling used with certain ICs will have to be optimized according to the constraints given in this report. To reach an economic and functional PCB design, the following items have to be kept in mind: 1. Correct choice of the PCB format (mono, bi- or multi-layer) 2. Take care that "every" signaltrace has its signalreturn nearby 3. Proper decoupling for each IC or group of ICs 4. Allowed tracelengths and allowed loopareas 5. Placement of the connectors 6. Right cable choice with a proper connector 7. Proper use and placement of filters and filterparts.

These items with the appropriate measures will be further explained. The main target is to get control over your PCB currents.

By using the inductance of a single wire, Li, the mutual coupling, M, and the capacitance between the traces, Ci, a transmissionline, shown in Figure 2, can be defined of which the characteristic impedance, ZO, equals: ZO = (Leff / C) where: Leff / M and + C2. When the coupling, k, between the traces of the transmissionline is high, the effective inductance will decrease rapidly. Some coupling factors are given in Table 1. An indifferent signal path design (Figure 3a) can be changed into a transmissionline design (Figure 3b). This change will lower the effective inductance, Leff, between the two circuit blocks and will therefore lower the voltage drop between the two references of those circuits.

Single conductors have, as a rule of thumb, an inductance 1H/m. At low frequencies only, below 1kHz, Rdc applies. These impedances, together with the currents that will flow through these impedances, will be responsible for the voltage drop between points as Ohms law applies. The voltage drop can be diminished by either reducing the impedance or lowering the current through that impedance. In typical digital designs the voltage drop will be frequency independent. A square wave current, resulting from a square wave output voltage to a resistive load, can be described as a series of sinewaves of which the amplitude of the harmonics decrease proportional with the frequency (Fourier expansions), see Figure 1b. The impedance of the inductor increases proportional with frequency (see Figure 1a), therefore the product; voltage drop (Figure 1c) remains constant. When the current has a triangular waveshape, as function of time, due to capacitive loading, the amplitude of the harmonics decreases with the frequency square and the voltage drop across the inductor reduces proportional with frequency.

Table 1. Coupling Factors between the Conductors of a Transmissionline
TRANSMISSIONLINE TYPE Parallel wires Bi-layer PCB Multi-layer PCB Coaxial cable RG-58 coax COUPLING

Figure 1. The relation between voltage drop as a result of current and impedance as function of frequency

Signal line M R1 PCB #1 C2 Signal line L2 R2 VEE, VCC (a) Indifferent signal path NO coupling between SVEE, VCC VEE, VCC (b) Transmission line signal path GOOD coupling between SVEE, VCC PCB #2

S1 VEE multi-layer: d(SiVEE) or d(SiVCC) < d(SiSj) i, j number of traces VCC S3 S4 (e) 5-layer

Separately, the capacitive and inductive values, derived from the definition of the transmissionline, can also be used to calculate the crosstalk between adjacent traces, not being a function signal path. The capacitive coupling, representing and induced current, is given by: ICk = 1/CkdV/dt, where: Ck = coupling capacitance between adjacent traces; in practice: 100pF/m

(depends upon the vicinity of other traces, see Appendix A), and the inductive coupling, representing an induced voltage, is given by: VMk = MkdI/dt, where: Mk = mutual coupling between two traces (For further detail see Chapter 4.) In both coupling modes, the transfer function will typically show a high pass behavior.

By a proper choice of the PCB-material and the routing of the traces, a good transmissionline with low coupling to other traces can be created. Low coupling, or little crosstalk, can be obtained when the distance, d, between the transmissionline conductors is less than their distance to other adjacent conductors (see Figure 4). By using these examples of geometry of traces the definition of the transmissionline between S1, S2, Si, j and (S2) GND, VEE and/or VCC are well defined and the coupling between the traces S2 and S1 is low.

The most economic PCB format has to be chosen based on: the legal and/or functional EMC requirements for the product, trace density, assembly and manufacturer capabilities, CAD-system capabilities, design-costs, PCB quantities, and the costs of EM-shielding. Special attention must be given to the integral costs (components packaging/pinning + PCB-format + EM-shielding + construction + assembly) when a product definition is considered by using a NON-shielded cover. In many cases the choice of a proper PCB-format may expel the need for a metallized box within the plastic cover. To improve immunity and to lower unwanted emission, both in fast analog and all digital applications, transmissionlines are needed. Dependent upon the transition of the output signal, a transmissionline needs to be present between SVCC, SVEE, and VEEVCC, as indicated in Figure 5. The signal current will be determined by the output-stage symmetry of the circuit. For MOS: IOL = IOH, while for TTL: IOL > IOH. The Logic Family and functional reasons determine the typical characteristic impedance, ZO, for that transmissionline which is given in Table 2.

For two traces next to each other the following formula applies ZO + where: h = distance between traces b = width of the trace c = thickness of the trace; typical 17m, for two traces on top of each other: ZO + where: = 1.5mm (typical thickness of epoxy). When the trace is above a goundplane the following formula applies: ln(6.h(.8.b ) c)) 120 p (h(h ) b)) 1n(p.h(b ) c)) e

Signaltraces need to have their signal-returntraces as close as possible in order to prevent emission from that looparea enclosed by these traces and to reduce susceptibility due to voltages which can be induced in this loop, e.g., by RF-transmitters and ESD. Commonly, when the distance between two traces equals the width of the traces, the coupling factor is about to 0.6. The effective inductance of the traces has gone down from 0.5H/m. This means that 50% of the signal-return current may run freely through the other traces of the PCB. For each signal path between two (sub-)blocks either analog or digital three properly defined transmissionlines need to be present with the impedances given in Table 2 and shown in Figure 5. With TTL logic the sink-current; the high-to-low transition, is higher than the source-current. In this case the transmissionline should be defined between VCC and S instead of VEE and S, which is commonly considered.

and in case of a trace between two (ground-) planes the formula yields: ZO + where: K = distance in-between the planes. Typically the permittivity for epoxy material equals: (4.K(.67.p.b.(.8 ) cb))) e

Table 2. The Transmissionline Impedances, ZO, for Several Signal Paths
FUNCTION/LOGIC Supply (typ.) Signal ECL Signal TTL Signal HC(T) ZO
VCC (VSS) ICC = supply current IOL = output current low #1 IOH = output current high #1

Figure 5. Typical diagram of an interconnection between (digital) ICs which shows 3 specific transmissionlines


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