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A brief overview of the different components of the system is shown in the figure below. Each component is discussed in the following subsections.
The Processor Modules for MPLAB ICE are interchangeable personality modules that allow MPLAB ICE to be reconfigured for emulation of different PICmicro® microcontrollers (MCUs). This modularity allows the emulation of many different devices by the addition of just a Processor Module and Device Adapter, which makes for a very cost effective multiprocessor emulation system. The Device Adapters for MPLAB ICE are interchangeable assemblies that allow the emulator system to interface to a target application system. Device Adapters also have control logic that allows the target application to provide a clock source and power to the Processor Module. The Device Adapters support PICmicro MCUs in DIP, SDIP, and PLCC packages. Transition Sockets, used along with a Device Adapter, provide a method of accommodating all PICmicro MCU packages, including SOIC, SSOP, PQFP, and TQFP packages.
This is a standard parallel interface cable. MPLAB ICE is tested with a 6-foot cable. A longer cable may work, but is not guaranteed. The cable connects to a parallel port on the PC. a PC has a printer connected to an LPT device, it is recommended that an additional interface card be installed, rather than using a splitter or an A/B switch.
The Emulator Pod contains emulator memory and control logic. MPLAB ICE 2000 contains a main board and an additional board for expanded trace memory and complex control logic. There are no field serviceable parts in the pod. For more information on the pod, see the MPLAB ICE User's Guide (DS51159). The MPLAB ICE Processor Module is inserted into the pod for operation.
The Processor Module contains the emulator chip, logic and low-voltage circuitry. There are no field serviceable parts mounted on the printed circuit board housed within the Processor Module enclosure.
MPLAB is a registered trademark of Microchip Technology Inc. PICMASTER is a registered trademark of Microchip Technology Inc.
Once the Processor Module is inserted into the Emulator Pod, the flex circuit cable extends the emulator system to the target application. This is a custom cable that is attached inside the Processor Module enclosure and can be replaced in the field by removing the end cap of the Processor Module enclosure. Please, DO NOT PULL on the flex circuit cable to remove the Processor Module from the pod. Use the fins of the Processor Module end cap to leverage the module from the pod. The operating voltage for most of the control logic and buffering on the Processor Module is +5V and is supplied by the Emulator Pod. Power to the emulator processor and some of its surrounding buffers is user selectable, and can be powered by the Emulator Pod (at +5V only) or the target application system (from to 5.5V). This is software selectable and is configurable through the MPLAB IDE software. At no time will the emulator system directly power the target application system. ALWAYS insert the Processor Module into the Emulator Pod before applying power to the pod. When connecting to a target application system, the user may notice a voltage level on the target application even though they have not yet applied power to the target application circuit. This is normal, and is due to current leakage through VCC of the Device Adapter. The current leakage will typically be less than 20 mA. However, if the target application is using a voltage regulator, it should be noted that some regulators require the use of an external shunt diode between VIN and VOUT for reverse-bias protection. Refer to the manufacturer 's data sheets for additional information. 3.1.1 EMULATOR PROCESSOR POWER SUPPLIED BY EMULATOR SYSTEM
The Device Adapter provides a common interface for the device being emulated. They are provided in standard DIP and PLCC styles. The adapter also contains a special device that provides an oscillator clock to accurately emulate the oscillator characteristics of the PICmicro MCU.
Transition Sockets are available in various styles to allow a common Device Adapter to be connected to one of the supported surface mount package styles. Transition Sockets are available for various pin counts and pitches for SOIC, QFP and other styles. For more information on transition sockets, see the MPLAB ICE Transition Socket Specification (DS51194). An emulator system consists of the following components which are ordered separately:· An Emulator Pod (including the host-to-pod cable and power supply)· A Processor Module (including the flex circuit cable)· A Device Adapter· An optional Transition Socket (for surface mount emulation)
If the emulator system is selected to power the emulator processor in the Processor Module, the emulator system can be operated without being connected to a target application. If the system is being connected to a target application, the power to the pod should be applied before applying power to the target application. Note that the target application system's VCC will experience a small current load (10 mA typical) when the emulator system is connected via a Device Adapter. This is because the target system must always power the clock chip in the Processor Module. 3.1.2 EMULATOR PROCESSOR POWER SUPPLIED BY TARGET APPLICATION SYSTEM
Processor Modules are identified on the top of the assembly (e.g., PCM17XA0). To determine which processors are supported by a specific module, refer to the latest Development Systems Ordering Guide (DS30177) or Product Line Card (DS00148). Both can be found on our Web site (www.microchip.com). A typical Processor Module contains a special bondout version of a PICmicro MCU, device buffers to control data flow and control logic. It provides the means of configuring the MPLAB ICE emulator for a specific PICmicro MCU family and handles low-voltage emulation when needed. Note: When removing the Processor Module, DO NOT pull on the flex cable. Use the tabs on the Processor Module or damage to the flex cable may occur.
When the MPLAB IDE software is brought up, the emulator system is first initialized with the emulator system powering the emulator processor. The "Processor Power Supplied by Target Board" option may then be selected using the Power tab of the Options>Development Mode dialog to power the Processor Module from the target board. When operating from external power, the Processor Module will typically represent a current load equivalent to the device being emulated (according to its data sheet) plus approximately 100 mA. Keep in mind that the target application will affect the overall current load of the Processor Module, dependent upon the load placed upon the processor I/O.
When the processor power is supplied by the target application system, an external clock (from the target board) may also be provided. MPLAB IDE will not allow use of an external clock without the use of external power. 3.1.3 OPERATING VOLTAGE TO 5.5 VOLTS
The Processor Modules will support the maximum frequency (except where noted in Section 4.0) of the device under emulation. Note that the maximum frequency of a PICmicro MCU device is significantly lower when the operating voltage is less than 4.5V. The Processor Modules will support a minimum frequency of 32 kHz. When operating at low frequencies, response to the screen may be slow.
If the target application system's operating voltage is between 4.55V (±120 mV) and 5.5V, the Processor Module will consider this a STANDARD VOLTAGE condition. In this mode the processor can run to its highest rated speed (as indicated in its data sheet). The recommended power-up sequence is: Apply power to the PC host. Apply power to the Emulator Pod and Processor Module assembly. Invoke MPLAB IDE. Configure system for Processor Power Supplied by Target Board through the Power tab of the Options/Development Mode dialog box. At the error message, apply power to the target application circuit. Then acknowledge the error. Issue a System Reset (from the Debug Menu) before proceeding. OPERATING VOLTAGE TO 4.6 VOLTS
MPLAB ICE allows internal and external clocking. When set to internal, the clock is supplied from the internal programmable clock, located in the Emulator Pod. When set to external, the oscillator on the target application system will be utilized. 3.3.1 CLOCK SOURCE FROM EMULATOR
Refer to the MPLAB ICE User 's Guide (DS51159), "Chapter 3, Using the On-Board Clock" for configuring MPLAB IDE to supply the clock source. 3.3.2 CLOCK SOURCE FROM THE TARGET APPLICATION
If the target application system's operating voltage is between 2.0V and 4.55V (±120 mV), the Processor Module will consider this a LOW VOLTAGE condition. In this mode the processor is limited to its rated speed at a given voltage level (as indicated in its data sheet). To minimize the amount of reverse current that the target system is exposed to, the recommended power-up sequence is: Apply power to the PC host. Apply power to the Emulator Pod and Processor Module assembly. Invoke MPLAB IDE. Configure system for Processor Power Supplied by Target Board through the Power tab of the Options/Development Mode dialog box. At the error message, apply power to the target application circuit. Then acknowledge the error. Issue a System Reset (from the Debug Menu) before proceeding. Select Options > Development Mode and click the Power tab. Verify that the dialog says "Low Voltage Enabled." Click Cancel to close the dialog.
If the Target Application is selected to provide the clock source, the target board must also be selected to power the emulator processor (see the MPLAB ICE User 's Guide (DS51159), "Chapter 3. Using a Target Board Clock"). At low voltage, the maximum speed of the processor will be limited to the rated speed of the device under emulation. An oscillator circuit on the Device Adapter generates a clock to the Processor Module and buffers the clock circuit on the target board. In this way, the MPLAB ICE emulator closely matches the oscillator options of the actual device. All oscillator modes are supported (as documented in the device's data sheet) except as noted in Section 4.0. The OSC1 and OSC2 inputs of the Device Adapter have 10 pF load. Note this when using a crystal in HS, XT, or LF modes, an RC network in RC mode. The frequency of the emulated RC network may vary relative to the actual device due to emulator circuitry. If a specific frequency is important, adjust the RC values to achieve the desired frequency. Another alternative would be to allow the emulator to provide the clock as described in Section 3.3.1.
All CMOS chips are susceptible to electrostatic discharge (ESD). In the case of the Processor Modules, the pins of the CMOS emulator are directly connected to the target connector, making the chip vulnerable to ESD. Note that ESD can also induce
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