|Category||Interface and Interconnect|
|Description||Act5231 32-bit Superscaler Microprocessor|
|Company||Aeroflex Circuit Technology|
|Datasheet||Download ACT5231 datasheet|
Full militarized QED RM5231 microprocessor Pinout compatible with popular RM5230 with split power sup plies (2.5V and 3.3V) Dual Issue superscalar microprocessor - can issue one integer and one floating-point instruction per cycle
150 and 200 MHz operating frequencies Consult Factory for latest speeds 325 Dhrystone2.1 MIPS SPECfp95 5.25
MFLOPS single-precision performance cycle repeat rate for common single precision opera-tions and some double precision operations q Two cycle repeat rate for double precision multiply and double precision combined multiply-add operations q Single cycle repeat rate for single precision combined multiplyadd operation
system interface lowers total system cost performance write protocols maximize uncached write bandwidth with 600 MB per second peak throughput q Operates at processor clock divisors q IEEE 1149.1 JTAG boundary scan
point multiply-add instruction increases performance in signal processing and graphics applications q Conditional moves to reduce branch frequency q Index address modes (register + register)
instruction and 32KB data - 2 way set associative and per set locking q Virtually indexed, physically tagged q Write-back and write-through on per page basis q Pipeline restart on first double for data cache misses
DSP integer Multiply-Accumulate instruction and 3 operand multiply instruction q I and D cache locking by set q Optional dedicated exception vector for interruptsFully static CMOS design with power down logic
reduced power mode with WAIT instruction W typical power q 2.5V core with 3.3V IO's
associative joint TLB (shared by I and D translations) q 48 dual entries map 96 pages q Variable page size in 4x increments)eroflex Circuit Technology RISC TurboEngines For The Future © SCD5231 REV 1 12/22/98
The is a highly integrated superscalar microprocessor that implements a superset of the MIPS IV Instruction Set Architecture(ISA). It has a high performance 64-bit integer unit, a high throughput, fully pipelined 64-bit floating point unit, an operating system friendly memory management unit with a 48-entry fully associative TLB, 32KB 2-way set associative instruction cache, 32KB 2-way set associative data cache, and an efficient 32-bit system interface. The ACT5231 can issue both an integer and a floating point instruction in the same cycle. The ACT5231 is ideally suited for high-end embedded control applications such as internetworking, high performance image manipulation, high speed printing, and 3-D visualization.
The ACT5231 implements the MIPS IV Instruction Set Architecture, and is therefore fully upward compatible with applications that run on processors implementing the earlier generation MIPS I-III instruction sets. Additionally, the ACT5231 includes two implementation specific instructions not found in the baseline MIPS IV ISA but that are useful in the embedded market place. Described in detail in the QED RM5231 datasheet, these instructions are integer multiply-accumulate and 3-operand integer multiply. The ACT5231 integer unit includes thirty-two general purpose 64-bit registers, a load/store architecture with single cycle ALU operations (add, sub, logical, shift) and an autonomous multiply/ divide unit. Additional register resources include: the HI/LO result registers for the two-operand integer multiply/divide operations, and the program counter(PC).
The ACT5231 offers a high-level of integration targeted at high-performance embedded applications. The key elements of the ACT5231 are briefly described below.
The ACT5231 has thirty-two general purpose registers with register location 0 hard wired to zero. These registersich allo are used for scalar integer operations and address calculation. The register file has two read ports and one write port and is fully bypassed to minimize operation latency in the pipeline.
The ACT5231 has an efficient asymmetric superscalar dispatch unit which allows it to issue an integer instruction and a floating-point computation instruction simultaneously. With respect to superscalar issue, integer instructions include alu, branch, load/store, and floating-point load/ store, while floating-point computation instructions include floating-point add, subtract, combined multiply-add, converts, etc. In combination with its high throughput fully pipelined floating-point execution unit, the superscalar capability of the ACT5231 provides unparalleled price/performance in computationally intensive embedded applications.
The ACT5231 ALU consists of the integer adder/ subtractor, the logic unit, and the shifter. The adder performs address calculations in addition to arithmetic operations, the logic unit performs all logical and zero shift data moves, and the shifter performs shifts and store alignment operations. Each of these units is optimized to perform all tions in a single processor cycle.
Like all MIPS ISA processors, the ACT5231 CPU has a simple, clean user visible state consisting of 32 general purpose registers, two special purpose registers for integer multiplication and division, a program counter, and no condition code bits. For additional Detail Information regarding the operation of the Quantum Effect Design (QED) RISCMark 5231TM, 32-Bit Superscalar Microprocessor see the latest QED datasheet.
For integer operations, loads, stores, and other non-floating-point operations, the ACT5231 uses the simple 5-stage pipeline also found in the ACT52xx family, R4600, R4700, and R5000. In addition to this standard pipeline, the ACT5231 uses an extended seven stage pipeline for floating-point operations. The ACT5231 does virtual to physical translation in parallel with cache access.ACT5231 Microprocessor PQUAD Pinouts (Pinouts subject to change Contact Factory)
Function Vcc NC Vcc Vss SysAD5 SysAD37 Vcc Vss SysAD6 SysAD38 Vcc Vss SysAD8 SysAD40 Vcc Vss SysAD9 SysAD41 Vcc Vss SysAD11 SysAD43 Vcc Vss SysAD12 SysAD44 Vcc Vss SysAD14 SysAD46 Vcc Vss SysAD15 SysAD47 Vcc Vss ModeClock JTDO JTDI JTCK JTMS Vcc Vss
Function NC Vcc Vss ModeIn RdRdy* WrRdy* ValidIn* ValidOut* Release* VccP VssP SysClock Vcc Vss Vcc Vss Vcc Vss SysCmd2 SysCmd3 Vcc Vss SysCmd4 SysCmd5 Vcc Vss SysCmd7 SysCmd8 SysCmdP Vcc Vss Vcc Vss Vcc Vss Int4* Int5* Vcc Vss NC
Function Vcc NMI* ExtRqst* Reset* ColdReset* VccOK BigEndian Vcc Vss SysAD16 SysAD48 Vcc Vss SysAD18 SysAD50 Vcc Vss SysAD19 SysAD51 Vcc Vss SysAD21 SysAD53 Vcc Vss SysAD22 SysAD54 Vcc Vss SysAD24 SysAD56 Vcc Vss SysAD25 SysAD57 Vcc Vss SysAD27 SysAD59 Vcc Vss NC VssThese VCC pins may 2.5V in future higher performance devices
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