|Category||Microcontrollers => RISC->RISC|
|Company||Texas Instruments, Inc.|
|Datasheet||Download MSP430F1121 datasheet|
· Ultra-low power consumption - 400-µA active mode - 1.3-µA standby mode - 0.1-µA off mode· High throughput processor - 16-bit orthogonal RISC architecture - Most instructions executed within a single 200-ns cycle operating at 5 MHz - Seven different address modes for 51 (27 core) instructions· Hardware multiplier· Integrated 14-bit A/D converter· Integrated LCD driver· Integrated USART· Various timers
From the beginning, the design objective of the MSP430 team was to focus on the ultra-low power consumption of the complete system. The goal was to create a microcontroller which consumes very little current in the sleep modes and performs the given tasks in the active mode as fast as possible. To reduce the current consumption of a system, the MSP430 allows designers the ability to influence the active current consumption and active time as well as sleep mode current consumption and sleep time. The active mode current consumption of the in a typical 3-V system. The time to wake-up from the sleep mode to a total functional system takes a maximum of 6 µs. This
allows the be in sleep modes longer and eliminates unnecessary energy use in the active mode. The powerful 16-bit CPU core ensures a fast
execution of the tasks and therefore reduces the active time. This means that the higher the performance of the CPU core, the lower the system power
A full range of MSP430 evaluation and support tools are available and provide easy-to-use design solutions.
In a modern household, many electronic applications like TV sets or stereo systems are permanently in a standby mode. Assuming the total standby power in a household W, a country with 40 million households requires 400 MW just to supply the standby energy. This means that a mid sized power plant is working only to supply the standby energy for these parts. The is an ultra-low-power microcontroller family and can help to reduce this standby current. The typical current consumption in low-power mode is 1.3 µA, where the device is still capable of displaying information on the LCD display or keeping a real-time clock updated. This ultra-low-power consumption is no limitation for the outstanding high processing capability. The 16-bit RISC CPU core can perform tasks like calculation of the energy, faster than conventional 4- and 8-bit microcontrollers. This combination sets a new benchmark of processing capability versus energy consumption. The MSP430 offers 1200 MIPS/Watt in active mode. Finally, the high integration of the MSP430 allows the user to build up a system with a minimum of external components. This leads to very cost competitive system solutions.
consumption. All MSP430 peripheral modules are specially designed to support these ultralow power features. The sleep modes offer a reduced current consumption even when some peripherals are still active. For example, in a simple real time clock (RTC), it is not necessary to keep the device in active mode. Another example, the system can operate from the 32-kHz (ACLK) clock instead of 1-4 MHz (MCLK) with the timers and LCD still active. These examples are benefits of the most often used low-power
mode 3 (LPM3) which consumes 1.3 µA typically. The current consumption can be reduced down in LPM4 where the MSP430 is still capable of
processing external interrupts, for example from a connected keyboard. The sleep time can be maximized due to the fast wakeup from the low-power modes.Active Mode 550 µA with A/D 400 µA without A/D CPU is active Various modules are active 1-4 MHz on
LP-Mode 0.1 µA CPU is inactive Peripherals inactive 32 kHz off wake up from LPM4 only with external interruptLP-Mode 1.3 µA CPU is inactive Peripherals active 32 kHz on all parameters typical at 3V
The MSP430 offers a variety of possibilities to reduce the cost of the complete system to a minimum.· The use of the 32-kHz XTAL and the internal DCO/FLL eliminates the need for a second XTAL for the system frequency. Furthermore, a ceramic resonator can be used in place of the 32-kHz XTAL; or, the system can be operated without any external component for the clock generation at all.· The low-power features of the MSP430 make it possible to choose a smaller battery for the application and still increase the system life due to the various power saving modes.· High code efficiency leads to smaller memory sizes and drives cost down.· The high integration of the device makes an external LCD driver or an external ADC unnecessary. This high level of integration saves system cost and lowers the failure rate of the system by reducing the device count.· The ease-of-use MSP430 architecture and the development tools significantly improve the development time and speed up the time-tomarket.
16-bit RISC CPU The MSP430 CPU offers you much more than standard 4- and 8-bit microcontrollers. The 16-bit RISC core is built with a highly orthogonal structure. Every instruction can be used with each of the seven different addressing modes. The reduced instruction set consists of only 27 core instructions. However, the user has, due to the 24 additional emulated instructions the capability of using highly familiar instructions. For example, a familiar instruction like INC R4 is available to the firmware programmer and automatically emulated by the assembler with ADD #1,R4. This instruction will be executed like all other register to register instructions in only one cycle. The orthogonal architecture of the MSP430 CPU core makes the device extremely easy-to-use. Sixteen (16) registers are implemented in the CPU itself and contain the Program counter, the stack pointer, the Status Register and the Constant Generator (which contains the highly used constants and 8). This feature makes the MSP430 an extremely code efficient device using a lot less of the code space than conventional CISC machines. The remaining 12 registers are available for general usage.
R0, Program Counter PC R1, Stack Pointer SP R2, Status Register ST / Constant Generator CG R3, Constant Generator CG R4, General Purpose
The hardware multiplication module in the MSP430x33x configuration provides multiplications in less than one cycle. The two operands are moved into registers inside the multiplier module, and in the next cycle, the result can be read out.
Oscillator / FLL Module The clock network of the MSP430 offers the designer flexibility. The Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO) generates the system frequency to 4 MHz. The 32-kHz oscillator, which operates with only a single 32-kHz crystal, can be used to provide a stable frequency over temperature and operating voltage. The
integrated Frequency Locked Loop (FLL) regulates the system frequency MCLK with the stable 32-kHz crystal frequency. It is even possible to operate the MSP430 without any crystal at all, disable the FLL and just use the DCO to generate the system clock. The product offers a fail-safe feature. If the crystal connection is broken, the MSP430 continues operation with the lowest possible frequency. The DCO starts operation a maximum 6 µs after a reset or interrupt occurs. This provides a working system in a fraction of the time needed with conventional microcontrollers.
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