Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 04-2017 sorted by title, page: 0

» $L_{0}$ Gradient Projection
Abstract:
Minimizing L0 gradient, the number of the non-zero gradients of an image, together with a quadratic data-fidelity to an input image has been recognized as a powerful edge-preserving filtering method. However, the L0 gradient minimization has an inherent difficulty: a user-given parameter controlling the degree of flatness does not have a physical meaning since the parameter just balances the relative importance of the L0 gradient term to the quadratic data-fidelity term. As a result, the setting of the parameter is a troublesome work in the L0 gradient minimization. To circumvent the difficulty, we propose a new edge-preserving filtering method with a novel use of the L0 gradient. Our method is formulated as the minimization of the quadratic data-fidelity subject to the hard constraint that the L0 gradient is less than a user-given parameter α. This strategy is much more intuitive than the L0 gradient minimization because the parameter α has a clear meaning: the L0 gradient value of the output image itself, so that one can directly impose a desired degree of flatness by α. We also provide an efficient algorithm based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers for computing an approximate solution of the nonconvex problem, where we decompose it into two subproblems and derive closed-form solutions to them. The advantages of our method are demonstrated through extensive experiments.
Autors: Shunsuke Ono;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 1554 - 1564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $mathcal {H}$ Distribution for Multilook Polarimetric SAR Data
Abstract:
Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) is an advanced imaging radar system, for which the acquired data provide not only the information of each channel but also the correlation between channels. To fully utilize and accurately model the multilook PolSAR data, a novel compound distribution, named the H distribution, is proposed based on the generalized Fisher distribution (GFD). Specifically, the GFD introduces a power parameter to the ordinary Fisher distribution. With one more free parameter, the GFD is flexible and versatile enough to characterize different kinds of texture. Then, by assuming the generalized-Fisher-distributed texture and the Wishart-distributed speckle, the H distribution is derived, whose closed-form expression is obtained with the help of Fox's H-function. As such, the H distribution has a compact form and is conveniently applied to practical problems, such as modeling and classification of PolSAR data. The effectiveness of this method is tested by modeling the multilook PolSAR data and performing image classification. The experimental results demonstrate that the H distribution is a flexible and effective way to model multilook PolSAR data.
Autors: Chi Liu;Heng-Chao Li;Xian Sun;William J. Emery;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 489 - 493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $mathcal {L}_{1}$ Adaptive Backstepping for Robust Trajectory Tracking of UAVs
Abstract:
This paper addresses the trajectory tracking control (i.e., outer-loop control) problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the presence of modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. The kinematics and dynamics of the trajectory tracking problem are always in strict feedback form. While there is no uncertainty in the kinematics, rapidly changing uncertainties present in the dynamics makes this problem an ideal candidate for L1 adaptive backstepping control. The trajectory tracking controller serves as the outer-loop in a cascaded design architecture and supplies a reference quaternion and thrust to the inner-loop controller. The inner-loop controller in turn generates a moment demand for the control allocation module. Such an inner-outer loop architecture is modular and does away with the requirement that the commanded trajectory be four times differentiable as would be required if a single monolithic backstepping control law where to be used. Both simulations and flight tests are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and how the controller tracks any twice differentiable trajectory, respectively.
Autors: Zongyu Zuo;Srinath Mallikarjunan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 2944 - 2954
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $V$ -Band High-Gain Printed Quasi-Parabolic Reflector Antenna With Beam-Steering
Abstract:
A novel design of printed -band quasi-parabolic reflector antenna is discussed. Two possible excitation methods are proposed which are used subsequently to design a more complex antenna with beam-steering capability. The radiation performance of the designed antenna is studied using full-wave simulations based on the finite-element method. The simulation results are verified experimentally.
Autors: Alister Hosseini;Saman Kabiri;Franco De Flaviis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1589 - 1598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.2-THz Dual Mode Sheet Beam Traveling Wave Tube
Abstract:
Equipping the adjustable horizontal focusing electrodes (FEs), a dual mode electron gun providing different current beams, has been proposed and evaluated. Employing this tunable FE electron gun, a continuous wave (CW)/pulsed dual mode, 0.2-THz sheet beam traveling wave tube (SB-TWT) has been designed. The tube employs a high density and high current sheet beam for pulsed mode operation, and a reduced size and lower current sheet beam for the CW mode. This scheme provides CW mode increased efficiency and higher beam transmission factor than other, more conventional, dualmode techniques such as by changing the RF drive power. Using a 1.2-T uniform focusing magnetic field, both beams are predicted to have excellent transmission factor (more than 99%) to the collector through the 65-mm beam tunnel. Driven by the pulsed, high current electron beam, the 0.2-THz SB-TWT exhibits more than 100-W power over a 20-GHz bandwidth. Driven by the low current electron beam, the tube provides 20-dB gain and 10-W CW output power over the required bandwidth of 0.19 THz–0.21 THz.
Autors: Yuan Zheng;Diana Gamzina;Neville C. Luhmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1767 - 1773
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-T Capacitorless DRAM Using Bandgap-Engineered Silicon-Germanium Bipolar I-MOS
Abstract:
In this paper, a 1-Transitor (1-T) capacitorless dynamic random access memory (DRAM) using bandgap-engineered silicon-germanium Bipolar ionization metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (I-MOS) is investigated through numerical simulations. We have demonstrated the application of the proposed Si0.6Ge0.4 Bipolar I-MOS for realization of a 1-T capacitorless DRAM. The proposed device can achieve hysteresis at significantly lower drain voltages ( V to V), in comparison to the inversion mode device ( V to V). In addition, the proposed 1-T capacitorless DRAM exhibits a wider hysteresis window () of the order ~700 mV and a sensing margin () of ~5 orders in comparison to the inversion mode based 1-T capacitorless DRAM. Moreover, the proposed 1-T capacitorless DRAM exhibits the retention time of ~750 msec and ~320 msec for T = 25 °C and T = 85 °C, respectively. The proposed 1-T capacitorless DRAM also shows nondestructive read and an extreme long-term endurance. Therefore, the results presented in this paper can provide an opportunity for future DRAM design in deep nanometer technology.
Autors: Avinash Lahgere;Mamidala Jagadesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1583 - 1590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10T SRAM Using Half- $V_{text {DD}}$ Precharge and Row-Wise Dynamically Powered Read Port for Low Switching Power and Ultralow RBL Leakage
Abstract:
We present, in this paper, a new 10T static random access memory cell having single ended decoupled read-bitline (RBL) with a 4T read port for low power operation and leakage reduction. The RBL is precharged at half the cell’s supply voltage, and is allowed to charge and discharge according to the stored data bit. An inverter, driven by the complementary data node (QB), connects the RBL to the virtual power rails through a transmission gate during the read operation. RBL increases toward the level for a read-1, and discharges toward the ground level for a read-0. Virtual power rails have the same value of the RBL precharging level during the write and the hold mode, and are connected to true supply levels only during the read operation. Dynamic control of virtual rails substantially reduces the RBL leakage. The proposed 10T cell in a commercial 65 nm technology is the size of 6T with , provides read static noise margin, and reduces the read power dissipation by 50% than that of 6T. The value of RBL leakage is reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude and is greatly improved compared with the 6T BL leakage. The overall leakage characteristics of 6T and 10T are similar, and competitive performance is achieved.
Autors: Naeem Maroof;Bai-Sun Kong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 1193 - 1203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Unconditionally Stable CFS-PML Based on CNDG for Truncating Unmagnetized Plasma Media
Abstract:
An unconditionally stable implementation of the complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer based on Crank–Nicolson Douglas–Gunn (CNDG), combined the piecewise linear recursive convolution (PLRC) method is proposed to truncate the unmagnetized plasma in the finite-difference time-domain. The proposed algorithm makes full use of the unconditional stability of CNDG scheme and the high accuracy of the PLRC method. It not only saves much time and holds good absorbing performance, but is also easy to implement. A numerical example has been carried out to validate the algorithm.
Autors: Jianxiong Li;Xueyang Shi;Haolin Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 323 - 325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes for RF and THz Applications [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes for RF and THz Applications.
Autors: Yong Fan;Yu Jian Cheng;Zi Xuan Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 100 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 Top ten tech cars
Abstract:
You can show people an Italian supersedan that set a lap record on the famed Nurburgring circuit. You can point them to a sleek, affordable electric runabout that can go from Paris to Luxembourg on a single charge. But they'll probably just want to know one thing: When are cars going to drive themselves? The specter of the fully autonomous, virtually self-aware car has captured imaginations and dominated headlines like no other automotive story in decades. And for at least one very good reason: Such vehicles promise to dramatically reduce or even eliminate deaths and injuries in automobiles.
Autors: Lawrence Ulrich;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 54, issue:4, pages: 26 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-bit Resistive RAM Write-Read Scheme Based on Complementary Switching Mechanism
Abstract:
While standard bipolar switching RRAM memory devices can be programmed into different resistance states, the complementary switching mechanism allows for two distinct switching locations that each can be programmed to these resistance states. In this letter, we present a technique to discriminate these switching locations and report on a novel scheme allowing for sub- pulse write and read of eight different logic states in Pt/Ta2O5/Ta/Pt devices by using only four different resistive states. Thus, in addition to the multilevel capability of bipolar switching devices, double the information can be stored and read in a single complementary switching device.
Autors: A. Schönhals;J. Mohr;D. J. Wouters;R. Waser;S. Menzel;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 38, issue:4, pages: 449 - 452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Antenna Radiation Pattern Reconstruction in a Reverberation Chamber Using Spherical Wave Decomposition
Abstract:
It has been shown that the correlation between the radiation patterns of two antennas can be measured in a reverberation chamber (RC). In this paper, it is shown that the self-correlation coefficient of an antenna, defined as the correlation between the radiation pattern of an antenna under test (AUT) and a transformed version of itself, can also be measured in an RC. It is found that the 3-D radiation pattern of the AUT can be reconstructed from the measured self-correlation coefficient by using spherical wave decomposition. Moreover, the axial ratio of the AUT can also be measured efficiently in the RC, when the pattern is directional. Numerical simulations and measurements in the RC and in an anechoic chamber have been undertaken. Good agreement is obtained, which confirms the validity of the proposed method. Thus, this novel method can become a very useful, cost-effective, and efficient method for 3-D antenna radiation pattern measurement.
Autors: Qian Xu;Yi Huang;Lei Xing;Chaoyun Song;Zhihao Tian;Saqer S. Alja’afreh;Manoj Stanley;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1728 - 1739
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Application-Oriented Visual Correlation Model in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Wireless multimedia sensor networks comprise a large number of sensor devices and obtain multiple types data from field of interest. In a visual sensor network, there exist visual correlation (VC) characteristics among images observed by camera-equipped sensors with overlapped field of views. To describe the characteristics, the conventional method is based on image matching. However, it is too complex to be applied to resource-constrained cameras. In this paper, based on 3-D sensing model and spatial geometric transformation, a 3-D application-oriented VC (3-D-AOVC) model is designed to quantitatively describe the correlation characteristics according to the specific application requirement. Furthermore, a 3-D VC coefficient (3-D-VCC) algorithm, which is aimed at the measurement of data redundancy is provided to elaborate the process of 3-D-AOVC model. Finally, utilizing the data redundancy measured by provided 3-D-VCC algorithm, a VC-based distributed energy efficient (VCDEE) scheme is devised. Experimental results show that the 3-D-AOVC model can accurately model the VC characteristics and the VCC algorithm has lower computational complexity and energy consumption than existing algorithm. Further simulation results demonstrate that the VCDEE scheme outperforms the state of the art in terms of energy conservation and balance.
Autors: Xiaotao Yang;Yingyou Wen;Duoning Yuan;Mingyang Zhang;Hong Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 17, issue:8, pages: 2583 - 2595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Using RSS and AoA Measurements
Abstract:
This paper addresses target localization problems in both noncooperative and cooperative 3-D wireless sensor networks (WSNs), for both cases of known and unknown sensor transmit power, i.e., . We employ a hybrid system that fuses distance and angle measurements, extracted from the received signal strength and angle-of-arrival information, respectively. Based on range and angle measurement models, we derive a novel nonconvex estimator based on the least squares criterion. The derived nonconvex estimator tightly approximates the maximum-likelihood estimator for small noise. We then show that the developed estimator can be transformed into a generalized trust region subproblem framework, by following the squared range approach, for noncooperative WSNs. For cooperative WSNs, we show that the estimator can be transformed into a convex problem by applying appropriate semidefinite programming relaxation techniques. Moreover, we show that the generalization of the proposed estimators for known is straightforward to the case where is not known. Our simulation results show that the new estimators have excellent performance and are robust to not knowing . The new estimators for noncooperative localization significantly outperform the existing estimators, and our estimators for cooperative localization show exceptional performance in all considered settings.
Autors: Slavisa Tomic;Marko Beko;Rui Dinis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 3197 - 3210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D-Printed Microwave and THz Devices Using Polymer Jetting Techniques
Abstract:
3-D additive manufacturing (AM) offers unprecedented flexibility in the realization of complicated 3-D structures. Polymer jetting is one of the promising 3-D AM techniques that utilizes photosensitive polymers as the build material and is capable of precisely printing electromagnetic (EM) components up into the THz range. In this paper, important design and implementation aspects of polymer-jetting-based 3-D-printed EM components are discussed. A number of 3-D-printable polymer materials and their broadband EM characterization from GHz to THz are introduced. Design methodologies specific for 3-D-printed antennas and other EM components are presented. As examples, various 3-D-printed devices operating from GHz to THz frequency, including electromagnetic crystals (EMXT), waveguide, horn antenna, gradient index (GRIN) lenses, as well as 3-D AM-enabled new designs, such as millimeter wave (mmW)/THz, reflect array antennas, computer-generated THz holograms, and so on are reviewed. Moreover, current limitations and possible future improvements of the polymer jetting technique for EM applications are discussed. This type of 3-D AM technique is likely to enable many novel antenna and circuit architectures as well as various interesting 3-D metamaterial structures.
Autors: Hao Xin;Min Liang;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 105, issue:4, pages: 737 - 755
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32 × 32-Bit 4-Bit Bit-Slice Integer Multiplier for RSFQ Microprocessors
Abstract:
A design of a 32 × 32-bit 4-bit bit-slice integer multiplier for rapid single-flux quantum microprocessors is shown. The multiplier carries out both signed and unsigned multiplication. It is designed with synchronous concurrent-flow clocking and target frequency of 50 GHz using the AIST 1.0-μm Nb/AlOx/Nb, nine-layer advanced process 2 fabrication technology with a critical current density of 10 kA/cm2. It consists of 56 885 Josephson junctions. The area is 12.00 × 6.65 mm2. The simulation results show correct operation with frequency of 50 GHz at the dc bias voltage of 2.5 mV. The throughput is 3.125 × 109 multiplications per second.
Autors: Guang-Ming Tang;Kazuyoshi Takagi;Naofumi Takagi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Solid Texture Classification Using Locally-Oriented Wavelet Transforms
Abstract:
Many image acquisition techniques used in biomedical imaging, material analysis, and structural geology are capable of acquiring 3D solid images. Computational analysis of these images is complex but necessary, since it is difficult for humans to visualize and quantify their detailed 3D content. One of the most common methods to analyze 3D data is to characterize the volumetric texture patterns. Texture analysis generally consists of encoding the local organization of image scales and directions, which can be extremely diverse in 3D. Current state-of-the-art techniques face many challenges when working with 3D solid texture, where most approaches are not able to consistently characterize both scale and directional information. 3D Riesz–wavelets can deal with both properties. One key property of Riesz filterbanks is steerability, which can be used to locally align the filters and compare textures with arbitrary (local) orientations. This paper proposes and compares three novel local alignment criteria for higher-order 3D Riesz–wavelet transforms. The estimations of local texture orientations are based on higher-order extensions of regularized structure tensors. An experimental evaluation of the proposed methods for the classification of synthetic 3D solid textures with alterations (such as rotations and noise) demonstrated the importance of local directional information for robust and accurate solid texture recognition. These alignment methods achieved an accuracy of 0.95 in the rotated data, three times more than the unaligned Riesz descriptor that achieved 0.32. The accuracy obtained is better than all other techniques that are published and tested on the same database.
Autors: Yashin Dicente Cid;Henning Müller;Alexandra Platon;Pierre-Alexandre Poletti;Adrien Depeursinge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 1899 - 1910
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4 m/100 Gb/s Optical Wireless Communication Based on Far L–Band Injection Locked Quantum-Dash Laser
Abstract:
An indoor 100 Gb/s free space optical communication link using an injection locked ~1621 nm quantum-dash laser has been experimentally demonstrated. The results are achieved using dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) and coherent detection over a 4 m indoor free space link. The system exhibited a receiver sensitivity of -17.5 dBm to achieve the bit error rate forward error correction (BER FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10-3. This displays the potential of tunable injection locked far L -band quantum-dash lasers, with less scattering loss compared to C-band counterpart, as promising light sources in both indoor and outdoor future high speed free space optical information and communication technology.
Autors: Muhammad Talal Ali Khan;Mohamed Adel Shemis;Amr Mohamed Ragheb;Maged Abdullah Esmail;Habib Ali Fathallah;Saleh Alshebeili;Mohammed Zahed Mustafa Khan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4H-SiC Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodiodes With Small Gain Slope and Enhanced Fill Factor
Abstract:
In this paper, 4H-SiC separated absorption charge and multiplication ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with small gain-voltage slope and enhanced fill factor are designed and fabricated. As a special reach-through structure, the absorption layer of the APD is fully depleted at breakdown voltage, which can share a considerable portion of reverse bias. As a result, the sensitivity of electric field within the multiplication layer as a function of overbias is reduced, leading to a small gain slope. Given the fact that the impact ionization coefficient of holes is less sensitive to electric field variation than that of electrons, the APD is also designed to be a hole-initiated ionization type, which can further reduce the gain slope. Meanwhile, three different top-electrode geometric patterns of SiC APDs are designed, and their impact on APD performance is investigated for the first time. Severe current crowding effect is observed in the forward current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the APD with a traditional dot top-electrode, indicating inefficient current spreading across the top contact layer due to nonnegligible lateral resistance. In contrast, the forward I–V characteristics and photo-current at the avalanche regime of the APDs with optimized branch-shaped top-electrodes are apparently improved, owing to the improvement of electric field distribution and avalanche multiplication uniformity across the device active area. Furthermore, photon count rate increases by two to four times with larger voltage pulse height, suggesting enhanced effective avalanche multiplication area and fill factor.
Autors: Sen Yang;Dong Zhou;Weizong Xu;Xiaolong Cai;Hai Lu;Dunjun Chen;Fangfang Ren;Rong Zhang;Youdou Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Channel Measurements and Modeling for Indoor Office Environments
Abstract:
The millimeter-wave (mmWave) band will be used for the fifth-generation communication systems. In this paper, 60-GHz mmWave channel measurements and modeling are carried out for indoor office environments. The rotated directional antenna-based method and uniform virtual array-based method are adopted and compared to investigate the 60-GHz channel in a 3-D space, simultaneously covering azimuth and coelevation domains. The multipath component parameters including power, delay, azimuth, and elevation angles are estimated with the space-alternating generalized expectation–maximization estimation algorithm, and then processed with the K-means clustering algorithm. An extended Saleh–Valenzuela model with both delay and angular cluster features is used to characterize the measured channel, and the intercluster and intracluster parameters are extracted. We find that the azimuth departure angles are diverse and highly related to the antenna position and measurement environment, while the elevation departure angles are more related to the antenna height difference and confined in a relatively small direction range. The azimuth angle spread is much larger than the elevation angle spread either in global level or in cluster level. The results agree with the studies in the literature and channel models in IEEE standards.
Autors: Xianyue Wu;Cheng-Xiang Wang;Jian Sun;Jie Huang;Rui Feng;Yang Yang;Xiaohu Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1912 - 1924
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 70W GaN-HEMT Ku-Band Power Amplifier in MIC Technology
Abstract:
In this paper the design, implementation, and experimental results of a Ku-band 70W GaN-HEMT power amplifier (PA) for satellite communication are presented. A two-stage design approach with two 250nm bare-die devices has been chosen to achieve a considerably high saturated gain of 15 dB over the whole extended Ku-band (13.75–14.5 GHz). The circuit was realized in a hybrid microwave integrated circuit technology on an alumina substrate. The PA shows a measured performance of more than 50W output power for a continuous-wave signal with a power-added efficiency (PAE) higher than 23%. Modulated measurements demonstrate an average output power of more than 30W (70W peak) and 21% PAE, while holding the Eutelsat linearity requirements.
Autors: Daniel Maassen;Felix Rautschke;Florian Ohnimus;Lothar Schenk;Uwe Dalisda;Georg Boeck;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1272 - 1283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 8.3 M-Pixel 480-fps Global-Shutter CMOS Image Sensor with Gain-Adaptive Column ADCs and Chip-on-Chip Stacked Integration
Abstract:
This paper presents a 4K2K 480-fps global-shutter CMOS image sensor with a super 35-mm format for a highly realistic digital video system. The sensor employs newly developed gain-adaptive column analog-to-digital converters to obtain input-referred dark random noise of 140 for an input-referred full-scale readout of 923 mV. An on-chip online correction of the error between two switchable gains maintained the nonlinearity of the output image within 0.18%. A chip-on-chip integration process realized a front-illuminated image sensor stacked with two diced logic chips through 38-K microbump interconnections. The global-shutter pixel achieved a parasitic light sensitivity of −99.6 dB. The 16-channel output interfaces with 4.752 Gbps/ch were implemented in the stacked logic chips.
Autors: Yusuke Oike;Kentaro Akiyama;Luong D. Hung;Wataru Niitsuma;Akihiko Kato;Mamoru Sato;Yuri Kato;Wataru Nakamura;Hiroshi Shiroshita;Yorito Sakano;Yoshiaki Kitano;Takuya Nakamura;Takayuki Toyama;Hayato Iwamoto;Takayuki Ezaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 985 - 993
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A $5.2~mu text{A}$ Quiescent Current LDO Regulator With High Stability and Wide Load Range for CZT Detectors
Abstract:
Cadmium zinc telluride detectors are the highly considered for room-temperature hard X-ray and gamma-ray detection. The readout systems are needed in the detectors to output the detecting data. The features of power supplies are very important for the readout circuits. In this paper, a low-dropout (LDO) regulator with very low power consumption and wide load variation is presented. A combining compensation method which includes partially controlled load-tracking technique and equivalent series resistance compensation technique are proposed to enhance the loop stability of the LDO regulator. Meanwhile, high dc gain is obtained to improve the power supply ripple rejection (PSRR), which can decrease the noise from the power supply. The prototype LDO chip has been fabricated and tested with a standard 0.18- CMOS technology. The measured results show that the LDO regulator can provide up to 150 mA load current with a stable output voltage of 2.8 V under an input voltage scope from 2.9 to 3.6 V. The measured PSRR is up to −60 dB. The output noise spectral densities are 1.16 and 211 nVRMS/s at 1 and 100 kHz, respectively, at load current of 150 mA. Especially, the ultralow quiescent currents of at no load and at full load bring great benefit to the ultralow power integrated readout systems.
Autors: Shiquan Fan;Haiqi Li;Zhuoqi Guo;Li Geng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1087 - 1094
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A $k$ -Space Pseudospectral Method for Elastic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Anisotropic Media
Abstract:
This paper presents the theory of the -space method generalized to model elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous anisotropic media. The -space methods are promising time integration techniques giving, in conjunction with collocation spectral methods, accurate and efficient numerical schemes for problems in heterogeneous media. In this paper, the -space operator is derived in a spatially continuous form using the Fourier analysis of the displacement formalism of elastodynamics. An efficient numerical algorithm is then constructed by applying a Fourier collocation spectral method, leading to define the discrete -space scheme. The proposed method is temporally exact for homogeneous media, unconditionally stable for heterogeneous media, and also allows larger time steps without loss of accuracy. Implementation of the method is discussed in detail. The method is validated through a set of numerical tests. The numerical results show the efficacy of the method compared with the conventional schemes.
Autors: Kamyar Firouzi;Butrus T. Khuri-Yakub;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 749 - 760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A ±36-A Integrated Current-Sensing System With a 0.3% Gain Error and a 400- $mu text{A}$ Offset From −55 °C to +85 °C
Abstract:
This paper presents an integrated shunt-based current-sensing system (CSS) capable of handling ±36-A currents, the highest ever reported. It also achieves a 0.3% gain error and a 400- offset, which is significantly better than the state-of-the-art systems. The heart of the system is a robust 260- shunt resistor made from the lead frame of a standard HVQFN plastic package. The resulting voltage drop is then digitized by a precision ADC and a bandgap reference (BGR). At the expense of current handling capability, a ±5-A version of the CSS uses a 10- on-chip metal shunt to achieve just a 4- offset. Both designs are realized in a standard 0.13- CMOS process and draw 13 from a 1.5-V supply. Compensation of the spread and nonlinear temperature dependency of the shunt resistor is accomplished by the use of a fixed polynomial master curve and a single room temperature calibration. This procedure also effectively compensates for the residual spread and nonlinearity of the ADC and the BGR.
Autors: Saleh Heidary Shalmany;Dieter Draxelmayr;Kofi A. A. Makinwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1034 - 1043
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A ± 3 ppm/°C Single-Trim Switched Capacitor Bandgap Reference for Battery Monitoring Applications
Abstract:
A precision bandgap reference has been developed in a BiCMOS process that achieves ±3 ppm/°C temperature drift at ±3 from −40 °C to 110 °C. The reference is designed to utilize single temperature trim and standard components. A 3.65 V switched capacitor reference voltage is provided to a order delta-sigma modulator ADC to digitize a battery cell voltage. The switched capacitor reference utilizes fully differential sampling which reduces the errors from channel charge injection and clock feedthrough introduced by pseudo-differential sampling. A new technique for sampling a voltage directly onto the output of the reference’s differential amplifier has been developed that removes the error that would be introduced from differentially sampling the and the voltage terms independently. The bandgap reference and ADC combination have an input referred noise spectral density of Hz from 0.1 to 162 Hz yielding 15 stable output bits.
Autors: Bradford L. Hunter;Wallace E. Matthews;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 777 - 786
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A —244-dB FOM High-Frequency Piezoelectric Resonator-Based Cascaded Fractional-N PLL With Sub-ppb-Order Channel-Adjusting Technique
Abstract:
This paper proposes a cascaded fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) based on a high-frequency piezoelectric resonator (PZR). Sub-ppb-order frequency resolution is achieved by a channel adjustment technique. Besides its small form factor, a high- PZR at gigahertz frequencies realizes a very low phase-noise synthesizer for RF applications. However, three fundamental issues remain to be solved: the narrow tuning range and large process variation of PZR-based oscillators, the low-frequency resolution of a PLL referenced to gigahertz-order frequencies, and the undesirable harmonic oscillation caused by the inductance of the CMOS-PZR bonding wire. To overcome these issues, we propose a channel-adjusting technique (CAT) that adaptively sets the division ratio of two PLLs to maintain constant output frequency of the second PLL while varying the PZR oscillator frequency, hence permitting the narrow tuning range and wide process variation of the PZR oscillator. The first PLL in our PLL architecture determines the output frequency resolution and the second reduces the power consumption of the delta–sigma modulator. We also suppress the harmonic oscillations in the PZR oscillator. The prototype PLL is fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS and achieves an 8.484–8.912-GHz output, 180-fs rms jitter, and −244-dB FOM while consuming 12.7-mW power. We developed a cascaded fractional-N PLL based on a high-frequency PZR with a sub-ppb-order CAT, which overcomes the narrow tuning range problem in gigahertz PZRs. A prototype PLL fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS consumed 12.7 mWand output 8.484–8.912 GHz with 180-fs rms jitter.
Autors: Sho Ikeda;Hiroyuki Ito;Akifumi Kasamatsu;Yosuke Ishikawa;Takayoshi Obara;Naoki Noguchi;Koji Kamisuki;Yao Jiyang;Shinsuke Hara;Dong Ruibing;Shiro Dosho;Noboru Ishihara;Kazuya Masu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1123 - 1133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.13- $mu text{m}$ CMOS Dynamically Reconfigurable Charge Pump for Electrostatic MEMS Actuation
Abstract:
An eight-stage reconfigurable charge pump for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrostatic actuation was designed and fabricated in a standard 0.13- CMOS technology. The purpose of the circuit is to generate sufficient on-chip voltages that are continually reconfigurable for MEMS actuation. Small 1-pF pumping capacitors are used to reduce the circuit area. Digitally programmable voltage levels can be outputted by varying the number of stages and the clock drive levels dynamically. Reduced power consumption is achieved using a variable frequency clock. The circuit attains a measured maximum output voltage of 10.1 V from a 1.2 V supply. Its nominal clock is set to 50 MHz. The circuit has a compact area of 215 and consumes 864 at a 50-MHz clock and 252 at an 8-MHz clock.
Autors: Abdul Hafiz Alameh;Frederic Nabki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 1261 - 1270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.23- $mu text{g}$ Bias Instability and 1- $mu text{g}/surd $ Hz Acceleration Noise Density Silicon Oscillating Accelerometer With Embedded Frequency-to-Digital Converter in PLL
Abstract:
This paper presents a silicon oscillating accelerometer (SOA) with a new CMOS readout circuit architecture. A phase lock loop (PLL) with a hybrid and antinoise folding PFD is employed to sustain the oscillation of the MEMS oscillator, and the oscillation amplitude is set by an external reference. In addition, a sigma-delta frequency-to-digital converter is combined with the PLL to digitize the accelerometer’s frequency output for low power consumption. The MEMS transducer and the readout circuit are fabricated in an 80- SOI and standard 0.35- CMOS process, respectively. The SOA achieves 0.23- bias instability and 1-/Hz acceleration noise density with a ±30 g full-scale, which are equivalent to 4-ppb relative instability and 17-ppb/Hz relative acceleration noise density. It only consumes 2.7 mW under a 1.5 V supply.
Autors: Jian Zhao;Xi Wang;Yang Zhao;Guo Ming Xia;An Ping Qiu;Yan Su;Yong Ping Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1053 - 1065
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.3–15 GHz SiGe LNA With >1 THz Gain-Bandwidth Product
Abstract:
A wideband LNA with a frequency range of 0.3–15 GHz is introduced for space-based applications. The LNA achieves less than 2.2 dB noise figure (NF) at room temperature, with minimum measured NF of 1.8 dB and peak gain of 37.3 dB. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the lowest NF at this bandwidth, with the highest gain-bandwidth product (1.1 THz) reported to date. Moreover, the performance of the LNA was studied across temperature, down to 78 K. The NF improves considerably and achieves a record average value of 1 dB over the whole bandwidth at 78 K, with a minimum NF of 0.74 dB at 1 GHz. Additionally, the bandwidth and gain were enhanced at 78 K without degrading input or output matching. To compensate for small gain variations across temperature, a gain control technique is proposed, which yields more than 15 dB of gain control without breaking the feedback loop and without sacrificing power matching.
Autors: Saeed Zeinolabedinzadeh;A. Çagri Ulusoy;Michael A. Oakley;Nelson E. Lourenco;John D. Cressler;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 380 - 382
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.35-V 520- $mu text{W}$ 2.4-GHz Current-Bleeding Mixer With Inductive-Gate and Forward-Body Bias, Achieving >13-dB Conversion Gain and >55-dB Port-to-Port Isolation
Abstract:
An ultralow voltage micropower 2.4-GHz current-bleeding active mixer for energy-harvesting Bluetooth low energy/ZigBee applications is reported. It features a double-balanced mixer topology combining nMOS current-bleeding transistors with a pMOS local oscillator switching quad, and forward-body bias and inductive-gate bias techniques to secure an adequate performance at a supply voltage down to 0.35 V. Fabricated in 0.13- CMOS, the prototype exhibits a conversion gain of 13.77 dB, a third-order intercept point of −3.5 dBm, and a noise figure of 18 dB. The power consumption is , and port-to-port isolation is >55 dB. The achieved figure of merit compares favorably with the state of the art.
Autors: Gim Heng Tan;Harikrishnan Ramiah;Pui-In Mak;Rui P. Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1284 - 1293
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.4% PAE 194-GHz Signal Source With 1.5-mW Output Power in 65-nm Bulk CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This letter presents an amplifier-frequency doubler chain in thin digital 65-nm bulk CMOS process. Injection locking is applied to the amplifier to increase the power gain and compensate for the conversion loss in the frequency doubler. The doubler uses a compact low-impedance transmission line (LZ TLine) for effective dc decoupling in the output matching network. Measurement results show a peak output power of 1.5 mW at 194 GHz, and a peak PAE of 0.4% at 196 GHz. The locking range is measured as 8.5 GHz (92.5~101 GHz) with 2-dBm input fundamental power, and can be extended to 15 GHz with 4-dBm input power.
Autors: Kefei Wu;Sriram Muralidharan;Mona M. Hella;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 407 - 409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.4-V Supply Curvature-Corrected Reference Generator With 84.5-ppm/°C Average Temperature Coefficient Within −40 °C to 130 °C
Abstract:
This brief describes a low-power current-mode voltage reference based on subthreshold transistors. A novel circuit configuration together with a high-order temperature compensation scheme allow this voltage reference to operate with a supply voltage down to 0.4 V over a large temperature range (from −40 °C to 130 °C). The circuit, which is fabricated with a standard 0.18- CMOS technology, provides an output voltage of 212 mV, while consuming 192 nW. The measured average temperature coefficient is 84.5 ppm/°C.
Autors: Pinar Basak Basyurt;Edoardo Bonizzoni;Devrim Yilmaz Aksin;Franco Maloberti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 362 - 366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.45 V 147–375 nW ECG Compression Processor With Wavelet Shrinkage and Adaptive Temporal Decimation Architectures
Abstract:
This paper presents a real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression processor with improved energy efficiency while maintaining high accuracy and real-time operation. Wavelet shrinkage is exploited to filter the noise and achieve sparse ECG signal representation. Adaptive temporal decimation is proposed to achieve configurable processing to adaptively reduce the data amount and computational activities for further power reduction. Modified Huffman and run-length wavelet source coding (MHRLC) is also designed to represent wavelet coefficients with optimized average code length and reduced memory requirement. Fabricated in 0.18- CMOS, the ECG processor is implemented with customized near-threshold digital logics for minimum energy operation. The prototype was fully validated with the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. With a power consumption of 147–375 nW at 0.45 V, the proposed ECG processor exhibits a wide compression ratio ranging from 2.89 to 26.91, corresponding to a percentage-RMS-distortion from 0% to 3.11%.
Autors: Chio-In Ieong;Mingzhong Li;Man-Kay Law;Pui-In Mak;Mang I Vai;Rui P. Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 1307 - 1319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.9-μm² 1T1R Bit Cell in 14-nm High-Density Metal Fuse Technology for High-Volume Manufacturing and In-Field Programming
Abstract:
This paper introduces the first high-volume manufacturable (HVM) metal-fuse technology in a 14-nm trigate high-k metal-gate CMOS process. A high-density array featuring a 0.9-μm² bit cell with an efficient bit level redundancy scheme is presented. An array efficiency of over 53% is achieved through hierarchical bitline design by minimizing the impact of parasitic resistance on fuse programming through short local bitline and sharing sense amplifier through longer global bitline. A power gating-based scheme is adopted to reduce leakage current consumption and high-voltage exposure to minimize reliability concern. Program conditions can be optimized for HVM and in-field programming to achieve close to 100% unit level yield with the proposed redundancy scheme.
Autors: Zhanping Chen;Sarvesh H. Kulkarni;Vincent E. Dorgan;Salil Manohar Rajarshi;Lei Jiang;Uddalak Bhattacharya;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 933 - 939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b Fourth-Order Quadrature Bandpass Continuous-Time $Sigma Delta $ Modulator With 33-MHz Bandwidth for a Dual-Channel GNSS Receiver
Abstract:
A fourth-order quadrature bandpass continuous-time sigma–delta modulator for a dual-channel global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver is presented. With a bandwidth (BW) of 33 MHz, the modulator is able to digitalize the downconverted GNSS signals in two adjacent signal bands simultaneously, realizing dual-channel GNSS reception with one receiver channel instead of two independent receiver channels. To maintain the loop-stability of the high-order architecture, any extra loop phase shifting should be minimized. In the system architecture, a feedback and feedforward hybrid architecture is used to implement the fourth-order loop-filter, and a return-to-zero (RZ) feedback after the discrete-time differential operation is introduced into the input of the final integrator to realize the excess loop delay compensation, saving a spare summing amplifier. In the circuit implementation, power-efficient amplifiers with high-frequency active feedforward and antipole-splitting techniques are employed in the active RC integrators, and self-calibrated comparators are used to implement the low-power 3-b quantizers. These power saving techniques help achieve superior figure of merit for the presented modulator. With a sampling rate of 460 MHz, current-steering digital–analog converters are chosen to guarantee high conversion speed. Implemented in only 180-nm CMOS, the modulator achieves 62.1-dB peak signal to noise and distortion ratio, 64-dB dynamic range, and 59.3-dB image rejection ratio, with a BW of 33 MHz, and consumes 54.4 mW from a 1.8 V power supply.
Autors: Junfeng Zhang;Yang Xu;Zehong Zhang;Yichuang Sun;Zhihua Wang;Baoyong Chi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1303 - 1314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 13.5–19 GHz 20.6-dB Gain CMOS Power Amplifier for FMCW Radar Application
Abstract:
A Ku-band wideband power amplifier (PA) for frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar application is proposed and implemented in 65-nm bulk CMOS technology. To obtain low group delay, low amplitude ripple, and wide bandwidth, the transformer and inductor-based matching network is designed to meet the requirements. Including pads, the PA occupies a compact chip area of 0.62 mm2. Consuming 118-mA current from 1.2-V power supply, it demonstrates output saturation power of 13.9 dBm. The measured 3-dB bandwidth is 5.5 GHz with maximum gain of 20.65 dB at 15.5 GHz. Finally, the PA is integrated with an FMCW signal generator to constitute an FMCW radar transmitter. The amplitude ripple of this chirp signal is less than 2 dB, and the output power is larger than 9 dBm through a bonding wire and a transmission line on printed circuit board.
Autors: Bo Chen;Liheng Lou;Kai Tang;Yong Wang;Jianjun Gao;Yuanjin Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 377 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 16 b Multi-Step Incremental Analog-to-Digital Converter With Single-Opamp Multi-Slope Extended Counting
Abstract:
This paper presents a multi-step incremental analog-to-digital converter (IADC) using multi-slope extended counting. Only one active integrator is used in the three-step conversion cycle. The accuracy of the IADC is extended by having it configured asmulti-slope ADCs in two additional steps. The proposed IADC uses the same circuitry as a first-order IADC (IADC1), but it exhibits better performance than a second-order IADC. For the same accuracy, the conversion cycle is shortened by a large factor (by more than 29 for the implemented device) compared with that of a conventional single-step IADC1. Fabricated in 0.18 CMOS process, the prototype ADC occupies 0.5 mm2. With a 642 kHz clock, it achieves an SNDR of 52.2 dB in the first step. The SNDR is boosted to 79.8 dB in the second step and to 96.8 dB in the third step, over a 1 kHz signal band. The power consumption is 35 from a 1.5 V power supply. This gives an excellent Schreier figure of merit of 174.6 dB.
Autors: Yi Zhang;Chia-Hung Chen;Tao He;Gabor C. Temes;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1066 - 1076
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 16-Core Voltage-Stacked System With Adaptive Clocking and an Integrated Switched-Capacitor DC–DC Converter
Abstract:
This paper presents a 16-core voltage-stacked system with adaptive frequency clocking (AFClk) and a fully integrated voltage regulator that demonstrates efficient on-chip power delivery for multicore systems. Voltage stacking alleviates power delivery inefficiencies due to off-chip parasitics but adds complexity to combat internal voltage noise. To address the corresponding issue of internal voltage noise, the system utilizes an AFClk scheme with an efficient switched-capacitor dc–dc converter to mitigate noise on the stack layers and to improve system performance and efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate robust voltage noise mitigation as well as the potential of voltage stacking as a highly efficient power delivery scheme. This paper also illustrates that augmenting the hardware techniques with intelligent workload allocation that exploits the inherent properties of voltage stacking can preemptively reduce the interlayer activity mismatch and improve system efficiency.
Autors: Sae Kyu Lee;Tao Tong;Xuan Zhang;David Brooks;Gu-Yeon Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 1271 - 1284
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 16-Gb/s 14.7-mW Tri-Band Cognitive Serial Link Transmitter With Forwarded Clock to Enable PAM-16/256-QAM and Channel Response Detection
Abstract:
A cognitive tri-band transmitter (TX) with a forwarded clock using multiband signaling and high-order digital signal modulations is presented for serial link applications. The TX features learning an arbitrary channel response by sending a sweep of continuous wave, detecting power level at the receiver side, and then adapting modulation scheme, data bandwidth, and carrier frequencies accordingly based on detected channel information. The supported modulation scheme ranges from nonreturn to zero/Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) to Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) 16/256-Quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM). The proposed highly reconfigurable TX is capable of dealing with low-cost serial channels, such as low-cost connectors, cables, or multidrop buses with deep and narrow notches in the frequency domain (e.g., a 40-dB loss at notches). The adaptive multiband scheme mitigates equalization requirements and enhances the energy efficiency by avoiding frequency notches and utilizing the maximum available signal-to-noise ratio and channel bandwidth. The implemented TX prototype consumes a 14.7-mW power and occupies 0.016 mm2 in a 28-nm CMOS. It achieves a maximum data rate of 16 Gb/s with forwarded clock through one differential pair and the most energy efficient figure of merit of 20.4 /Gb/s/dB, which is calculated based on power consumption of transmitting per gigabits per second data and simultaneously overcoming per decibel worst case channel loss within the Nyquist frequency.
Autors: Yuan Du;Wei-Han Cho;Po-Tsang Huang;Yilei Li;Chien-Heng Wong;Jieqiong Du;Yanghyo Kim;Boyu Hu;Li Du;Chunchen Liu;Sheau Jiung Lee;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1111 - 1122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 17 mW 3-to-5 GHz Duty-Cycled Vital Sign Detection Radar Transceiver With Frequency Hopping and Time-Domain Oversampling
Abstract:
This paper presents a low power interference-robust radar transceiver architecture for noncontact vital sign detection and mobile healthcare applications. A duty-cycled transceiver design is proposed to significantly reduce power consumption of front-end circuits. Occupying 3-to-5 GHz band with four 500 MHz sub-channels, the radar mitigates the narrowband interference (NBI) problem with the frequency hopping scheme. In the time domain, the TDC is employed to achieve fine ranging resolution with noise shaped oversampling. The transceiver implemented in 65 nm CMOS consumes 17.2 mW from a 1.0-V supply when duty-cycled and achieves an RMS detection accuracy of 5.68 mm.
Autors: Xican Chen;Yiyu Shen;Zhicheng Wang;Woogeun Rhee;Zhihua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 969 - 980
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.048 Mb/s Full-Duplex Free-Space Optical Transceiver IC for a Real-Time In Vivo Brain–Computer Interface Mouse Experiment Under Social Interaction
Abstract:
This paper presents the first free-space optical transceiver IC for social, psychological brain–computer interface experiments with multiple mice. The proposed IC embedded in a head-mounted module (HMM) includes 8-channel neural recorder and a neural stimulator in order to record extracellular action potentials and local field potentials while injecting diverse waveforms of monophasic intracranial stimulation current into the medial forebrain bundle for the activation of the nervous system. The HMM implanted on a mouse transmits the neural recording data to an optical base station by using a mandatory 591/624-nm (amber/red) visible behavior tracking LED as an optical transmitter to save power. The HMM is controlled simultaneously via a 940 nm infrared optical downlink to reduce interference to the visible optical uplink. The proposed IC fabricated in a 0.18- HV BCDMOS process consumes 90 while achieving a 2.048-Mb/s transmission rate.
Autors: Gunpil Hwang;Jong-Kwan Choi;Jaehyeok Yang;Sungmin Lim;Jae-Myoung Kim;Min-Gyu Choi;Kiuk Gwak;Jinwoo Jeon;Il-Hwan Choi;Sol Park;Dae-Shik Kim;Hee Sup Shin;Hyeon-Min Bae;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1007 - 1020
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.25–2.7 GHz Area-Efficient Subharmonically Injection-Locked Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer With a Fast-Converging Correlation Loop
Abstract:
An area-efficient subharmonically injection-locked fractional-N frequency synthesizer is presented. The phase domain analysis confirms that a second-order subharmonically injection-locked phase-locked loop (SIPLL) can be stable even if the loop filter is composed of only a tiny capacitor. Thus, the area of the loop filter shrinks dramatically to realize an area-efficient SIPLL. Besides, a fast-converging correlation loop is used to calibrate the gain error of the digital-to-time converter in background by using a binary search algorithm. It ensures the initial output of the correlator close to the final one and is insensitive to process/supply/temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a 40 nm process and occupies a core area of 0.0104 mm2. The converging time of the correlation loop is within . The power consumption is 3.19 mW from a 1.1 V supply.
Autors: Yen-Hsiang Tseng;Che-Wei Yeh;Shen-Iuan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 811 - 822
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.3-mW 0.01-mm $^{text{2}}$ 1.25-GHz Quadrature Signal Corrector With 1.1-ps Error for Mobile DRAM Interface in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
In this brief, we propose a quadrature signal corrector for a low-power DDR4 mobile DRAM interface. In order to eliminate the phase imbalance among quadrature signals, the proposed architecture employs digitally controlled delay lines in a shared digital feedback loop with a time-multiplexed loop filter so as to minimize the effect of circuit mismatch that hampers the phase accuracy. A self-calibrated offset delay is also proposed, which allows the use of a simple 1-bit TDC instead of a power-hungry wide-dynamic range TDC. Implemented in 65-nm CMOS, the prototype chip achieves less than 1.1-ps phase error for a 1.25-GHz quadrature signal and occupies an active area of only 0.01 mm2 while consuming 2.27 mW from a 1.0-V supply.
Autors: YongJo Kim;Keunsoo Song;Dongkyun Kim;SeongHwan Cho;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 397 - 401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.5 mW/ch, 50 Mcps, 10-Analog Channel, Adaptively Biased Read-Out Front-End IC With Low Intrinsic Timing Resolution for Single-Photon Time-of-Flight PET Applications With Time-Dependent Noise Analysis in 90 nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10-channel time-of-flight application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for positron emission tomography in a 90 nm standard CMOS process. To overcome variations in channel-to-channel timing resolution caused by mismatch and process variations, adaptive biases and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) are utilized. The main contributions of this work are as follows. First, multistage architectures reduce the total power consumption, and detection bandwidths of analog preamplifiers and comparators are increased to 1 and 1.5 GHz, respectively, relative to those in previous studies. Second, a total intrinsic electronic timing resolution of 9.71 ps root-mean-square (RMS) is achieved (13.88 ps peak and 11.8 ps average of the 10 channels in 5 ASICs). Third, the proposed architecture reduces variations in channel-to-channel timing resolution to 2.6 bits (equivalent to 4.17 ps RMS) by calibrating analog comparator threshold levels. A 181.5 ps full-width-at-half-maximum timing resolution is measured with an avalanche photo diode and a laser setup. The power consumption is 2.5 mW using 0.5 and 1.2 V power supplies. The proposed ASIC is implemented in a 90 nm TSMC CMOS process with a total area of 3.3 mm 2.7 mm.
Autors: Hugo Cruz;Hong-Yi Huang;Ching-Hsing Luo;Shuenn-Yuh Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 287 - 299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20-pW Discontinuous Switched-Capacitor Energy Harvester for Smart Sensor Applications
Abstract:
We present a discontinuous harvesting approach for switch capacitor dc–dc converters that enables ultralow-power energy harvesting. Smart sensor applications rely on ultralow-power energy harvesters to scavenge energy across a wide range of ambient power levels and charge the battery. Based on the key observation that energy source efficiency is higher than charge pump efficiency, we present a discontinuous harvesting technique that decouples the two efficiencies for a better tradeoff. By slowly accumulating charge on an input capacitor and then transferring it to a battery in burst mode, dc–dc converter switching and leakage losses can be optimally traded off with the loss incurred by nonideal maximum power point tracking operation. Harvester duty cycle is automatically modulated instead of charge pump operating frequency to match with the energy source input power level. The harvester uses a hybrid structure called a moving-sum charge pump for low startup energy upon a mode switch, an automatic conversion ratio modulator based on conduction loss optimization for fast conversion ratio increment, and a <15-pW asynchronous mode controller for ultralow-power operation. In 180-nm CMOS, the harvester achieves >40% end-to-end efficiency from 113 pW to 1.5 with 20-pW minimum harvestable input power.
Autors: Xiao Wu;Yao Shi;Supreet Jeloka;Kaiyuan Yang;Inhee Lee;Yoonmyung Lee;Dennis Sylvester;David Blaauw;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 972 - 984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 200–1380-kHz Quadrifrequency Focused Ultrasound Transducer for Neurostimulation in Rodents and Primates: Transcranial In Vitro Calibration and Numerical Study of the Influence of Skull Cavity
Abstract:
Low intensity transcranial focused ultrasound has been demonstrated to produce neuromodulation in both animals and humans. Primarily for technical reasons, frequency is one of the most poorly investigated critical wave parameters. We propose the use of a quadri-band transducer capable of operating at 200, 320, 850, and 1380 kHz for further investigation of the frequency dependence of neuromodulation efficacy while keeping the position of the transducer fixed with respect to the subject’s head. This paper presents the results of the transducer calibration in water, in vitro transmission measurements through a monkey skull flap, 3-D simulations based on both a -computed tomography (CT)-scan of a rat and on CT-scans of two macaques. A maximum peak pressure greater than 0.52 MPa is expected at each frequency in rat and macaque heads. According to the literature, our transducer can achieve neuromodulation in rodents and primates at each four frequencies. The impact of standing waves is shown to be most prominent at the lowest frequencies.
Autors: Charlotte Constans;Thomas Deffieux;Pierre Pouget;Mickaël Tanter;Jean-François Aubry;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 717 - 724
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 220/247.5/275-GHz, 1.0-MW, Triple Frequency Regime Gyrotron
Abstract:
In this paper, a complete design methodology of a triple frequency gyrotron is presented, which can also be further applied to multifrequency operations. Frequencies for operation are selected as 220, 247.5, and 275 GHz for the localized and intense heating of magnetically confined plasmas (i.e., electron cyclotron heating and current drive) for future fusion reactors. A cautious selection procedure of the mode triplet is portrayed in accordance with the all possible physical and technical constraints. Typical cold cavity (beam absent) and single-mode (beam present) calculations are performed and presented with extended interaction structure (including an optimized nonlinear taper section). A triode type configuration is adopted for magnetron injection gun to produce the electron beam with desired characteristics as required for RF behavior. Time-dependent multimode calculations are presented with nonuniform magnetic field and beam parameters optimized by gun simulations. These rigorous calculations affirm proper working of the design with -MW continuous wave power for chosen mode triplet and efficiency %.
Autors: Gaurav Singh Baghel;M. V. Kartikeyan;Manfred K. Thumm;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1774 - 1780
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 23-mW 24-GS/s 6-bit Voltage-Time Hybrid Time-Interleaved ADC in 28-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a power- and area-efficient 16-way time-interleaved (TI) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) achieving 24-GS/s conversion speed and 6-bit resolution in 28-nm CMOS. A voltage-time hybrid pipeline technique exploiting the comparator input-voltage-output-time dependency is reported to enhance the throughput of successive-approximation-register (SAR) ADCs. A reference-buffer-free capacitive digital-to-analog (CDAC) converter is utilized to mitigate the crosstalk problem in TI-ADCs. Timing mismatches between individual sub-ADCs are estimated with a reference-ADC dithering technique and corrected by digitally controlled delay lines (DCDL). The techniques collectively enabled a very compact design, obviating any input buffer or hierarchical sampling structures. The ADC core consumes 23 mW and occupies an area of 0.03 mm2. A signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 35 dB and a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 54 dB were measured for a 40-MHz input. For a Nyquist input, the prototype measured an SNDR of 29 dB and an SFDR of 41 dB with all timing mismatch spurs suppressed below −50 dBc after skew calibration.
Autors: Benwei Xu;Yuan Zhou;Yun Chiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1091 - 1100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Split-Step Fourier Algorithm Based on a Discrete Spectral Representation of the Propagation Equation
Abstract:
A propagation method self-consistent in the discrete domain for the simulation of large distance scenarios in a 3-D inhomogeneous atmosphere is proposed. First, a spectral representation of the field in a discrete 3-D domain over an infinite perfect ground is introduced in cylindrical coordinates. A discrete spectral propagator is then derived. As in 2-D methods, the inhomogeneous atmosphere is considered in the spatial domain using phase screens. An explicit numerical scheme is introduced. For directive sources, a sectoral propagation is proposed to reduce the computation time by limiting the computation domain. The method is tested by simulation scenarios involving refractive effects in both vertical and azimuthal directions. The 3-D refractive effects are shown to be properly simulated.
Autors: Hang Zhou;Alexandre Chabory;Rémi Douvenot;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1988 - 1995
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 32-Channel 13-b ADC for Space Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a 13-b, 2.56- conversion time, 2 V input range, 32-channel single slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) called OWB-1 and implemented in a 0.35- CMOS commercial technology. It is based on an improved Wilkinson architecture. An interpolator composed by a delay lock loop is used to increase the time resolution of the counter by a factor of 32, while keeping a low power consumption and ensuring the high dynamic performance of the ADC. Measurements performed on the ADC have shown that the noise is better than 0.86 LSB over the full conversion range, its differential nonlinearity is in the range of −0.28/+0.31 LSB and its integral nonlinearity is within −1.3/+2.1 LSB. The total power consumption of the chip is 57 mW for 32 active channels. A new temperature compensation system based on a servo loop has also been integrated into the chip to compensate for temperature effects in the −40 °C to +40 °C range. Special design techniques have been used to make the ASIC immune to single event latchup. OWB-1 readout is optimized for a new low power microgamma camera (Caliste-MC2) with digital output based on a 32 32 CdTe or CdZnTe pixel matrix.
Autors: Florent Bouyjou;Olivier Gevin;Olivier Limousin;Eric Delagnes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1071 - 1079
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4-fJ/b Delay-Hardened Physically Unclonable Function Circuit With Selective Bit Destabilization in 14-nm Trigate CMOS
Abstract:
This paper describes a full-entropy 128-b key generation platform based on a 1024-b hybrid physically unclonable function (PUF) array, fabricated in 14-nm trigate high-k/metal-gate CMOS. Delay-hardened hybrid PUF cells use differential clock delay insertion to favor circuit evaluation in the desired direction while leveraging burn-in-induced aging for selective bit destabilization enabling quick identification and masking of unstable cells, and subsequent temporal-majority-voting with soft dark-bit masking to reduce PUF bit error by 3.9 times to 1.45% resulting in ~5 ppb failure probability. A stable full-entropy 128-b key is finally generated from the 1024 raw PUF bits using BCH error correction and AES-CBC-based entropy extraction. An all-digital design with compact PUF cell layout occupying achieves: 1) 4-fJ/b energy-efficiency with 3-μW leakage at 0.65 V, 70 °C; 2) peak operating frequency of 1 GHz resulting in 1.2-μs key generation latency; 3) robust operation with stable key generation across 0.55–0.75 V, and 25 °C–110 °C; 4) 14 times separation between intra/inter-PUF hamming distances with 0.99993 entropy ensuring cryptographic quality randomness and uniqueness; 5) 48% higher PUF stability with long-term aging by leveraging transistor degradation to reinforce favorable cell bias; and 6) resiliency to power cycling attacks with common centroid clock routing measured from 49.5% hamming distance between array’s evaluation and wake-up states.
Autors: Sudhir Satpathy;Sanu K. Mathew;Vikram Suresh;Mark A. Anders;Himanshu Kaul;Amit Agarwal;Steven K. Hsu;Gregory Chen;Ram K. Krishnamurthy;Vivek K. De;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 940 - 949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4-W Doherty Power Amplifier in GaN MMIC Technology for 15-GHz Applications
Abstract:
This letter presents an integrated Doherty power amplifier (PA) in 0.25- GaN on SiC process. Designed for 15-GHz point-to-point radios, the PA exhibits an output power of 36 ± 0.5 dBm between 13.7 and 15.3 GHz, while at 14.6 GHz, it shows a 6-dB output back-off efficiency higher than 28%. Modulated signal measurements applying digital predistortion demonstrate the compatibility of the amplifier with point-to-point radio requirements. To the best of our knowledge, this PA has the highest back-off efficiency for the 15-GHz band, and is the first GaN Doherty in the Ku-band.
Autors: Roberto Quaglia;Vittorio Camarchia;Jorge Julian Moreno Rubio;Marco Pirola;Giovanni Ghione;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 365 - 367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gb/s Voltage-Mode Transmitter Using Adaptive Time-Based De-Emphasis
Abstract:
A 5-Gb/s voltage-mode (VM) transmitter using adaptive time-based de-emphasis is presented. The duty cycle of the pulse-width modulation data is adjusted by the spectrum-balancing technique. This adaptive VM transmitter does not need an auxiliary cable. It can adaptively compensate the loss of the channels with different lengths. This transmitter and a receiver are fabricated in a 40-nm CMOS process. The active areas of the transmitter and the receiver are 0.075 mm2 and 0.105 mm2, respectively. For a 1.1 V supply voltage, the power of the transmitter is 9.3 mW and the total power of the transceiver is 17.5 mW. For a 5-Gb/s PRBS of 27-1 passing through a 9-m coaxial cable with a 15.35-dB loss, the measured root-mean-square and peak-to-peak jitters of the recovered data are 12.25 and 64.44 ps, respectively. The settling time for adaptive time-based de-emphasis is 2.048 . The measured bit error rate is less than 10−12.
Autors: Wun-Jian Su;Shen-Iuan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 959 - 968
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 56-Gb/s PAM4 Wireline Transceiver Using a 32-Way Time-Interleaved SAR ADC in 16-nm FinFET
Abstract:
A 56-Gb/s PAM4 wireline transceiver testchip is implemented in 16-nm FinFET. The current mode logic transmitter incorporates an auxiliary current injection at the output nodes to maintain PAM4 amplitude linearity. The ADC-based receiver incorporates hybrid analog and digital equalizations. The analog equalization is performed using two identical stages of continuous time linear equalizer, each having a constant of ~0-dB dc-gain and a maximum peaking of ~7 dB peaking at 14 GHz. A 28-GSample/s 32-way time-interleaved SAR ADC converts the equalized analog signal into digital domain for further equalization using digital signal processing. The transceiver achieves <1e-8 bit error rate over a backplane channel with 31-dB loss at 14-GHz and 3.5-mVrms additional crosstalk, using a fixed ~10-dB TX equalization and an adaptive hybrid RX equalization, with the DSP configured to have a 24-tap feed forward equalizer and a 1-tap decision feedback equalizer. The transceiver consumes 550-mW power at 56 Gb/s, excluding the power of the on-chip configurable DSP that cannot be accurately measured as it is implemented as part of a larger test structure.
Autors: Yohan Frans;Jaewook Shin;Lei Zhou;Parag Upadhyaya;Jay Im;Vassili Kireev;Mohamed Elzeftawi;Hiva Hedayati;Toan Pham;Santiago Asuncion;Chris Borrelli;Geoff Zhang;Hongtao Zhang;Ken Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1101 - 1110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz CMOS Transceiver With On-Chip Antenna and Periodic Near Field Directors for Multi-Gb/s Contactless Connector
Abstract:
A 60-GHz-based millimeter-wave (mm-wave)-wireless-interconnect (M2W2-I) with noncoherent amplitude shift-key (ASK) modulation is presented for applications in multigigabit ultrashort distance contactless connector. M2W2-I modulates data at mm-wave frequencies and transmits over the air in a very short distance (5 mm or less). A folded-dipole antenna is designed on-chip for a compact package form-factor, and a periodic near field director (PNFD) is inserted between transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) to enhance a communication distance. Designed and fabricated in 65-nm CMOS, the M2W2-I achieves 5 Gb/s with 0.5 mm separation of air-coupling and 5.7-Gb/s 5-mm separation through a PNFD inserted channel. The measured energy efficiency is 7 pJ/bit using a PNFD.
Autors: Yanghyo Kim;Sai-Wang Tam;Tatsuo Itoh;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 404 - 406
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65-nm CMOS Constant Current Source With Reduced PVT Variation
Abstract:
This paper presents a new nanometer-based low-power constant current reference that attains a small value in the total process–voltage–temperature variation. The circuit architecture is based on the embodiment of a process-tolerant bias current circuit and a scaled process-tracking bias voltage source for the dedicated temperature-compensated voltage-to-current conversion in a preregulator loop. Fabricated in a UMC 65-nm CMOS process, it consumes with a 1.4 V supply. The measured results indicate that the current reference achieves an average temperature coefficient of 119 ppm/°C over 12 samples in a temperature range from −30 °C to 90 °C without any calibration. Besides, a low line sensitivity of 180 ppm/V is obtained. This paper offers a better sensitivity figure of merit with respect to the reported representative counterparts.
Autors: Dong Wang;Xiao Liang Tan;Pak Kwong Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 1373 - 1385
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 73.9%-Efficiency CMOS Rectifier Using a Lower DC Feeding (LDCF) Self-Body-Biasing Technique for Far-Field RF Energy-Harvesting Systems
Abstract:
A self-body-biasing technique is proposed for differential-drive cross-coupled (DDCC) rectifier, with its profound application in far-field RF energy-harvesting systems. The conventional source-to-body, and the proposed technique known as Lower DC Feeding (LDCF), were fabricated in the 130-nm CMOS and compared at the operation frequency of 500 MHz, 953 MHz and 2 GHz along with a corresponding load of , and . The technique allows the PMOS transistors to operate with a dynamic threshold voltage () which improves the power conversion efficiency (PCE) when the rectifier is operating at a smaller received power. A 9.5% of improvement is achieved at the peak PCE when the rectifier is operating at 953 MHz, and driving a load. A maximum PCE of 73.9% is measured at 2 GHz when driving a 2- load. The LDCF technique also offers a self-limiting capability for its output voltage, by reducing the PCE at larger received power. A limit-voltage level of 3.5 V is measured irrespective to the operating frequency and load. This capability aids the protection of the subsequent circuits in a wireless sensor from being overpowered.
Autors: Amin Khalili Moghaddam;Joon Huang Chuah;Harikrishnan Ramiah;Jalil Ahmadian;Pui-In Mak;Rui P. Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 992 - 1002
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian-Network-Based Classification Method Integrating Airborne LiDAR Data With Optical Images
Abstract:
Point cloud classification is of great importance to applications of airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data. In recent years, airborne LiDAR has been integrated with various other sensors, e.g., optical imaging sensors, and thus, the fusion of multiple data types for scene classification has become a hot topic. Therefore, this paper proposes a Bayesian network (BN) model that is suitable for airborne point cloud classification fusing multiple data types. Based on an analysis of the characteristics of LiDAR point clouds and aerial images, we first extract the geometric features from the point clouds and the spectral features from the optical images. The optimal BN structure is then trained using an improved mutual-information-based K2 algorithm to obtain the optimal BN classifier for point cloud classification. Experiments demonstrate that the BN classifier can effectively distinguish four types of basic ground objects, including ground, vegetation, trees, and buildings, with a high accuracy of over 90%. Moreover, compared with other classifiers, the proposed BN classifier can achieve the highest overall accuracies, and in particular, the classifier demonstrates its advantage in the classification of ground and low vegetation points.
Autors: Zhizhong Kang;Juntao Yang;Ruofei Zhong;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 10, issue:4, pages: 1651 - 1661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bilevel Approach for the Stochastic Optimal Operation of Interconnected Microgrids
Abstract:
Smart grid planning and control is becoming a theme of high interest in the last years. This is due to the presence of distributed generation, power from renewable resources and storage systems, to the different actors present over the territory, and to the difficulty of defining appropriate models for decision support. A bilevel optimal control scheme is proposed for grids characterized by renewable and traditional power production, bidirectional power flows, dynamic storage systems, and stochastic modeling issues. In this scheme, the upper level decision maker (UDM) views the lower level decision makers (LDMs) or microgrids as single nodes. In the statement of the UDM problem, the LDM control strategies are structurally and parametrically constrained inside a nonlinear optimization problem that includes load flow equations. Then, the LDMs can follow references from the UDM and use available information at the local level to solve a stochastic optimization problem. The proposed control architecture has been applied to a specific case study (Savona, Italy).
Autors: Riccardo Minciardi;Michela Robba;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 482 - 493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A BJT-Based Temperature-to-Digital Converter With ±60 mK ( $3~sigma$ ) Inaccuracy From −55 °C to +125 °C in 0.16-μm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a precision CMOS temperature-to-digital converter (TDC), which senses the temperature-dependent base–emitter voltage of substrate PNPs. Measurements on 20 samples from one batch show that it achieves an inaccuracy of ±60 mK () from −55 °C to +125 °C, after a single room-temperature trim. This state-of-the-art result is mainly due to the extensive use of dynamic error cancellation techniques to generate the PNP’s collector currents, thus minimizing the spread in their base–emitter voltages, together with a digital PTAT trim to correct for the spread in the PNP’s saturation currents. The effect of process variation on the TDC’s inaccuracy was investigated by measuring 80 samples from three different batches. Using the same calibration parameters, they exhibit a maximum untrimmed inaccuracy of ±2 °C () from −55 °C to +125 °C. This drops to ±100 mK () after a single point trim. The proposed TDC thus reduces calibration costs by obviating the need for batch-specific calibration parameters, which would otherwise require the multipoint calibration of several samples. The effect of the PNP’s current gain was also investigated with the help of a novel -detection circuit. Implemented in 0.16-μm- CMOS, the TDC occupies 0.16 mm2 and draws 4.6 from 1.5 to 2 V supply voltages. It achieves a resolution Figure of Merit of 7.8 pJ°C2, and a state-of-the-art supply sensitivity of 0.01 °C/V.
Autors: Bahman Yousefzadeh;Saleh Heidary Shalmany;Kofi A. A. Makinwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1044 - 1052
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bluetooth Low-Energy Transceiver With 3.7-mW All-Digital Transmitter, 2.75-mW High-IF Discrete-Time Receiver, and TX/RX Switchable On-Chip Matching Network
Abstract:
We present an ultra-low-power Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) transceiver (TRX) for the Internet of Things (IoT) optimized for digital 28-nm CMOS. A transmitter (TX) employs an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) with a switched current-source digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) featuring low frequency pushing, and class-E/F2 digital power amplifier (PA), featuring high efficiency. Low 1/ DCO noise allows the ADPLL to shut down after acquiring lock. The receiver operates in discrete time at high sampling rate (~10 Gsamples/s) with intermediate frequency placed beyond 1/ noise corner of MOS devices. New multistage multirate charge-sharing bandpass filters are adapted to achieve high out-of-band linearity, low noise, and low power consumption. An integrated on-chip matching network serves to both PA and low-noise transconductance amplifier, thus allowing a 1-pin direct antenna connection with no external band-selection filters. The TRX consumes 2.75 mW on the RX side and 3.7 mW on the TX side when delivering 0 dBm in BLE.
Autors: Feng-Wei Kuo;Sandro Binsfeld Ferreira;Huan-Neng Ron Chen;Lan-Chou Cho;Chewn-Pu Jou;Fu-Lung Hsueh;Iman Madadi;Massoud Tohidian;Mina Shahmohammadi;Masoud Babaie;Robert Bogdan Staszewski;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 52, issue:4, pages: 1144 - 1162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Passive Monopulse Comparator MMIC
Abstract:
A broadband monopulse comparator MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) based on GaAs process is presented in this Letter. The comparator network constructed by three magic tees and one lumped power divider is proposed for one sum channel and two delta channels. The measurement results show that very wide frequency band from 15 to 30 GHz (66.7% relatively frequency bandwidth) with less than 2.5-dB loss can be achieved for the sum channel. And the null depth is more than 22 dB in 15–27GHz and 17 dB in 27–30 GHz for two delta channels. The total chip size is 3.4 mm 3.4 mm ( at the center frequency of 22.5 GHz).
Autors: Yang Chen;Yuehang Xu;Liulin Hu;Wei Tong;Ruimin Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 359 - 361
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Printed Monofilar Square Spiral Antenna : A circularly polarized low-profile antenna.
Abstract:
This article presents a novel circularly polarized (CP) wide-band printed monofilar square spiral antenna (MSSA) with a low profile and 50-X input impedance, as well as a technique to improve the overlapped bandwidth and reduce the profile of a conventional MSSA. To extend the application of the present design to an array antenna, a square cavity is introduced. This simple and low-cost approach results in a wide-band printed MSSA with high directivity. To verify this design concept, antenna prototypes operating at Ku frequency band have been designed and fabricated. Simulation and measurement results show that the present designs have more than 16% 10-dB return loss and 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth within the same frequency range with high radiation efficiency. The beam-scanning performance of the array antenna using the present design was investigated, and the calculated results suggest that good CP performance is obtained during the beam scanning. The advantages of our MSSA design are wide overlapped bandwidth, low profile, flexibility in antenna performance tuning, and easy fabrication. The present antennas have the potential to be used in small satellites such as microsatellites and CubeSats for tracking, command function, and data downlink applications.
Autors: Qi Luo;Steven Gao;Mohammed Sobhy;Jianzhou Li;Gao Wei;Jiadong Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 59, issue:2, pages: 79 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Characterization of Minimum Spanning Tree-Like Metric Spaces
Abstract:
Recent years have witnessed a surge of biological interest in the minimum spanning tree (MST) problem for its relevance to automatic model construction using the distances between data points. Despite the increasing use of MST algorithms for this purpose, the goodness-of-fit of an MST to the data is often elusive because no quantitative criteria have been developed to measure it. Motivated by this, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition to ensure that a metric space on points can be represented by a fully labeled tree on vertices, and thereby determine when an MST preserves all pairwise distances between points in a finite metric space.
Autors: Momoko Hayamizu;Hiroshi Endo;Kenji Fukumizu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 468 - 471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Characterization of Switched Linear Control Systems With Finite $L_{2}$-Gain
Abstract:
Motivated by an open problem posed by J. P. Hespanha, we extend the notion of Barabanov norm and extremal trajectory to classes of switching signals that are not closed under concatenation. We use these tools to prove that the finiteness of the -gain is equivalent, for a large set of switched linear control systems, to the condition that the generalized spectral radius associated with any minimal realization of the original switched system is smaller than one.
Autors: Yacine Chitour;Paolo Mason;Mario Sigalotti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1825 - 1837
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Chopper Instrumentation Amplifier With Input Resistance Boosting by Means of Synchronous Dynamic Element Matching
Abstract:
In this work, we propose a method to increase the parasitic input resistance caused by application of chopper modulation to indirect current feedback instrumentation amplifiers. The result is obtained by applying dynamic element matching to the input and feedback ports at the same frequency as chopper modulation. The proposed approach requires effective offset ripple rejection and equalization of the input and feedback common mode voltages. An in-amp architecture that meets both requirements and embodies the proposed input resistance boosting method is described. Experimental verification is provided by means of a prototype designed and fabricated using the CMOS devices of the STMicroelectronics BCD6s process. The amplifier operates with a 3.3 V supply voltage and a total current absorption of . An input impedance in excess of has been measured at a chopper frequency of 20 kHz. The input referred voltage noise density is 18 nV/sqrt(Hz) with a flicker corner of 0.2 Hz and 200 Hz bandwidth.
Autors: Federico Butti;Massimo Piotto;Paolo Bruschi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 753 - 764
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Weiss–Weinstein Bounds and Its Relationship With the Bobrovsky–Mayer-Wolf–Zakaï Bounds
Abstract:
A fairly general class of Bayesian “large-error” lower bounds of the Weiss–Weinstein family, essentially free from regularity conditions on the probability density functions support, and for which a limiting form yields a generalized Bayesian Cramér–Rao bound (BCRB), is introduced. In a large number of cases, the generalized BCRB appears to be the Bobrovsky–Mayer-Wolf–Zakai bound (BMZB). Interestingly enough, a regularized form of the Bobrovsky–Zakai bound (BZB), applicable when the support of the prior is a constrained parameter set, is obtained. Modified Weiss–Weinstein bound and BZB which limiting form is the BMZB are proposed, in expectation of an increased tightness in the threshold region. Some of the proposed results are exemplified with a reference problem in signal processing: the Gaussian observation model with parameterized mean and uniform prior.
Autors: Eric Chaumette;Alexandre Renaux;Mohammed Nabil El Korso;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 2226 - 2240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Classroom Scheduling Service for Smart Classes
Abstract:
During past decades, the classroom scheduling problem has posed significant challenges to educational programmers and teaching secretaries. In order to alleviate the burden of the programmers, this paper presents SmartClass, which allows the programmers to solve this problem using web services. By introducing service-oriented architecture (SOA), SmartClass is able to provide classroom scheduling services with back-stage design space exploration and greedy algorithms. Furthermore, the SmartClass architecture can be dynamically coupled to different scheduling algorithms (e.g. Greedy, DSE, etc.) to fit in specific demands. A typical case study demonstrates that SmartClass provides a new efficient paradigm to the traditional classroom scheduling problem, which could achieve high flexibility by software services reuse and ease the burden of educational programmers. Evaluation results on efficiency, overheads and scheduling performance demonstrate the SmartClass has lower scheduling overheads with higher efficiency.
Autors: Chao Wang;Xi Li;Aili Wang;Xuehai Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 155 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Closed-Loop Fuzzy-Logic-Based Current Controller for PMSM Torque Ripple Minimization Using the Magnitude of Speed Harmonic as the Feedback Control Signal
Abstract:
This paper investigates torque ripple minimization for permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), and proposes a closed-loop fuzzy-logic-based current controller by using the magnitude of the speed harmonic as the feedback control signal. The speed harmonic can be obtained from machine speed measurement, so the proposed approach does not require accurate machine parameters and is not influenced by the nonlinearity of the machine and drive. The torque harmonic can produce the speed harmonic of the same order, so their relation is investigated, which shows that the magnitude of the speed harmonic is proportional to the magnitude of the torque harmonic of the same order, so it can be used as a measure of torque harmonic for torque ripple minimization. Then, the torque harmonic model is developed to facilitate the design and analysis of the current controller. Afterward, a novel fuzzy-logic-based current controller is proposed to minimize the dominant torque harmonics. The proposed current controller is evaluated on a laboratory PMSM drive system under different load conditions and operation speeds.
Autors: Guodong Feng;Chunyan Lai;Narayan C. Kar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 2642 - 2653
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS 3–12-GHz Ultrawideband Low Noise Amplifier by Dual-Resonance Network
Abstract:
A low-power and high power-gain () ultrawideband low noise amplifier (UWB LNA) with flat noise figure (NF) based on Global Foundies 0.13- CMOS technology is reported. The load effect of common-gate (CG) topology is applied with dual-resonance load network for both wideband input matching and NF flatness. Combined with inductive-series peaking technique, the frequency response of CG-common-source cascade topology is further extended. The LNA circuit achieves the high and flat power gain of 13.5 ± 1.5 dB with input return loss better than 13 dB and a flat NF of 4.3 dB ±0.4 dB for frequencies 3–12 GHz. The fabricated LNA occupies a die area of 1.09 0.8 mm2 including pads and draw 8.5 mW from 1.2-V dc supply.
Autors: Nan Li;Weiwei Feng;Xiuping Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 383 - 385
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Current Steering Neurostimulation Array With Integrated DAC Calibration and Charge Balancing
Abstract:
An 8-channel current steerable, multi-phasic neural stimulator with on-chip current DAC calibration and residue nulling for precise charge balancing is presented. Each channel consists of two sub-binary radix DACs followed by wide-swing, high output impedance current buffers providing time-multiplexed source and sink outputs for anodic and cathodic stimulation. A single integrator is shared among channels and serves to calibrate DAC coefficients and to closely match the anodic and cathodic stimulation phases. Following calibration, the differential non-linearity is within LSB at 8-bit resolution, and the two stimulation phases are matched within 0.3%. Individual control in digital programming of stimulation coefficients across the array allows altering the spatial profile of current stimulation for selection of stimulation targets by current steering. Combined with the self-calibration and current matching functions, the current steering capabilities integrated on-chip support use in fully implanted neural interfaces with autonomous operation for and adaptive stimulation under variations in electrode and tissue conditions. As a proof-of-concept we applied current steering stimulation through a multi-channel cuff electrode on the sciatic nerve of a rat.
Autors: Elliot Greenwald;Christoph Maier;Qihong Wang;Robert Beaulieu;Ralph Etienne-Cummings;Gert Cauwenberghs;Nitish Thakor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 324 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Dual-Band Beam-Sweeping Antenna Based on Active Frequency Selective Surfaces
Abstract:
A dual-band beam-sweeping antenna based on two independent cylindrical active frequency selective surfaces (AFSSs) is proposed in this paper. This antenna is composed of a dual-band omnidirectional monopole antenna operating at 2.45 and 5.2 GHz and two cylindrical AFSS screens. The dual-band omnidirectional monopole antenna is designed as a radiating source and surrounded by the proposed two cylindrical AFSS screens. The unit cells of the two proposed AFSS screens consist of two metallic crosses connected by a pin diode vertically. By switching the pin diodes, the transmission and reflection characteristics of unit cell of the two AFSS are investigated, respectively, at their own operating frequency. This leads to the variation of the radiation pattern when the cylindrical AFSS screens are loaded around the monopole antenna. Therefore, by switching the pin diodes with specified combinations, the dual-band beamforming antenna with multiple discrete states can be achieved at 2.45 and 5.2 GHz.
Autors: Jinxin Li;Qingsheng Zeng;Ruizhi Liu;Tayeb A. Denidni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1542 - 1549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study 4500-V Edge Termination Techniques for SiC Devices
Abstract:
This paper compares five edge termination techniques for SiC high-voltage devices: single zone junction termination extension (JTE), ring assisted-JTE (RA-JTE), multiple floating zone-JTE, hybrid-JTE, and floating field rings. PiN diodes with these edge terminations were fabricated on a 4.5kV-rated 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) epi-layer. It was experimentally demonstrated that the Hybrid-JTE provides a nearly ideal breakdown voltage (~ 99% of the ideal parallel plane breakdown voltage) with a stable avalanche blocking behavior. RA-JTE, with tight control of the JTE implant dose, is demonstrated to be the most area-efficient edge termination structure for SiC power devices.
Autors: Woongje Sung;B. Jayant Baliga;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1647 - 1652
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Bidding Strategies for Online Auctions Using Fuzzy Reasoning and Negotiation Decision Functions
Abstract:
Bidders often feel challenged when looking for the best bidding strategies to excel in the competitive environment of multiple and simultaneous online auctions for same or similar items. Bidders face complicated issues for deciding which auction to participate in, whether to bid early or late, and how much to bid. In this paper, we present the design of bidding strategies, which aim to forecast the bid amounts for buyers at a particular moment in time based on their bidding behavior and their valuation of an auctioned item. The agent develops a comprehensive methodology for final price estimation, which designs bidding strategies to address buyers’ different bidding behaviors using two approaches: Mamdani method with regression analysis and negotiation decision functions. The experimental results show that the agents who follow fuzzy reasoning with a regression approach outperform other existing agents in most settings in terms of their success rate and expected utility.
Autors: Preetinder Kaur;Madhu Goyal;Jie Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 25, issue:2, pages: 425 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive DC and AC PBTI Modeling Framework for HKMG n-MOSFETs
Abstract:
A physics-based modeling framework is proposed to calculate the threshold voltage shift ( in planar high-k metal gate (HKMG) n-MOSFETs for positive bias temperature instability (PBTI). Overall is estimated using the uncorrelated contributions from the trap generation (TG) and the electron trapping subcomponents. The time evolution of , measured using an ultrafast measure-stress-measure method during dc and ac stress and after dc stress, is predicted for different experimental conditions. The modeled TG component is verified by independent direct-current I–V method. The proposed model explains PBTI in differently processed HKMG gate stacks.
Autors: Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay;Narendra Parihar;Nilesh Goel;Souvik Mahapatra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1474 - 1481
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Design Approach of Power Electronic-Based Distributed Generation Units Focused on Power-Quality Improvement
Abstract:
The undesirable harmonic distortion produced by distributed generation units (DGUs) based on power-electronic inverters presents operating and power-quality challenges in electric systems. The level of distortion depends on the internal elements of the DGUs as well as on the characteristics of the grid, loads, and controls, among others. This paper presents a comprehensive method, focused on power-quality indexes and efficiency for the design of microgrids with multiple DGUs interconnected to the ac grid through three-phase multi-Megawatt medium-voltage pulsewidth-modulated-voltage-source inverters (PWM-VSI). The proposed design method is based on a least square solution using the harmonic domain modeling approach to effectively consider explicitly the harmonic characteristics of the DGUs and their direct and cross-coupling interaction with the grid, loads, and the other DGUs. Extensive simulations and analyses against PSCAD are presented in order to show the outstanding performance of the proposed design approach.
Autors: Miguel Esparza;Juan Segundo;C. Núñez;Xiongfei Wang;Frede Blaabjerg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 942 - 950
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Design Approach to an EMI Filter for a 6-kW Three-Phase Boost Power Factor Correction Rectifier in Avionics Vehicular Systems
Abstract:
A compact and efficient design for the electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter stage has become one of the most critical challenges in designing a high-density power converter, particularly for avionic applications. To maintain the regulatory standard requirements, EMI filter design needs to be precisely implemented. However, the attenuation characteristics of common-mode (CM) and differential-mode (DM) EMI filters may vary in practice from their respective theoretical calculations due to difficulty and inaccuracy in the noise modeling. This is particularly true for a three-phase active boost rectifier, which inherently has a CM high-frequency component in the rectifier output. This paper puts forward a detailed mathematical modeling of CM noise, originated from different sources, and discusses a concept to significantly reduce the CM noise effects. Furthermore, minimizing the weight and size of DM filter stage has been a design concern as the DM stage consumes a significant part of the weight of the whole system. This paper proposes a compact EMI filter topology with enhanced power density, which aims at satisfying the conducted EMI requirements according to DO-160F in avionics applications. The experimental verifications of the designed EMI filter are performed from the conducted emission results, obtained from a 6-kW laboratory prototype of an integrated stage of EMI and three-phase boost PFC converter.
Autors: Ayan Mallik;Weisheng Ding;Alireza Khaligh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 2942 - 2951
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compressed Sensing Strategy for Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
A novel beamforming technique, named compressed sensing based synthetic transmit aperture (CS-STA) is proposed to speed up the acquisition of ultrasound imaging. This technique consists of three steps. First, the ultrasound transducer transmits randomly apodized plane waves for a number of times and receives the backscattered echoes. Second, the recorded backscattered echoes are used to recover the full channel dataset of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) with a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction algorithm. Finally, an STA image is beamformed from the recovered full STA dataset. As CS allows recovering a signal from its few linear measurements with high probability, CS-STA is capable of recovering the STA image with fewer firings (i.e., higher frame rate) and retaining the high resolution of STA. In addition, the contrast of the STA image can be improved at the same time owing to the higher energy of plane wave firing in CS-STA. Simulations demonstrate that CS-STA is capable of recovering the STA channel dataset with a smaller number of firings. The performance of CS-STA is evaluated in phantom experiments through comparisons with STA, multi-element STA, conventional focused mode and coherent plane wave imaging. The results demonstrate that, implemented with the same frame rate, CS-STA achieves higher or comparable resolution and contrast. Moreover, comparisons are conducted on the biceps brachii muscle and thyroid of a human subject, and the results demonstrate the feasibility and competitiveness of CS-STA in the in vivo conditions.
Autors: Jing Liu;Qiong He;Jianwen Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 36, issue:4, pages: 878 - 891
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compressibility-Based Clustering Algorithm for Hierarchical Compressive Data Gathering
Abstract:
Data gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the major sources for power consumption. Compression is often employed to reduce the number of packet transmissions required for data gathering. However, conventional data compression techniques can introduce heavy in-node computation, and thus, the use of compressive sensing (CS) for WSN data gathering has recently attracted growing attention. Among existing CS-based data gathering approaches, hierarchical compressive data gathering (HCDG) methods currently offer the most transmission-efficient architectures. When employing HCDG, clustering algorithms can affect the number of data transmissions. Most existing HCDG works use the random clustering (RC) method as a clustering algorithm, which can produce significant number of transmissions in some cases. In this paper, we present a compressibility-based clustering algorithm (CBCA) for HCDG. In CBCA, the network topology is first converted into a logical chain, similar to the idea proposed in PEGASIS [1], and then the spatial correlation of the cluster nodes’ readings are employed for CS. We show that CBCA requires significantly less data transmission than the RC method with a little recovery accuracy loss. We also identify optimal parameters of CBCA via mathematical analysis and validate them by simulation. Finally, we used water level data collected from a real-world flood inundation monitoring system to drive our simulation experiments and showed the effectiveness of CBCA.
Autors: Kun-Chan Lan;Ming-Zhi Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 17, issue:8, pages: 2550 - 2562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Constrained Dual Kalman Filter Based on pdf Truncation for Estimation of Vehicle Parameters and Road Bank Angle: Analysis and Experimental Validation
Abstract:
Vehicles today are equipped with control systems that improve their handling and stability. Knowledge of road bank angle and vehicle parameters is crucial for good behavior in this type of control. This paper develops a new method for estimating different states, such as vehicle roll angle, road bank angle, and vehicle parameters. This method combines a dual Kalman filter with a probability density function truncation method to consider the parameter physical limitations. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and demonstrate that the incorporation of parameter constraints improves its estimation accuracy. The proposed method provides an estimation of the parameters and the states' physical meaning and the stable values within the real boundary limits in contrast to other estimation methods.
Autors: Beatriz L. Boada;Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo;Maria Jesus L. Boada;Vicente Diaz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1006 - 1016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Contrarian History of Early Electric Power Distribution [Scanning Our Past]
Abstract:
A 1922 article in Electrical World designated Edison as the father of the central station industry [1]. Edison’s invention of practical incandescent electric lighting in 1879 was the driving force for the success of Edison’s commercial low-voltage short-range direct current (dc) transmission systems in the United States and elsewhere, beginning in 1882. However, in 1886, high-voltage long-range alternating current (ac) transmission systems of Ganz & Co. of Budapest began to compete with Edison’s dc systems in Europe, and ac systems of the Westinghouse Electric Co. began to compete with Edison’s dc systems in the United States. Edison reacted by reaching into the toolbox of politicians.
Autors: Adam Allerhand;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 105, issue:4, pages: 768 - 778
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Conversation with Your Future Self [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Lanny Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Convex Sum-of-Squares Approach to Analysis, State Feedback and Output Feedback Control of Parabolic PDEs
Abstract:
We present an optimization-based framework for analysis and control of linear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) with spatially varying coefficients without discretization or numerical approximation. For controller synthesis, we consider both full-state feedback and point observation (output feedback). The input occurs at the boundary (point actuation). We use positive-definite matrices to parameterize positive Lyapunov functions and polynomials to parameterize controller and observer gains. We use duality and an invertible state variable transformation to convexify the controller synthesis problem. Finally, we combine our synthesis condition with the Luenberger observer framework to express the output feedback controller synthesis problem as a set of LMI/SDP constraints. We perform an extensive set of numerical experiments to demonstrate the accuracy of the conditions and to prove the necessity of the Lyapunov structures chosen. We provide numerical and analytical comparisons with alternative approaches to control, including Sturm–Liouville theory and backstepping. Finally, we use numerical tests to show that the method retains its accuracy for alternative boundary conditions.
Autors: Aditya Gahlawat;Matthew M. Peet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1636 - 1651
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cooperative MIMO Radar Network Using Highly Integrated FMCW Radar Sensors
Abstract:
In this paper, an incoherent radar network based on integrated radar sensors is presented. It consists of radar sensor nodes with independently generated frequency-modulated continuous wave-modulated transmit signals, performing both monostatic and bistatic distance measurements. An architecture to operate such a cooperative bistatic network is introduced and an optimal parameterization of the system is presented. Several nonidealities of frequency synthesizers, that are important for such cooperative radar networks, are discussed and their influence on system performance is evaluated. A prototype of the cooperative bistatic network has been realized using highly integrated radar sensors at 122 GHz. Radar measurements using the prototype prove the feasibility and potential of the network approach. The complete signal processing chain is presented, including an adapted multilateration algorithm for target position estimation using all measured distances.
Autors: Andreas Frischen;Jürgen Hasch;Christian Waldschmidt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1355 - 1366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Industrial Monitoring
Abstract:
Industrial wireless sensor networks are getting popular for indoor monitoring of heavy machinery and large factories to make a reliable decision on the state of machines in a certain area of interest. However, the indoor wireless communication channel is not always reliable, and observations of some sensors cannot be reported successfully to the base station. In order to deal with this problem, we propose a cooperative WSN scheme by introducing a novel cooperation mechanism and a medium access control protocol. The proposed scheme effectively increases the probability of correct decision about the state of the machine, reduces the probability of false alarms at a given signal level, and reduces the overall energy consumption as compared to noncooperative schemes. We also present a closed-form expression for the symbol-error rate analysis of the proposed scheme, which shows that our proposed scheme achieves full diversity order offered by the cooperation scheme.
Autors: Zafar Iqbal;Kiseon Kim;Heung-No Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 482 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Correction to “Some Gabidulin Codes Cannot be List Decoded Efficiently at any Radius”
Abstract:
There is an error in the above titled paper [1]. As a result, the main statement of the paper is true for a subset of the Gabidulin codes for which it was initially stated. To be precise, our results on the list decodability still hold for the same parameters of and , but the evaluation points have to be of a certain structure.
Autors: Netanel Raviv;Antonia Wachter-Zeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 2623 - 2624
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Customized Evolutionary Algorithm for Multiobjective Management of Residential Energy Resources
Abstract:
Dynamic tariffs are expected to become a relevant pricing scheme in the context of smart grids. In this framework, active management of residential loads can play an important role to optimize the usage of end-use energy resources while minimizing energy cost. This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to optimize the integrated usage of multiple residential energy resources (local generation, shiftable loads, thermostatically controlled loads, and storage systems) considering a large set of management strategies. Customized solution encoding and operators are developed for different groups of loads. The multiobjective model considers as objective functions the minimization of the energy cost and the minimization of end-user's dissatisfaction associated with management strategies. Results have shown that significant savings can be achieved mainly through demand response actions implemented over thermostatically controlled loads. Savings are also dependent on the end-user's preferences and degree of willingness to accept automated control.
Autors: Ana Soares;Álvaro Gomes;Carlos Henggeler Antunes;Carlos Oliveira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 492 - 501
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DC Bus Voltage Balancing Technique for the Cascaded H-Bridge STATCOM With Improved Reliability Under Grid Faults
Abstract:
As more distributed renewable energy sources are installed in the utility grid, the static synchronous compensators are applied to manage the power factor and the grid voltage in the medium-voltage level of the power system. The cascaded multilevel converter with single-star topology is well applied to this application. The dc-capacitor voltage balancing control is a fundamental issue, and it can be accomplished by negative-sequence current and/or zero sequence voltage injection. Unfortunately, the zero sequence voltage injection increases the risk of over-modulation and the negative-sequence current injection results in high peak current. This paper provides the voltage balancing strategy to manage the peak current or the modulation index. Besides, all the asymmetrical grid voltages are considered in the proposed method to satisfy the grid fault operation. Laboratory test results verify that the proposed method limits the peak current or manages the modulation index during the grid fault operations.
Autors: Hsin-Chih Chen;Po-Tai Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1263 - 1270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DC-to-8.5 GHz 32 : 1 Analog Multiplexer for On-Chip Continuous-Time Probing of Single-Event Transients in a 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A multiplexer circuit that is capable of accessing 32 internal nodes for the continuous-time probing of signal waveforms is proposed. A chip has been fabricated with eight multiplexer instances and used in experiments for monitoring radiation-induced single-event transients in digital circuits. Pulses with a width of less than 100 ps and pulses over 1 V in height were observed for 230-MeV particle hits. Measurements show 8.5 GHz, −3-dB bandwidth, and a 1.92% total harmonic distortion for a 1-V input range, and a 6.58% total harmonic distortion for a 2-V input range. The measured dynamic range is nominally 26.5 dB.
Autors: Mladen Mitrović;Michael Hofbauer;Bernhard Goll;Kerstin Schneider-Hornstein;Robert Swoboda;Bernhard Steindl;Kay-Obbe Voss;Horst Zimmermann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 377 - 381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DC-to-Three-Phase Boost–Buck Inverter With Stored Energy Modulation and a Tiny DC-Link Capacitor
Abstract:
Three-phase voltage-source inverters typically feature a significant amount of dc energy storage to maintain a stiff dc bus. In these cases, the dc-link capacitor is sized to store enough energy to maintain several tens of cycles of ac output at the rated power. In this paper, we propose to reduce the size of the dc-link capacitor dramatically to store enough energy to provide just one high-frequency switching cycle of the ac output power. The dc bus is no longer stiff, and hence, classical sinusoidal pulse-width modulation cannot be used. However, the stored energy modulation (SEM) proposed herein synthesizes high-quality sinusoidal output voltage waveforms, even with such tiny dc-link capacitors. In SEM, the switching intervals of the interconnecting switches are carefully determined nonlinear functions of various operating parameters such as reactive component sizing, switching frequency, load levels, etc. This paper presents the analytical and detailed design development of the SEM approach along with circuit simulation, experimental results, and comparative evaluation of a dc-to-three-phase system example.
Autors: Mahima Gupta;Giri Venkataramanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1280 - 1288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decentralized Model Predictive Control for Operation of Multiple Distributed Generators in an Islanded Mode
Abstract:
The increasing penetration of distributed and renewable generation presents power systems with a challenge of accommodating multiple inverter-based generators. Distributed generators (DGs), capable of operating in the islanded mode, are often installed in microgrids. However, a control system for operating multiple DGs in the islanded mode using voltage-sourced converters is a real challenge under uncertainties in load parameters, unbalanced phase conditions, and transients. This paper proposes a novel approach to decentralized control of multiple DGs. This approach is based on a combination of a voltage controller using model predictive control and a fast current controller using a discrete-time sliding-mode controller for limiting the inverter currents under overload conditions. Performance of the proposed control system is compared with a robust servomechanism program controller. The proposed control strategy provides fast tracking, robustness, and fast transient recovery in voltage and current under: 1) short-circuit conditions; 2) load transients; and 3) unbalanced loads. Various scenarios including reference signal tracking and robustness against the load perturbations are considered. Results are presented and discussed.
Autors: Ahmad Tavakoli;Michael Negnevitsky;Kashem M. Muttaqi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1466 - 1475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decision Support System for Cooperative Logistics
Abstract:
This paper specifies a cloud-based cooperative decision support system (DSS) that aims at integrating logistics management and decision support strategies for intermodal transportation systems. The proposed DSS is dedicated to synchronize different transportation means by using the modern information and communications technology tools and by taking into account environmental aspects. This paper describes the DSS cloud-based architecture and presents the procedure to be followed in order to design a DSS able to support decision makers in different logistic decision fields. The advantages of the proposed DSS are enlightened by specifying three main decision modules: cargo transport optimization, intelligent truck parking, and CO2 monitoring. Moreover, the applicability of the proposed DSS is described by specifying a DSS for the case study of the logistic network of the Trieste port (Italy), including the port, the inland terminal, and the highway connecting them. Some simulation campaigns are employed both to set the decision modules and evaluate the DSS application benefits.
Autors: Maria Pia Fanti;Giorgio Iacobellis;Massimiliano Nolich;Andrea Rusich;Walter Ukovich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 732 - 744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deployable High-Gain Antenna Bound for Mars: Developing a new folded-panel reflectarray for the first CubeSat mission to Mars.
Abstract:
This article describes the development of a deployable high-gain antenna (HGA) for the proposed Mars Cube One (MarCO) CubeSat mission to Mars. The antenna is a new folded-panel reflectarray (FPR) designed to fit on a 6U (10 ? 20 ? 34 cm<sup>3</sup>) CubeSat bus and support 8.425-GHz Mars-to-Earth telecommunications. The FPR provides a gain of 29.2 dBic with right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). Small stowage volume is a key advantage of the FPR design, as it only consumes ~4% of the usable spacecraft payload volume with a mass of less than 1 kg.
Autors: Richard E. Hodges;Nacer Chahat;Daniel J. Hoppe;Joseph D. Vacchione;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 59, issue:2, pages: 39 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dielectric Low-Perturbation Field Scanner for Multi-Path Environments
Abstract:
Well-established solutions capable of scanning electromagnetic fields in anechoic environments essentially rely on the massive use of absorbers, in order to keep under check energy scattered by the metallic parts of an automatic positioning system. Solutions of this kind are convenient whenever the field to scan is the result of line-of-sight (LOS) propagation. In complex media, where multipath propagation imply non-LOS contributions, the introduction of absorbing materials can irremediably alter the behavior of the medium under test and therefore the field to be scanned. In this case, a field scanner rather needs to be as transparent as possible. This paper introduces the main ideas behind an alternative automatic positioning system designed in order to ensure a low perturbation of the response of a medium. The impact of the scanner is assessed when used in a reverberation chamber with a varying degree of reverberation, in order to emulate the conditions found in realistic complex media. Expected applications are mainly found in sounding propagation in complex media.
Autors: Andrea Cozza;Francesco Masciovecchio;Cécile Dorgan;Mohamed Serhir;Florian Monsef;Dominique Lecointe;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1978 - 1987
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differential-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna With Bandwidth Enhancement Under Operation of TM10 and TM30 Modes
Abstract:
A differential-fed microstrip patch antenna (MPA) with bandwidth enhancement is proposed under the operation of TM10 and TM30 resonant modes in a single patch resonator. Initially, a rectangular differential-fed MPA is theoretically investigated so as to demonstrate that all of the undesired modes between the TM10 and TM30 modes are suppressed or removed out effectively. Then, by symmetrically introducing two pairs of shorting pins, the resonant frequency of TM10 mode is progressively turned up. After that, with the help of two long slots, the resonant frequency of TM30 mode is decreased with slight effect on that of TM10 mode. Furthermore, a short slot is inserted at the center of the patch to cancel the parasitic inductances of the shorting pins and probe feeds. With this arrangement, these two radiative resonant modes are moved in proximity to each other for wideband antenna. Finally, the proposed differential-fed MPA is fabricated and measured. Experimental results illustrate that the impedance bandwidth ( dB) of the antenna has gained a tremendous increment up to about 13% (1.88–2.14 GHz), while keeping a low profile property with the height of 0.029 free-space wavelength. Additionally, the antenna has achieved a stable gain varied from 5.8 to 7 dBi over the operating band.
Autors: Neng-Wu Liu;Lei Zhu;Wai-Wa Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 1607 - 1614
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital Method of Power-Sharing and Cross-Regulation Suppression for Single-Inductor Multiple-Input Multiple-Output DC–DC Converter
Abstract:
This paper presents a digital method to regulate the single-inductor multiple-input multiple-output (SI-MIMO) dc-dc converter, which can integrate renewable sources and loads as the hybrid renewable energy system with less components. The digital method is able to achieve power-sharing and cross-regulation suppression, and it is named as PS-CRS. PS-CRS is based on model predictive control, power sharing, and time multiplexing. A power-sharing controller is developed to regulate the power from multiple power sources. A cross-regulation-suppression controller is designed to control the output voltages independently with reduced cross regulation, which is the critical issue of the single-inductor multiple-output dc-dc converter. Experimental prototype of a single-inductor dual-input dual-output buck converter is built for verification. The steady-state operation and dynamic performance cases are studied. The results demonstrate that PS-CRS is able to regulate the SI-MIMO dc-dc converter effectively and robustly.
Autors: Benfei Wang;Liang Xian;Venkata Ravi Kishore Kanamarlapudi;King Jet Tseng;Abhisek Ukil;Hoay Beng Gooi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 2836 - 2847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Green Networking Approach for Data Center Networks
Abstract:
Green networking for data center network is becoming a critical issue due to the rapid growth of energy consumption. Most of existing green networking approaches are in a centralized-control manner, which have a scalability issue. Existing distributed approaches are scalable, but consume too much network resource, including computing and network bandwidth. In this letter, we propose a distributed green networking approach for data center network, called distributed green networking approach (DGNA). In our approach, we propose an energy-efficient flow scheduling mechanism, which requires less computing and much less network bandwidth compared with traditional approaches. In DGNA, two shut-off algorithms are proposed to shut-off links with different efficiency and complexity. Simulation shows that DGNA sends less than 0.9% of link state advertisements compared with a traditional approach.
Autors: Qin-Liang Lin;Shun-Zheng Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 21, issue:4, pages: 797 - 800
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Driver State Detection System—Combining a Capacitive Hand Detection Sensor With Physiological Sensors
Abstract:
With respect to automotive safety, the driver plays a crucial role. Stress level, tiredness, and distraction of the driver are therefore of high interest. In this paper, a driver state detection system based on cellular neural networks (CNNs) to monitor the driver's stress level is presented. We propose to include a capacitive-based wireless hand detection (position and touch) sensor for a steering wheel utilizing ink-jet printed sensor mats as an input sensor in order to improve the performance. A driving simulator platform providing a realistic virtual traffic environment is utilized to conduct a study with 22 participants for the evaluation of the proposed system. Each participant is driving in two different scenarios, each representing one of the two no-stress/stress driver states. A “threefold” cross validation is applied to evaluate our concept. The subject dependence is considered carefully by separating the training and testing data. Furthermore, the CNN approach is benchmarked against other state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The results show a significant improvement combining sensor inputs from different driver inherent domains, giving a total related detection accuracy of 92%. Besides that, this paper shows that in case of including the capacitive hand detection sensor, the accuracy increases by 10%. These findings indicate that adding a subject-independent sensor, such as the proposed capacitive hand detection sensor, can significantly improve the detection performance.
Autors: Stephan Mühlbacher-Karrer;Ahmad Haj Mosa;Lisa-Marie Faller;Mouhannad Ali;Raiyan Hamid;Hubert Zangl;Kyandoghere Kyamakya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 66, issue:4, pages: 624 - 636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Rate Selection Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 Industrial Wireless LAN
Abstract:
The multirate support feature has been introduced by the IEEE 802.11 standard to improve the system performance, and has been widely exploited by means of rate adaptation (RA) strategies within general purpose wireless LANs. These strategies revealed ineffective for real-time industrial communications, and alternative solutions, better tailored for such a specific field of application, were investigated. The preliminary outcomes of the analyses carried out were promising, even if they clearly indicated that further efforts were necessary. In this direction, this paper first proposes rate selection for industrial networks (RSIN), an innovative RA algorithm specifically conceived for the real-time industrial scenario with the goal of minimizing the transmission error probability, while taking into account the deadline imposed to packet delivery. Then, it describes the practical implementation of RSIN on commercial devices, along with that of other formerly introduced RA techniques. Finally, the paper presents a thorough performance analysis, carried out to investigate the behavior of the addressed RA schemes. Such an assessment was performed via both experimental campaigns and simulations. The obtained results, on one hand, confirm the effectiveness of the RA techniques purposely designed for real-time industrial communication. On the other hand, they clearly indicate that RSIN outperforms all the other strategies.
Autors: Federico Tramarin;Stefano Vitturi;Michele Luvisotto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Apr 2017, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 846 - 855
Publisher: IEEE
 

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