Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Gain-Scheduling Approach to Nonfragile $H_{infty }$ Fuzzy Control Subject to Fading Channels
Abstract:
This paper deals with the nonfragile control problem for a class of discrete-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with both randomly occurring gain variations (ROGVs) and channel fadings. The system measurement is subject to fading channels described by Rice fading model where the channel coefficients are random variables taking values within given intervals. The gain matrices of the output feedback controllers are subject to random fluctuations referred to as the ROGVs. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a parameter-dependent nonfragile output-feedback controller such that, in the presence of both ROGVs and channel fadings, the closed-loop system is exponentially mean-square stable while achieving the guaranteed disturbance attenuation level. A gain-scheduling approach is developed to tackle the addressed problem where the designed controller gains are dependent on certain parameters of practical significance (e.g., packet dropout rate). Through stochastic analysis and Lyapunov functional approach, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of the desired output feedback controller ensuring both the exponential mean-square stability and the prescribed performance. The explicit expression of the feedback controller is also characterized by using a semidefinite programming method. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method.
Autors: Sunjie Zhang;Zidong Wang;Derui Ding;Guoliang Wei;Fuad E. Alsaadi;Tasawar Hayat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 142 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gap Analysis Methodology for Product Lifecycle Management Assessment
Abstract:
Product lifecycle management (PLM) is a strategic and holistic approach for the management of information, processes, and resources supporting the entire product lifecycle from concept to disposal. Several systems are available to manage data and information during the lifecycle. A PLM system does not have to be considered as a unique solution, but as a set of software supporting different perspectives and activities related to the lifecycle management. A full comprehensive implementation of PLM systems is rare. Since PLM reflects the peculiarities of processes and data structures, implementation differences are evidently observable among companies. The design of methods and tools supporting an assessment of PLM implementation inside a company can enable a correct definition of PLM strategies and goals. Based on these premises, the paper aims to specify a methodology for carrying out a gap analysis of PLM with the scope of discovering existing technological and methodological gaps, and planning actions for improvement. The proposed methodology implements a visual and lean reference model, and an assessment questionnaire for data collection. Lesson learned and feedback from three industrial applications are also described and discussed.
Autors: Manuela Marra;Carla Di Biccari;Mariangela Lazoi;Angelo Corallo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 155 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Approach Toward Green Resource Allocation in Relay-Assisted Multiuser Communication Networks
Abstract:
The rapid growth of energy consumption due to the strong demands of wireless multimedia services, has become a major concern from the environmental perspective. In this paper, we investigate a novel energy-efficient resource allocation scheme for relay-assisted multiuser networks to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the network by jointly optimizing the subcarrier pairing permutation formed in one-to-many/many-to-one manner, subcarrier allocation, as well as the power allocation altogether. By analyzing the properties of the complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is generally very difficult to solve in its original form, we transform the problem into an equivalent convex problem by relaxing the integer variables using the concept of subcarrier time sharing, and by applying a successive convex approximation approach. Based on the dual decomposition method, we derive an optimal solution to the joint optimization problem. The impact of different network parameters, namely number of subcarriers and number of users, on the attainable EE and spectral efficiency (SE) performance of the proposed design framework is also investigated. The numerical results are provided to validate the theoretical findings and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for achieving higher EE and SE than the existing schemes.
Autors: Keshav Singh;Ankit Gupta;Tharmalingam Ratnarajah;Meng-Lin Ku;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 848 - 862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized and Flexible Control Scheme for Photovoltaic Grid-Tie Microinverters
Abstract:
In this paper, design and implementation of a flyback photovoltaic (PV) microinverter based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS) technique has been described for both the standalone and the grid-connected operation. The DDS technique adopted provides flexibility in the implementation of various control schemes of the PV microinverter on a simple low-cost digital signal processing type of microprocessor (dsPIC). As compared with the conventional look-up-table method used for generating sinusoidal output voltage waveforms by digital signal processing, a much higher resolution can be obtained in the voltage phase angle and magnitude owing to the adaptive nature of the look-up table implemented within the DDS architecture. The DDS technique is used in the implementation of all control schemes of a PV microinverter, such as maximum power point tracking (MPPT), phase-locked-loop (PLL), anti-islanding, and low-voltage ride-though (LVRT), with an integrated software run on a simple microcontroller. A dedicated computer simulation model is developed, where the PV panel model, the PLL in DQ reference frame, the MPPT algorithm, and the anti-islanding and LVRT features are all taken into account. The experimental results obtained on a 120-W PV flyback microinverter have verified the validity of the proposed technique for both the steady-state and the transient-state operation. The DDS technique is thus found to be quite convenient for application to module integrated converters.
Autors: Serkan Öztürk;Işık Çadırcı;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 505 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Genetic Algorithm-Based Heuristic Method for Test Set Generation in Reversible Circuits
Abstract:
Low power circuit design has been one of the major growing concerns in integrated circuit technology. Reversible circuit (RC) design is a promising future domain in computing which provides the benefit of less computational power. With the increase in the number of gates and input variables, the circuits become complex and the need for fault testing becomes crucial in ensuring high reliability of their operation. Various fault detection methods based on exhaustive test vector search approaches have been proposed in the literature. With increase in circuit complexity, a faster test generation method for providing optimal coverage becomes desirable. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based heuristic test set generation method for fault detection in RCs is proposed which avoids the need for an exhaustive search. Two approaches, one involving random search and the other, involving directed search have been proposed and validated on benchmark circuits considering missing-gate fault (complete and partial), bridging fault and stuck-at fault with optimum coverage and reduced computational efforts.
Autors: A. N. Nagamani;S. N. Anuktha;N. Nanditha;Vinod Kumar Agrawal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 324 - 336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gradient Grating Period Guided-Mode Resonance Spectrometer
Abstract:
This paper reports a compact spectrometer based on a guided-mode resonance (GMR) filter mounted on a linear charge-coupled device (CCD). The GMR is specially designed to exhibit gradient grating periods (GPPs) laterally to ensure that the GMR functions as a linear-variable bandstop filter. Each period corresponds to a resonant wavelength such that this wavelength is reflected back at its corresponding resonant period and transmitted to all other periods. Consequently, when a resonant wavelength is incident on the GGP-GMR attached to a linear CCD, the CCD pixel underneath its resonant period receives the minimum intensity, and the other pixels receive higher intensities. In terms of the wavelength range of interest, by scanning a single wavelength at a time, a transmission efficiency matrix that contains the transmission efficiency of each wavelength at each pixel can be established. An unknown incident spectrum can be reconstructed using the established transmission efficiency matrix and the intensity measured using the CCD. In this study, a GGP-GMR spectrometer less than 3 mm long that can achieve a wavelength detection range of 200 nm was demonstrated to reconstruct various incident spectra, including a single wavelength of light with a resolution of 0.5 nm, a single wavelength of light with varying intensity levels, and dual incident light sources.
Autors: Hsin-Yun Hsu;Yi-Hsuan Lan;Cheng-Sheng Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graph Cut Approach to Artery/Vein Classification in Ultra-Widefield Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy
Abstract:
The classification of blood vessels into arterioles and venules is a fundamental step in the automatic investigation of retinal biomarkers for systemic diseases. In this paper, we present a novel technique for vessel classification on ultra-wide-field-of-view images of the retinal fundus acquired with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a fully automated artery/vein classification technique for this type of retinal imaging with no manual intervention has been presented. The proposed method exploits hand-crafted features based on local vessel intensity and vascular morphology to formulate a graph representation from which a globally optimal separation between the arterial and venular networks is computed by graph cut approach. The technique was tested on three different data sets (one publicly available and two local) and achieved an average classification accuracy of 0.883 in the largest data set.
Autors: Enrico Pellegrini;Gavin Robertson;Tom MacGillivray;Jano van Hemert;Graeme Houston;Emanuele Trucco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 516 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graphical Approach to Incident Energy Analysis
Abstract:
The goal of an incident energy analysis is to determine the largest incident energy that a worker could be exposed to at a piece of electrical equipment. This is most commonly done using the IEEE 1584 method. It is a common observation when performing this analysis that minor variations in fault current can result in large changes in a protective device's operating time and the resulting incident energy. This would not be a problem if it was possible to remove all errors from the bolted fault calculation and the arcing fault calculation. Unfortunately, the arcing fault current calculation has some margin of error and the data used in arc flash models are often estimated. A graphical approach to determining the incident energy circumvents these problems and ensures that the worst-case incident energy is determined. This graphical approach is derived from graphs of incident energy based on protective device time–current curves. An examination of the resultant graphs reveals a few maximums in the incident energy curve. These maximums are caused by the protective devices curve, the minimum and maximum arcing fault currents, and any time limitations that are applied. As a result, the locations of these maximums are easily predicted allowing the maximum incident energy to be determined by performing the IEEE 1584 calculation at a few key current values.
Autors: Rick Lutz;Maximilian Charbonneau;Michael Garcia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 815 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Graphical Model of Smoking-Induced Global Instability in Lung Cancer
Abstract:
Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The most current view about lung cancer is no longer limited to individual genes being mutated by any carcinogenic insults from smoking. Instead, tumorigenesis is a phenotype conferred by many systematic and global alterations, leading to extensive heterogeneity and variation for both the genotypes and phenotypes of individual cancer cells. Thus, strategically it is foremost important to develop a methodology to capture any consistent and global alterations presumably shared by most of the cancerous cells for a given population. This is particularly true that almost all of the data collected from solid cancers (including lung cancers) are usually distant apart over a large span of temporal or even spatial contexts. Here, we report a multiple non-Gaussian graphical model to reconstruct the gene interaction network using two previously published gene expression datasets. Our graphical model aims to selectively detect gross structural changes at the level of gene interaction networks. Our methodology is extensively validated, demonstrating good robustness, as well as the selectivity and specificity expected based on our biological insights. In summary, gene regulatory networks are still relatively stable during presumably the early stage of neoplastic transformation. But drastic structural differences can be found between lung cancer and its normal control, including the gain of functional modules for cellular proliferations such as EGFR and PDGFRA, as well as the lost of the important IL6 module, supporting their roles as potential drug targets. Interestingly, our method can also detect early modular changes, with the ALDH3A1 and its associated interactions being strongly implicated as a potential early marker, whose activations appear to alter LCN2 module as well as its interactions with the important TP53-MDM2 circuitry. Our strategy using the graphical model to re- onstruct gene interaction work with biologically-inspired constraints exemplifies the importance and beauty of biology in developing any bio-computational approach.
Autors: Yanbo Wang;Weikang Qian;Bo Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Sensitivity Strain Sensor Based on the Zero-Group-Birefringence Effect in a Selective-Filling High Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber
Abstract:
A selective-filling high birefringent photonic crystal fiber (SF-HBPCF) based Sagnac interferometer (SI) was demonstrated. The SF-HBPCF was achieved by infiltrating a high index liquid into two symmetrical air holes of the innermost layer of an index-guiding un-birefringent PCF. The birefringence characteristics of the SF-HBPCF and the strain sensing characteristics of the SF-HBPCF based SI were theoretically analyzed in detail. The group birefringence presented unique characteristics, and particularly possessed a zero value at a certain wavelength. This directly resulted in the strain sensitivities having ultrahigh even infinite value at the certain wavelength. Besides, with the change of the loaded strain, the sensitivities of the interference dips presented disparate variation trend. In experiments, the results were well matched with theoretical simulation. And the strain sensitivities from 25 pm/με to 12 pm/με were achieved from 61 με to 789 με in the type of the SF-HBPCF.
Autors: Tingting Han;Yan-ge Liu;Zhi Wang;Junqi Guo;Jie Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Step-Down Dual Output Nonisolated DC/DC Converter With Decoupled Control
Abstract:
This paper presents a dc/dc buck–boost converter topology with high-voltage gain and dual outputs. Unlike many of the high step-down/step-up dc/dc converters, this topology uses a relatively ower number of LC components and three active semiconductor devices switched in a nonoverlapping way. Due to the duty cycle limitation, high gain (typically more than 4) is very difficult to achieve in a single-stage regular buck–boost dc/dc converter. In the proposed converter, the overall gains at both the output ports are nonlinear functions of duty-cycles of the power devices, which help achieve an overall step-down/step-up gain of 10–15. An experimental prototype converting 48 V dc to ±5 V dc at 100 W with closed loop control is developed in order to verify the operation and effectiveness of the proposed converter structure. An output voltage ripple of ±1% and a conversion efficiency of 94% are achieved according to the experimental results.
Autors: Ayan Mallik;Alireza Khaligh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 722 - 731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Broadband Omnidirectional UHF Patch Antenna Applying Surface Plasmon Polaritons for Handheld Terminals
Abstract:
In this letter, a high-efficiency broadband omnidirectional UHF patch antenna applying surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) for handheld terminals is proposed. Corrugated metallic strip is used to work as SPPs to efficiently forward transmit electromagnetic wave for better power flow distribution on the surface of the SPPs strip. A loading spilt SPPs ring wrapping the spiral lines and patch is introduced, which compensates the phase and changes the power flowing direction for bettering its omnidirectional performance. A prototype is fabricated and tested. The measured results show a good omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-plane and 84°–112.5° of a 3 dB beamwidth in the E-plane. Its available impedance bandwidth (|| < –10 dB) is about 10% ranging from 302 to 335 MHz. The realized gain over this bandwidth ranges from 0.9 to 1.76 dBi, and the simulated results show that its radiation efficiency is greater than 90%; the peak value can reach 98.7%. The overall size of this antenna is 230 mm × 65 mm × 1 mm (0.23 × 0.065 × 0.001 ) at 302 MHz. This high-efficiency antenna with balanced broad band, high gain, wide beam, and miniaturization can be easily applied to UHF band mobile termi- als.
Autors: Dong Wang;Junping Geng;Kun Wang;Han Zhou;Jianping Li;Xianling Liang;Weiren Zhu;Ronghong Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 283 - 286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency GaN Doherty Power Amplifier With Blended Class-EF Mode and Load-Pull Technique
Abstract:
This brief presents a new Doherty power amplifier (DPA) configuration that employs high-efficiency switched-mode Class EF as its main and auxiliary cells. A blended approach is proposed to design the load network of the PA cells, in which the fundamental-frequency load impedance is obtained through load-pull analysis whereas the harmonic load impedances are set according to the Class-EF requirements. Realized using GaN HEMTs, the DPA prototype exhibits a drain efficiency (DE) of 81% at 45-dBm peak power and 68% at 6-dB back-off power, i.e., when excited using a 2.4 GHz continuous-wave signal. The proposed DPA has a 3-dB bandwidth of nearly 300 MHz within which the DE can be maintained above 68.5%. Using 16-QAM signal with 5-MHz bandwidth and 6-dB peak-to-average power ratio, the DPA shows a DE of 69.7% and an ACLR1 of −26.6 dBc at an average output power of 39.2 dBm.
Autors: Ayman Barakat;Mury Thian;Vincent Fusco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 151 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Frequency Three-Level Buck Converter With Real-Time Calibration and Wide Output Range for Fast-DVS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 50-MHz 5-V-input 3-W-output three-level buck converter. A real-time flying capacitor () calibration is proposed to ensure a constant voltage of /2 across , which is highly dependent on various practical conditions, such as parasitic capacitance, time mismatches, or any loading circuits from . The calibration is essential to ensure the reliability and minimize the inductor current and output voltage ripple, thus maintaining the advantages of the three-level operation and further extending the system bandwidth without encountering sub-harmonic oscillation. The converter is fabricated in a UMC 65-nm process using standard 2.5-V I/O devices, and is able to handle a 5-V input voltage and provide a 0.6–4.2-V-wide output range. In the measurement, the voltage across is always calibrated to /2 under various conditions to release the voltage stress on the high- and low-side power transistors and , and to ensure reliability with up to 69% output voltage ripple reduction. A 90% peak efficiency and a 23–29-ns/V reference-tracking response are also observed.
Autors: Xun Liu;Cheng Huang;Philip K. T. Mok;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 582 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Isolation, Ultra-Wideband Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna With Monopole-Like Radiation Characteristics
Abstract:
A high-isolation, ultra-wideband simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) antenna with monopole-like radiation characteristics is presented. The proposed STAR antenna consists of a center-located monocone and a circular array of bent loops. The monocone and the array of loops are located in the near fields of each other and serve, respectively, as the transmit (TX) and receive (RX) antennas. To achieve omnidirectional, vertically polarized radiation patterns, the array factor of the bent loops is first examined. A circular top loading and four T-shaped parasitic elements are exploited to decrease the lowest frequency of operation of the antenna without increasing its occupied volume. Finally, based upon the analysis of the array factor, four directors are strategically mounted over the ground plane to enhance the omnidirectionality of the antenna in the azimuth plane. A prototype of the antenna operating in the UHF band is fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed STAR antenna achieves an isolation greater than 40 dB from 0.6 to 1.75 GHz (2.9:1 bandwidth). Furthermore, the STAR antenna is capable of maintaining consistent monopole-like radiation patterns and vertical polarization for both the TX and the RX channels across the entire band of operation.
Autors: Ruina Lian;Ting-Yen Shih;Yingzeng Yin;Nader Behdad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1002 - 1007
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Level Design Framework for the Automatic Generation of High-Throughput Systolic Binomial-Tree Solvers
Abstract:
The binomial-tree model is a numerical method widely used in finance with a computational complexity which is quadratic with respect to the solution accuracy. The existing research has employed reconfigurable computing to provide faster solutions compared with general-purpose processors, but they require low-level manual design by a hardware engineer, and can only solve American options. This paper presents a formal mathematical framework that captures a large class of binomial-tree problems, and provides a systolic data-movement template that maps the framework into digital hardware. This paper also presents a fully automated design flow, which takes C-level user descriptions of binomial trees, with custom data types and tree operations, and automatically generates fully pipelined reconfigurable hardware solutions in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) bit-stream files. On a Xilinx Virtex-7 xc7vx980t FPGA at a 100-MHz clock frequency, we require 54- latency to solve three 876-step 32-bit fixed-point American option binomial trees, with a pricing rate of 114k trees/s. From the same device and in comparison to the existing solutions with equivalent FPGA technology, we always achieve better throughput. This ranges from throughput compared with a hand-tuned register-transfer level systolic design, to and improvement with respect to scalar and vector architectures, respectively.
Autors: Aryan Tavakkoli;David B. Thomas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 341 - 354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance and Temperature-Insensitive Shape Sensor Based on DPP-BOTDA
Abstract:
Distributed optical fiber strain sensing significantly increases the number of sensing points compared with fiber Bragg grating sensor, which makes it an excellent candidate for shape sensing. Theoretical analysis indicates that the spatial resolution of strain measurement is crucial to the performance of shape sensing, so a shape sensor based on differential pulse-width-pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is proposed to improve the spatial resolution and shape sensing performance. The sensing fiber is attached on the both sides of a steel strip substrate, which enables the measurement of Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) of both the sides to suppress temperature crosstalk. In the experiment, first, the dependence of BFS variation on the curvature of the fiber is measured, the result of which agrees well with theory. Then the reconstruction of three shapes are demonstrated, the spatial resolution of which is 10 cm.
Autors: Dexin Ba;Chen Chen;Cheng Fu;Danyang Zhang;Zhiwei Lu;Zhigang Fan;Yongkang Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance Dual-Mode Filtering Power Divider With Simple Layout
Abstract:
This letter presents a simple microstrip dual-mode filtering power divider (FPD) with sharp frequency selectivity and good in-band isolation. A new topology is proposed to integrate only a single resonator and a resistor to realize the dual functions of the power division and filtering. In order to further improve its frequency selectivity and obtain wide upper stopband, three open-ended stubs are integrated into the input and outputs of the FPD, respectively. The presented FPD stands out from those in the literature, by both improved performance and simple design layout. For validation, a prototype FPD operating at 2.2 GHz with 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 18.2% is designed and fabricated. The experimental results agree well with the simulated ones. The results indicate that the new FPD exhibits better than 32-dB in-band isolation along with 24-dB harmonic suppression up to 6.28 GHz ().
Autors: Gang Zhang;Xuedao Wang;Jia-Sheng Hong;Jiquan Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 120 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance Inverted-C Tunnel Junction FET With Source–Channel Overlap Pockets
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose and simulate a new structure of a line tunnel FET employing gate over source–channel overlap pockets (GO-SCOPs). The SCOPs create vertical tunneling path within the source and the channel extension that lead to a faster thinning of the lateral tunneling barrier between the source and channel regions. As a result, an inverted C-shaped tunnel junction is formed providing both lateral tunneling and vertical tunneling. A calibrated 2-D simulation study shows that an ON-current improvement by one order is achieved in comparison with the gate over source only (GoSo) tunnel field-effect transistors with pockets. Further, the OFF-state leakage and average subthreshold swing are reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, with an improved parasitic capacitance. This has improved the cutoff frequency from 8.3 MHz in GoSo with pockets structure to 1.19 GHz in the proposed GO-SCOP structure. Furthermore, by employing Ge SCOPs, the ON current is boosted by 4 orders of magnitude, maintaining leakage at ~0.25 fA/, giving , and a much improved average subthreshold swing of ~48 mV/dec at V, V.
Autors: Ashita;Sajad A. Loan;Mohammad Rafat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 763 - 768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Highly Sensitive Miniaturized Impedimetric Perchlorate Chemical Sensor
Abstract:
In this paper, we have developed a miniaturized a chemical sensor based on a new nanostructured Co-phthalocyanine (Co(II)Pc-PAA) derivative functionalized Au microelectrodes for perchlorate ClO4 detection. The morphological properties of the sensitive layer have been characterized by contact angle measurement. The response of the obtained sensor-based CoPc/Au microelectrodes has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The experimental impedance data of the sensor device were analyzed by an equivalent electrical circuit using a modified Randles model for better understanding the phenomena present at the sensing membrane/electrolyte interface. Therefore, under optimized working conditions in terms of polarization and frequency, best performances have been achieved when compared with those obtained in the literature for Au electrodes-based devices functionalized with the same molecule. The present chemical sensor has provided a lower detection limit (17.3 pM), the lowest achieved until now to our knowledge, with a larger linear range from 1.73 10−11 to 10−1 M. The selectivity of the sensor has been also studied by evaluating the response towards ClO4 with other interfering anions. The measurement were stable after ten days of the chemical sensor storage at room temperature. This is very promising for environmental application using rapid analyses and low-cost chemical sensors. Perspectives for a potentiometric sensor at higher concentrations were also assessed.
Autors: Najib Ben Messaoud;Abdoullatif Baraket;Cherif Dridi;Naglaa M. Nooredeen;Mohammed Nooredeen Abbas;Abdelhamid Errachid;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1343 - 1350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Human–Humanoid Interaction Through the Use of BCI for Locked-In ALS Patients Using Neuro-Biological Feedback Fusion
Abstract:
This paper illustrates a new architecture for a human–humanoid interaction based on EEG-brain computer interface (EEG-BCI) for patients affected by locked-in syndrome caused by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The proposed architecture is able to recognise users’ mental state accordingly to the biofeedback factor , based on users’ attention, intention, and focus, that is used to elicit a robot to perform customised behaviours. Experiments have been conducted with a population of eight subjects: four ALS patients in a near locked-in status with normal ocular movement and four healthy control subjects enrolled for age, education, and computer expertise. The results showed as three ALS patients have completed the task with 96.67% success; the healthy controls with 100% success; the fourth ALS has been excluded from the results for his low general attention during the task; the analysis of factor highlights as ALS subjects have shown stronger (81.20%) than healthy controls (76.77%). Finally, a post-hoc analysis is provided to show how robotic feedback helps in maintaining focus on expected task. These preliminary data suggest that ALS patients could successfully control a humanoid robot through a BCI architecture, potentially enabling them to conduct some everyday tasks and extend their presence in the environment.
Autors: Rosario Sorbello;Salvatore Tramonte;Marcello Emanuele Giardina;Vincenzo La Bella;Rossella Spataro;Brendan Allison;Christoph Guger;Antonio Chella;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 487 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Method of SAR Speckle Reduction Based on Geometric-Structural Block and Adaptive Neighborhood
Abstract:
Given the improvement of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging technologies, the resolution of SAR image is largely improved and the variation of backscatter amplitude should be considered in SAR image processing. In this paper, considering the spatial geometric properties of SAR image in gray pixel space and the sample selection in the estimation of true signal, local directional property of each pixel is explored with the help of SAR sketching method, and two specially designed filters are integrated for adaptive speckle reduction of SAR images. Specifically, based on the sketch map of a SAR image, the orientation of the sketch point lying at each sketch segment is assigned to the corresponding pixel, and thus all pixels of the SAR image are classified as the directional pixels and the nondirectional pixels. For the directional pixels, given the significant directionality of its neighborhood, a geometric-structural block (GB) is built to center on it and GB-wised nonlocal means filter is designed to estimate the true values of all pixels contained in the GB. Moreover, using the local orientation, the whole image is adopted as the searching range to search the similar GBs. For the nondirectional pixels, based on the locally estimated equivalent number of looks, a novel pixel-based metric is proposed to determine the local adaptive neighborhood (AN) with which an AN-based filter is developed to estimate its true value. Besides, since some nondirectional pixels are contained in GBs, a Bayesian-based fusion strategy is designed for the fusion of their estimated values. In the experiments, three synthetic speckled images and five real SAR images [obtained with different resolutions (e.g., 3, 1, and 0.1 m) and different bands (e.g., X-band, C-band, and Ka-band)] are used for evaluation and analysis. Owing to the usage of local spatial geometric property and the combination of two different filters, the proposed method shows a reas- nable performance among the comparison methods, in terms of the speckle reduction and the details’ preservation.
Autors: Fang Liu;Jie Wu;Lingling Li;Licheng Jiao;Hongxia Hao;Xiangrong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 730 - 748
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Job Sizing Strategy for High-Throughput Scientific Workflows
Abstract:
The user of a computing facility must make a critical decision when submitting jobs for execution: how many resources (such as cores, memory, and disk) should be requested for each job? If the request is too small, the job may fail due to resource exhaustion; if the request is too large, the job may succeed, but resources will be wasted. This decision is especially important when running hundreds of thousands of jobs in a high throughput workflow, which may exhibit complex, long tailed distributions of resource consumption. In this paper, we present a strategy for solving the job sizing problem: (1) applications are monitored and measured in user-space as they run; (2) the resource usage is collected into an online archive; and (3) jobs are automatically sized according to historical data in order to maximize throughput or minimize waste. We evaluate the solution analytically, and present case studies of applying the technique to high throughput physics and bioinformatics workflows consisting of hundreds of thousands of jobs, demonstrating an increase in throughput of 10-400 percent compared to naive approaches.
Autors: Benjamin Tovar;Rafael Ferreira da Silva;Gideon Juve;Ewa Deelman;William Allcock;Douglas Thain;Miron Livny;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 240 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Library for Combinational Circuit Verification Using the HOL Theorem Prover
Abstract:
Interactive theorem provers can overcome the scalability limitations of model checking and automated theorem provers by verifying generic circuits and universally quantified properties but they require explicit user guidance, which makes them quite uninteresting for industry usage. As a first step to overcome these issues, this paper presents a formally verified library of commonly used combinational circuits using the higher-order logic theorem prover HOL4. This library can in turn be used to verify the structural view of any arbitrary combinational circuit against its behavior with very minimal user-guidance. For illustration, we verified several combinational circuits, including a 24-bit adder/subtractor, the 8-bit shifter module of the c3540 benchmark, the 17-bit EqualZ_W module of the c2670 benchmark, a 16:1 Multiplexer, and a 512-bit Multiplier.
Autors: Sumayya Shiraz;Osman Hasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 512 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Lightweight, Wideband, Dual-Circular-Polarized Waveguide Cavity Array Designed With Direct Metal Laser Sintering Considerations
Abstract:
A lightweight, wideband, and dual-circular-polarized (CP) waveguide cavity array operating at Ku-band is proposed. To obtain dual-orthogonal linear polarizations (LPs), the basic radiating element is a square cavity fed by two waveguides. By properly tuning the feed networks, equal amplitude and phase of radiated electric field for two orthogonal polarizations can be obtained, culminating in a dual-LP array. A wideband waveguide-based hybrid coupler is integrated with a dual-LP array to achieve the final dual-CP array. The proposed dual-CP array is fabricated by applying the direct metal laser sintering method. Its overall size is 288 mm mm mm, and it has weighted slightly less than 1.3 kg. The measured results show that for both the CP ports, the array has exhibited desirable bandwidth of 12.25–14.5 GHz (at VSWR <2), and its isolation is better than 15 dB. The measured gain ranges from 29.5 to 32.4 dBic, while the axial ratio is better than 4.5 dB over the entire band. A total efficiency of over 60% can be obtained for both the LHCP and RHCP radiations.
Autors: Shi-Gang Zhou;Guan-Long Huang;Tan-Huat Chio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 675 - 682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Linear Differential Transimpedance Amplifier for 100-Gb/s Integrated Coherent Optical Fiber Receivers
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and measurements of a 32-Gb/s differential-input differential-output transimpedance amplifier (TIA) employed in dual polarization integrated coherent receivers for 100-Gb Ethernet. A circuit technique is shown that uses a replica TIA to stabilize the operating point of the two shunt-feedback input stages as well as to cancel the dc part of the two complementary input currents and balances their offset. The TIA can be operated in two modes, an automatic gain control mode to retain a good total harmonic distortion (THD) over a wide dynamic range and a manual gain control mode. Electrical as well as optical-electrical characterization of the TIA are presented. It achieves a maximum differential transimpedance of 74 dB, 33 GHz of 3-dB bandwidth, 12.2 pA/ of average input-referred noise current density with the photodiode, 900 mVpp of maximum differential output swing, less than 1% of THD for 600 mVpp differential output swing, and 500 differential input current. The linearity of the TIA is furthermore demonstrated with PAM4 measurements at 25 Gbaud. The dual TIA chip is fabricated in a 0.13- SiGe:C BiCMOS technology, dissipates 436 mW of power and occupies 2 mm2 of area.
Autors: Ahmed Awny;Rajasekhar Nagulapalli;Marcel Kroh;Jan Hoffmann;Patrick Runge;Daniel Micusik;Gunter Fischer;Ahmet Cagri Ulusoy;Minsu Ko;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 973 - 986
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Locally Active Memristor and Its Application in a Chaotic Circuit
Abstract:
In this brief, we propose a novel locally active memristor based on a voltage-controlled generic memristor model and use the analysis methods of standard nonlinear theory to analyze its characteristics and illustrate the concept of local activity via the dc v-i loci of memristor and non-volatile memory via the power-off plot of memristor. A chaotic attractor is observed with a simple nonlinear circuit that only includes three circuit elements in parallel: 1) a nonlinear locally active memristor; 2) a linear passive inductor; and 3) a linear passive capacitor. Then, we analyze the dynamical characteristics of the above circuit and show complex bifurcation behaviors.
Autors: Peipei Jin;Guangyi Wang;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;Tyrone Fernando;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 246 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Location-Query-Browse Graph for Contextual Recommendation
Abstract:
Traditionally, recommender systems modelled the physical and cyber contextual influence on people’s moving, querying, and browsing behaviors in isolation. Yet, searching, querying, and moving behaviors are intricately linked, especially indoors. Here, we introduce a tripartite location-query-browse graph (LQB) for nuanced contextual recommendations. The LQB graph consists of three kinds of nodes: locations, queries, and Web domains. Directed connections only between heterogeneous nodes represent the contextual influences, while connections of homogeneous nodes are inferred from the contextual influences of the other nodes. This tripartite LQB graph is more reliable than any monopartite or bipartite graph in contextual location, query, and Web content recommendations. We validate this LQB graph in an indoor retail scenario with extensive dataset of three logs collected from over 120,000 anonymized, opt-in users over a 1-year period in a large inner-city mall in Sydney, Australia. We characterize the contextual influences that correspond to the arcs in the LQB graph, and evaluate the usefulness of the LQB graph for location, query, and Web content recommendations. The experimental results show that the LQB graph successfully captures the contextual influence and significantly outperforms the state of the art in these applications.
Autors: Yongli Ren;Martin Tomko;Flora Dilys Salim;Jeffrey Chan;Charles L. A. Clarke;Mark Sanderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 204 - 218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Look-Up Table-Based Ray Integration Framework for 2-D/3-D Forward and Back Projection in X-Ray CT
Abstract:
Iterative algorithms have become increasingly popular in computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction, since they better deal with the adverse image artifacts arising from low radiation dose image acquisition. But iterative methods remain computationally expensive. The main cost emerges in the projection and back projection operations, where accurate CT system modeling can greatly improve the quality of the reconstructed image. We present a framework that improves upon one particular aspect—the accurate projection of the image basis functions. It differs from current methods in that it substitutes the high computational complexity associated with accurate voxel projection by a small number of memory operations. Coefficients are computed in advance and stored in look-up tables parameterized by the CT system’s projection geometry. The look-up tables only require a few kilobytes of storage and can be efficiently accelerated on the GPU. We demonstrate our framework with both numerical and clinical experiments and compare its performance with the current state-of-the-art scheme—the separable footprint method.
Autors: Sungsoo Ha;Klaus Mueller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 361 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Complexity Sparse Code Multiple Access Detector Based on Stochastic Computing
Abstract:
Sparse code multiple access (SCMA) is a promising multiple access technology candidate for the next-generation communication system, which can dramatically improve spectral efficiency. However, the major challenge of SCMA is the very high detection complexity. Stochastic computing is a new number representation, which can carry out complex computations with very simple logics. In this paper, we extend the application of stochastic computing to SCMA detection and propose a low complexity stochastic SCMA detector. We also design three novel stochastic logic architectures: a new low hardware cost bit stream generation architecture, a low hardware cost stochastic function node update architecture and a fast converging stochastic variable node update architecture. Analysis and simulation results show that the proposed stochastic SCMA detector saves 69% complexity compared with the traditional SCMA detectors with a comparable bit error rate performance. The synthesis results with SIMC 65-nm CMOS technology show that the proposed stochastic SCMA detector achieves 640 Mbps total system throughput with only 1.45-mm cell area.
Autors: Kaining Han;Jianhao Hu;Jienan Chen;Hao Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 769 - 782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Phase Noise Feedback Oscillator Based on SIW Bandpass Response Power Divider
Abstract:
A low phase noise X-band oscillator based on the bandpass response power divider in single-layer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is presented in this letter. The power divider is embedded in the SIW filter; therefore, lower insertion loss and more compact area size can be realized than those using the independent design of both components. To achieve better phase noise performance, transmission zeros are introduced by cross coupling through the resonant cavities to increase peak group delay. In addition, by placing external feeding at the center of cavity edge, the second harmonic can be suppressed efficiently. The measured results verify the performance of the proposed bandpass response power divider and show that the phase noise of the oscillator can achieve −143.3 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency.
Autors: Ruoqiao Zhang;Jianyi Zhou;Zhiqiang Yu;Binqi Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 153 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Error Energy-Efficient Fixed-Width Booth Multiplier With Sign-Digit-Based Conditional Probability Estimation
Abstract:
Fixed-width multipliers are intensively used in many DSP applications whose accuracy and energy efficiency affect the whole digital system to a large extent. To improve the computation accuracy, a Booth-encoded sign-digit-based conditional probability estimation approach is proposed. A symmetric error distribution is obtained by taking the sign bit of the Booth-encoded multiplier into consideration when applying the conditional probability. In addition, a more generalized mux-based estimation method is formulated for the circuit implementation, which reduces the delay time and power dissipation. Simulation results show that the proposed multiplier exhibits the best computation accuracy with the least energy per operation. It performs even better for those operand lengths that are not multiples of 4. The maximum reduction on energy-delay-error product can reach 14.8% compared with all its contenders among various operand lengths.
Autors: Ziji Zhang;Yajuan He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 236 - 240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Integrated-Phase-Noise 27–30-GHz Injection-Locked Frequency Multiplier With an Ultra-Low-Power Frequency-Tracking Loop for mm-Wave-Band 5G Transceivers
Abstract:
An ultra-low-phase-noise injection-locked frequency multiplier (ILFM) for millimeter wave (mm-wave) fifth-generation transceivers is presented. Using an ultra-low-power frequency-tracking loop (FTL), the proposed ILFM is able to correct the frequency drifts of the quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator of the ILFM in a real-time fashion. Since the FTL is monitoring the averages of phase deviations rather than detecting or sampling the instantaneous values, it requires only 600 to continue to calibrate the ILFM that generates an mm-wave signal with an output frequency from 27 to 30 GHz. The proposed ILFM was fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process. The 10-MHz phase noise of the 29.25-GHz output signal was −129.7 dBc/Hz, and its variations across temperatures and supply voltages were less than 2 dB. The integrated phase noise from 1 kHz to 100 MHz and the rms jitter were −39.1 dBc and 86 fs, respectively.
Autors: Seyeon Yoo;Seojin Choi;Juyeop Kim;Heein Yoon;Yongsun Lee;Jaehyouk Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 375 - 388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Low-Noise Decade-Bandwidth Switched Transconductor Mixer With AC-Coupled LO Buffers
Abstract:
In this paper, a modified switched transconductor mixer structure is proposed to realize a low-power, low-noise, and wideband mixer, in which, a transconductor stage with fixed dc operating point is switched by the ac-coupled local oscillator (LO) signal. In this way, only a small LO signal is required to turn the transconductor ON and OFF, and thus a low-power LO buffer can be used to achieve wideband down-conversion. To further expand the bandwidth, the inductive peaking technique is used at the RF port to eliminate the capacitive loading effect resulted from the input transistors. As the noise power from LO stage appears in common mode at the mixer output, good noise performance is realized, too. Additionally, output distortion-cancellation IF buffer is added to facilitate the testing. Fabricated in the 0.13- CMOS process, 15.5–17.5-dB gain and 4–5.2-dB noise figure are achieved in 1–10-GHz bandwidth. The mixer core consumes a low power of 8.3 mW from 1.5-V supply, and the whole chip consumes 22.3 mW, including the IF buffer. The active chip area is less than 0.2 mm2.
Autors: Hao Li;Ahmed M. El-Gabaly;Carlos E. Saavedra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 510 - 521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power OFDM-Based Wake-Up Mechanism for IoE Applications
Abstract:
This brief presents a wake-up mechanism for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation-based systems by coding a low data-rate wake-up signal in transmitter without extra circuitry overhead. It is achieved by controlling data pattern for each OFDM subcarrier in one symbol of frame to produce an equivalent amplitude-modulated (AM) signal as a wake-up query without contaminating protocol integrity. A low-power wake-up receiver is used to demodulate this signal and interpret the wake-up query. A system using proposed wake-up mechanism has been built based on IEEE 802.11ah standard. Measurement results demonstrate that an AM-type wake-up signal with a data-rate of 31.25 Kb/s is generated through the proposed method. Moreover, an envelope detector with −35-dBm sensitivity at 900 MHz has been implemented in 0.13- CMOS technology for wake-up signal detection and consumes 120-nW power.
Autors: Hualei Zhang;Chunhui Li;Sizheng Chen;Xi Tan;Na Yan;Hao Min;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 181 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Wearable Stand-Alone Tongue Drive System for People With Severe Disabilities
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life. Assuming the sTDS user issues one command every 20 ms, the proposed local processor reduces the data volume that needs to be wirelessly transmitted by a factor of 64, from 9.6 to 0.15 kb/s. The proposed processor consists of three main blocks: serial peripheral interface bus for receiving raw data from magnetic sensors, external magnetic interference attenuation to attenuate external magnetic field from the raw magnetic signal, and a machine learning classifier for command detection. A proof-of-concept prototype sTDS has been implemented with a low-power IGLOO-nano field programmable gate array (FPGA), bluetooth low energy, battery and magnetic sensors on a headset, and tested. At clock frequency of 20 MHz, the processor takes 6.6 s and consumes 27 nJ for detecting a command with a detection accuracy of 96.9%. To further reduce power consumption, an application-specified integrated circuit processor for the sTDS is implemented at the postlayout level in 65-nm CMOS technology with 1-V power supply, and it consumes 0.43 mW, which is 10 lower than FPGA power consumption and occupies an area of only 0.016 mm.
Autors: Ali Jafari;Nathanael Buswell;Maysam Ghovanloo;Tinoosh Mohsenin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 58 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Reference Spur MDLL-Based Clock Multiplier and Derivation of Discrete-Time Noise Transfer Function for Phase Noise Analysis
Abstract:
A multiplying delay-locked loop (MDLL)-based clock multiplier with a two-step phase aligning architecture and a dual-pulse charge-pump (CP) is proposed to reduce the reference spur level. The architecture has a phase-locked loop mode to align the coarse phase and an MDLL mode to obtain a delay-lock. With non-overlap dual phase detector pulses in the MDLL mode, the CP is directly calibrated in the runtime to minimize its phase offset. A discrete-time noise transfer function (NTF) is also derived to estimate the phase noise of multiplying-delay line from that of delay line. The NTF includes aliasing effect and shows better accuracy than the prior voltage controlled oscillator realignment-based approaches. This clock multiplier occupies an active area of 0.047-mm2 in 40-nm CMOS process. The clock multiplication ratio () is an integer value from 8 to 27. With a low-cost 19.2-MHz TCXO reference, 153.6–518.4 MHz clocks were successfully generated, and a phase noise of −124 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset from a 518.4-MHz clock, rms jitter of 1.28 ps, and −65.5 dBc reference spur were measured. The power dissipation at 518.4 MHz was 2.6 mW from the 1.8 and 1.1 V supplies.
Autors: Geum-Young Tak;Kwyro Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 485 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mapping Methodology of Boolean Logic Circuits on Memristor Crossbar
Abstract:
Alternatives to CMOS logic circuit implementations are under research for future scaled electronics. Memristor crossbar-based logic circuit is one of the promising candidates to at least partially replace CMOS technology, which is facing many challenges such as reduced scalability, reliability, and performance gain. Memristor crossbar offers many advantages including scalability, high integration density, nonvolatility, etc. The state-of-the-art for memristor crossbar logic circuit design can only implement simple and small circuits. This paper proposes a mapping methodology of large Boolean logic circuits on memristor crossbar. Appropriate place-and-route schemes, to efficiently map the circuits on the crossbar, as well as several optimization schemes are also proposed. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, a multibit adder and other nine more complex benchmarks are studied; the delay, area and power consumption induced by both crossbar and its CMOS control part are evaluated.
Autors: Lei Xie;Hoang Anh Du Nguyen;Mottaqiallah Taouil;Said Hamdioui;Koen Bertels;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 311 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metamaterial Absorber With a New Compact Unit Cell
Abstract:
This letter focuses on the modification of a unit cell of a metamaterial absorber to decrease its operational frequency. By decreasing the operational frequency, we can increase capability of the absorber for practical applications and decrease sensitivity of the structure response to the curvature. The structure has been implemented by the array of the unit cell on the FR4 substrate in the front of a conductive plate. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate the structure provides 20% decrease in the minimum operation frequency with respect to the reference structure. Also, the operating frequency range of the structure with absorptivity more than 90% is 1.35–3.5 GHz, i.e., 88% fractional bandwidth. The structure has appropriate response under oblique incident angle from 0° to 40°.
Autors: Mohsen Dehghan Banadaki;Abbas Ali Heidari;Mansor Nakhkash;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 205 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Local Parametric Fault Diagnosis of a Broad Class of Analog Integrated Circuits
Abstract:
This paper is devoted to local parametric fault diagnosis of nonlinear analog integrated circuits designed in a bipolar and CMOS technology. An algorithm is proposed that allows estimating values of the considered set of the parameters. The algorithm exploits a diagnostic test performed in a dc state, leading to output voltages measured in the circuit. Each of the output voltages is a parameterized function. A system of overdetermined equations fitting the parameterized functions to the data points is created. An efficient iterative method is developed for solving this overdetermined system of nonlinear equations exploiting the idea of the normal equation and a homotopy concept. It is implemented in the manner that allows operating with the functions not given in the explicit analytical form, which commonly occurs in real nonlinear circuits. For illustration, two examples are given, including a circuit with bipolar transistors and a CMOS circuit designed in a nanometer technology. They reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Michał Tadeusiewicz;Stanisław Hałgas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 328 - 337
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method to Evaluate Cycloconverters Commutation Robustness Under Voltage and Frequency Variations in Mining Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the influence of frequency and voltage variation over the commutation of thyristors in high-power cycloconverters. The analysis demonstrates that frequency and voltage variations can cause commutation failures generating significant damages in cycloconverters. In addition, the paper proposes a method based on the energy required to commutate thyristors to determine the maximum frequency and voltage variations that will not affect commutation between thyristors, information that can be later used for the correct setting of protection relays. The analysis is complemented with simulated results using data obtained from high-power thyristors used in commercially available cycloconverters. Finally, a commutation failure in a 15 MW grinding mill cycloconverter drive is presented and analyzed.
Autors: G. Francisco Silva;T. Luis Morán;T. Miguel Torres;V. Christian Weishaupt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 858 - 865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A mighty antenna from a tiny CubeSat grows
Abstract:
By packing big antennas into small satellites, JPL engineers are making space science cheap
Autors: Nacer E. Chahat;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 32 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millimeter-Wave Self-Mixing Array With Large Gain and Wide Angular Receiving Range
Abstract:
The concept of self-mixing antenna arrays is presented and analyzed with respect to its beneficial behavior of large gain over a wide angular range. The large gain is attained by an antenna array with large element spacing, where all array element signals are combined approximately coherently over the entire angular receiving range. This functionality is achieved by the self-mixing principle, where an exact description via an intermediate frequency (IF) array factor is derived. For verification purposes, a self-mixing array is fabricated and measured in the frequency range from 34 to 39 GHz. A multiple-resonance millimeter-wave microstrip patch antenna has been especially developed to achieve large bandwidth and a wide angular receiving range. The broad beamwidth is achieved by two parasitic patches and suitable radiation characteristics of the resonant modes. The self-mixing of the receive signal is realized at each antenna element by a Schottky diode with an optimized operating point. The down-converted array element signals are then combined and measured at the IF. The receive power is increased significantly over a large angular range compared with conventional array feeding techniques. The simulation results are verified by measurements, which show very good agreement.
Autors: Jonas Kornprobst;Thomas J. Mittermaier;Thomas F. Eibert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 702 - 711
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millinewton Resolution Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Catheter Two-Dimensional Distal Force Sensor for Cardiac Catheterization
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of a novel 2-D fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based micro-force sensing design for detection of catheter tip-tissue interaction forces. A miniature and symmetrical force-sensitive flexure-based catheter distal sensor has been prototyped, and four optical fibers inscribed with one FBG element each have been mounted on it for force and temperature decoupling and detection. The axial property of the tightly suspended fiber configuration has been utilized with a pre-tensioned force, and the embedded FBG element can be stretched and compressed to sense the force-induced and temperature-caused strain variations. The proposed configuration can achieve an improved resolution and sensitivity than the light intensity modulation-based approaches, and avoid the limitations closely associated with the commonly direct FBG-pasting methods, such as chirping failure and low repeatability. Finite-element modeling (FEM)-based simulation has been implemented to investigate the flexure performance and improve the design. The decoupling approach has been proposed based on the simulation results and implemented to separate and determine the force and temperature. The force-sensing flexure prototype has been calibrated to achieve a resolution of around 4.6 mN within the measurement range of 0 ~ 3.5 N. Both static calibration experiments and in-vitro dynamic experiments have been performed to prove the feasibility of the proposed design. The decoupling capacity of force and temperature will benefit its broad implementations in generalized intravascular catherization procedures.
Autors: Chaoyang Shi;Tianliang Li;Hongliang Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1539 - 1546
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Approach to Electrical Stimulation Optimization Problems
Abstract:
Electrical stimulation optimization is a challenging problem. Even when a single region is targeted for excitation, the problem remains a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The constrained nature of the problem results from safety concerns while its multi-objectives originate from the requirement that non-targeted regions should remain unaffected. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation that can successfully address the challenges facing this problem. Moreover, the proposed framework can conclusively check the feasibility of the stimulation goals. This helps researchers to avoid wasting time trying to achieve goals that are impossible under a chosen stimulation setup. The superiority of the proposed framework over alternative methods is demonstrated through simulation examples.
Autors: Gehan Abouelseoud;Yasmine Abouelseoud;Amin Shoukry;Nour Ismail;Jaidaa Mekky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 527 - 537
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A mmWave Wideband Slot Array Antenna Based on Ridge Gap Waveguide With 30% Bandwidth
Abstract:
A wideband element slot antenna array based on ridge gap waveguide feeding network has been proposed for mmWave applications. The antenna subarray consists of four radiating slots which are excited by a groove gap cavity layer. Compared with previously published works, the proposed planar antenna array has quite wide impedance bandwidth. The antenna covers a wideband of 50–67.8 GHz with 30% impedance bandwidth (VSWR < 2). Also, the antenna has only 2.5 dB gain variation over the entire bandwidth which implies also good radiation characteristics for the proposed antenna. The maximum measured gain value is about 27.5 dBi with a total efficiency of 80% for the proposed antenna within the band of interest. With this performance, the proposed antenna array is a promising candidate for mmWave communication systems.
Autors: Ali Farahbakhsh;Davoud Zarifi;Ashraf Uz Zaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1008 - 1013
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified All-Digital Polar PWM Transmitter
Abstract:
This paper presents an all-digital polar pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transmitter for wireless communications. The transmitter combines baseband PWM and outphasing to compensate for the amplitude error in the transmitted signal due to aliasing and image distortion. The PWM is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) core. The outphasing is implemented as pulse-position modulation using the FPGA transceivers, which drive two switch-mode power amplifiers fabricated in 130-nm standard CMOS. The transmitter has an all-digital implementation that offers the flexibility to adapt it to multi-standard and multi-band signals. As the proposed transmitter compensates for aliasing and image distortion, an improvement in the linearity and spectral performance is observed as compared with a digital-PWM transmitter. For a 20-MHz LTE uplink signal, the measurement results show an improvement of up to 6.9 dBc in the adjacent channel leakage ratio.
Autors: Muhammad Touqir Pasha;Muhammad Fahim Ul Haque;Jahanzeb Ahmad;Ted Johansson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 758 - 768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modular Multilevel HVDC Buck–Boost Converter Derived From Its Switched-Mode Counterpart
Abstract:
This paper begins by presenting a generalized methodology for conceptualizing modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based dc–dc topologies, which is predicated on the concept of harmonic power balance. A compelling implication is that MMC-based variants of conventional switched-mode converter structures can be realized. As an example case study, this paper introduces a new dc–dc MMC for HVdc applications, which is derived from the classical buck–boost dc–dc converter. This new topology, which is revealed to be an alternative option to the well-known dual active bridge (DAB) converter with an intermediate transformer, offers buck–boost functionality and bidirectional dc fault blocking, using only two quadrant switching cells. Comparative analysis shows the proposed topology has lower operating losses and a lower total magnetics rating in comparison to an MMC-based DAB solution for dc stepping ratios around unity. A dynamic controller is developed that regulates the converter dc power throughput while maintaining balanced capacitor voltages. The converter operating principle, dynamic controller performance, and dc fault blocking are verified by simulation.
Autors: Sunny H. Kung;Gregory J. Kish;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 82 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Functional In-Memory Inference Processor Using a Standard 6T SRAM Array
Abstract:
A multi-functional in-memory inference processor integrated circuit (IC) in a 65-nm CMOS process is presented. The prototype employs a deep in-memory architecture (DIMA), which enhances both energy efficiency and throughput over conventional digital architectures via simultaneous access of multiple rows of a standard 6T bitcell array (BCA) per precharge, and embedding column pitch-matched low-swing analog processing at the BCA periphery. In doing so, DIMA exploits the synergy between the dataflow of machine learning (ML) algorithms and the SRAM architecture to reduce the dominant energy cost due to data movement. The prototype IC incorporates a 16-kB SRAM array and supports four commonly used ML algorithms—the support vector machine, template matching, -nearest neighbor, and the matched filter. Silicon measured results demonstrate simultaneous gains (dot product mode) in energy efficiency of 10 and in throughput of 5.3 leading to a 53 reduction in the energy-delay product with negligible (1%) degradation in the decision-making accuracy, compared with the conventional 8-b fixed-point single-function digital implementations.
Autors: Mingu Kang;Sujan K. Gonugondla;Ameya Patil;Naresh R. Shanbhag;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 642 - 655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Level Cache Framework for Remote Resource Access in Transparent Computing
Abstract:
With the increasing demand for high performance of remote resource access in transparent computing, there is a requirement to design a multi-level cache framework to alleviate the network latency. Existing cache frameworks in CPU and web systems cannot be applied simply because the remote resource access architecture needs to be extended to support multi-level cache, and the ways that resources are accessed in transparent computing require specific designs. In this article, we propose a multi-level cache framework for remote resource access in transparent computing. Based on the low latency feature of edge computing, we extend the remote resource access architecture to an architecture with multi-level caches by setting caches on the edge devices with low network latency. Then we design a hybrid multi-level cache hierarchy and make corresponding cache policies. Through a case study, we show the effectiveness of our design. Finally, we discuss several future research issues for deploying the proposed multi-level cache framework.
Autors: Di Zhang;Yuezhi Zhou;Yaoxue Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 140 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Time-Step Finite Element Algorithm for 3-D Simulation of Coupled Drift-Diffusion Reaction Process in Total Ionizing Dose Effect
Abstract:
In order to study the total ionizing dose degradation and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity effect for semiconductor devices in the space environment, we simulate the drift-diffusion-reaction processes in a 3-dimensional SiO2–Si system. Since the time scale of the drift-diffusion processes is much larger than that of the chemical reaction processes, we use a multi-time-step algorithm to calculate the two types of processes, respectively. In this paper, partial differential equations used to describe the electrodiffusion processes are solved by a finite element method, while the chemical reactions taking place independently in every mesh node are solved as ordinary differential equations. We reproduce qualitative properties of total ionizing dose effect and compare our numerical results with experimental data and other simulation results. This paper paves a way for 3-D simulation of total ionizing dose and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity with high efficiency and robustness.
Autors: Jingjie Xu;Zhaocan Ma;Hongliang Li;Yu Song;Linbo Zhang;Benzhuo Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 183 - 189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Type Features Method for Leg Detection in 2-D Laser Range Data
Abstract:
People detection is an important topic in the fields of security, intelligent environments, and robotics. Current research on people detection based on a single laser range finder is mostly focused on leg detection. However, in practical environments, where legs are likely to be touching or partially occluded, the current methods suffer from a low detection rate and precision. This paper proposes a multi-type features method for leg detection in 2-D laser range data. This method consists of segmentation, through which the laser range data are divided into segments; feature definition and extraction, in which three types of features, including relative distance statistical features, spatial relationship features and nearest neighbor features, are introduced and combined with classic geometric features; and classification, by which a strong classifier is generated using the real AdaBoost algorithm and segments are classified as leg or non-leg. Three 2-D laser range data sets are used for the experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed features are robust and effective in detecting both separated legs and touched or partially occluded legs.
Autors: Dalin Li;Lin Li;You Li;Fan Yang;Xinkai Zuo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1675 - 1684
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Compact Reconfigurable PIFA Based on Nested Slots
Abstract:
This letter presents a new planar inverted-F antenna design that is dedicated for integration within mobile devices such as phones and tablets. The proposed antenna structure is based on nested capacitive slots in order to achieve a multiband behavior. The presented antenna is also reduced in size by 60%. The antenna is then reconfigured using positive-intrinsic-negative (p-i-n) diodes that are embedded within the antenna structure. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved to ensure that all the various commercial and required bands of interest are covered. Two prototypes are fabricated and measured where good agreement is noticed between the simulated and measured data.
Autors: Fatima A. Asadallah;Joseph Costantine;Youssef Tawk;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 331 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Directional Coupler Using SOI CMOS for RF Front-End Applications
Abstract:
This letter introduces a novel multiband directional coupler for RF front-end applications. Conventional narrowband directional couplers are widely used for mobile applications because of their compact size. However, excessive power loss due to strong coupling in the higher frequency range severely limits their bandwidth. To resolve this issue, we propose a dual directional coupler employing a coupling switching stage, where the asymmetric coupled lines can be electrically coupled or floated to mitigate severe coupling loss. The proposed coupler has been implemented to an integrated circuit using the silicon-on-insulator process. The measured results showed a considerably enhanced bandwidth from 0.69 to 4 GHz covering the entire frequency band of long-term evolution with a low power loss of less than −0.21 dB in the target frequency range.
Autors: Donghyeon Ji;Junghyun Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 126 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Dual-Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna for 2G/3G/LTE Applications
Abstract:
A multiband dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna for 2G/3G/Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile communications is proposed in this letter, which consists of horizontal polarization (HP) and vertical polarization (VP) element with separate feeds. The VP element consists of three polygonal radiation patches with three equally spaced legs shorted to the ground plane. The HP element consists of three wideband slot loop structures, which is nested on the top of the VP element. Three slot loop structures provide a 360° coverage for HP and enhance its bandwidth. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the frequency bands of 1650–2900 MHz for HP and 780–2700 MHz for VP can be achieved. The reflection of VP improves the gain of the HP element at least 1 dBi after nesting. The gain of HP element is more than 3 dBi for LTE, and the gain of VP element is more than 5 dBi in the LTE band and 1.5 dBi in the 2G band. Port isolation larger than 30 dB and low-gain variation levels are also obtained. The proposed antenna can be applied in mobile communications.
Autors: Hongyun Wen;Yihong Qi;Zibin Weng;Fuhai Li;Jun Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 180 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multichannel Phase Tunable Microwave Photonic Mixer With High Conversion Gain and Elimination of Dispersion-Induced Power Fading
Abstract:
A microwave photonic system that can realize frequency up- and down-conversion, multichannel phase shift, high conversion gain, and elimination of dispersion-induced power fading is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on an integrated dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying modulator that contains two dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators (X-DPMZM and Y-DPMZM). The X-DPMZM implements dual side band carrier suppression (DSB-CS) modulation of radio frequency signal, and the Y-DPMZM implements frequency shift of an optical carrier. They are combined in orthogonal polarizations to implement frequency up- and down-conversion. The polarization multiplexed signal will go through polarization controllers and polarizers to implement multichannel phase shift. In the experiment, the phase shift can be tuned independently over 360° in each channel. By suppressing the optical carrier, the conversion gain and LO isolation are improved by 20.5 dB and 51.26 dB, respectively, compared with conventional dual side band modulation scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme can achieve a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 103.6 dB·Hz2/3.
Autors: Weile Zhai;Aijun Wen;Wu Zhang;Zhaoyang Tu;Huixing Zhang;Zhongguo Xiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multidisciplinary Industrial Robot Approach for Teaching Mechatronics-Related Courses
Abstract:
This paper presents a robot prototype for an undergraduate laboratory program designed to fulfill the criteria laid out by ABET. The main objective of the program is for students to learn some basic concepts of embedded systems and robotics, and apply them in practice. For that purpose, various practical laboratory exercises were prepared to teach different aspects of communications, control, mechatronics, and microcontrollers. The practicals are organized such that the students can systematically solve real-world problems. The most important feature of the presented program is that, it incorporates interdisciplinary knowledge, and inculcates technical and professional skills required in pursuing a successful career. Furthermore, students and instructors can modify the software and hardware units of the robot prototype as necessary, to explore more ideas and to apply the robot in other mechatronics-related courses. A digital electronics course taught at the Automation Department at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico, is presented as a case study in which the evaluation process was based on ABET criteria and the corresponding student outcomes. A student survey elicited students’ observations of, and interest in, the learning process. The positive student feedback and student academic outcomes indicate that the inclusion of prototype had a significant impact on student academic outcomes.
Autors: Mariano Garduño-Aparicio;Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz;Gonzalo Macias-Bobadilla;Suresh Thenozhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 55 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multidisciplinary PBL Approach for Teaching Industrial Informatics and Robotics in Engineering
Abstract:
This paper describes the design of an industrial informatics course, following the project-based learning methodology, and reports the experience of four academic years (from 2012–13 to 2015–16). Industrial Informatics is a compulsory course taught in the third year of the B.Sc. degree in industrial electronics and automation engineering at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain. The course had students develop an embedded controller for a 2DoF SCARA robot that drew a specific trajectory. The robot was built with the LEGO Mindstorms kit and the controller was implemented with NXC, a C-like programming language for the NXT brick. In this activity, students became aware of their learning needs and had to work proactively, both autonomously and in teams. The course design achieved several objectives: 1) students learned the course material; 2) soft skills demanded by employers were reinforced; and 3) the material was structured into project tasks for students to perform. The article analyses two indicators: 1) qualification marks and 2) student satisfaction.
Autors: Isidro Calvo;Itziar Cabanes;Jerónimo Quesada;Oscar Barambones;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 21 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multifunctional Antenna with a Small Form Factor: Designing a Novel Series-Fed Compact Triangular Microstrip Ring Resonator Antenna Array
Abstract:
This article examines a noval series-fed triangular microstrip ring resonator (TMRR) antenna array. Each radiating element is made up of a wavelength-long microstrip line with the two ends joined together to form an isosceles triangle. The antenna array is fed by an N-shaped microstrip feed line and excited by a coaxial feed probe. The operational mechanism of the proposed feed system in terms of its electrodynamics is examined with respect to its relative size occupancy, dispersion along the feed line, and the feed effect on the spatial orientation of the propagated radio waves. The size occupancy of the antenna array is 45 mm<sup>2</sup> x 60 mm<sup>2</sup> with a measured reflection coefficient S<sub>11</sub> of -27.5 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.76 GHz. The simulated S<sub>11</sub> is -29.2 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.8 GHz. The measured gain is roughly 10.46 dBi using the absolute gain method. The resulting antenna array is compact in size and exhibits reasonable performance in terms of gain, reflection coefficient, low mass/volume, and weight.
Autors: Seyi S. Olokede;Mohd F. Ain;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 62 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multistate Single-Connection Calibration for Microwave Microfluidics
Abstract:
With emerging medical, chemical, and biological applications of microwave-microfluidic devices, many researchers desire a fast and accurate calibration that can be achieved in a single connection. However, traditional on-wafer or coaxial calibrations require measurements of several different artifacts to the data prior to measuring the microwave-microfluidic device. Ideally, a single artifact would be able to present different impedance states to correct the vector network analyzer data, minimizing drift and eliminating artifact-to-artifact connection errors. Here, we developed a multistate single-connection calibration that used a coplanar waveguide loaded with a microfluidic channel. We then used measurements of the uncorrected scattering parameters of the coplanar waveguide with the channel empty, filled with deionized water, and filled with 30 w% (30 grams per liter) of saline to construct an eight-term error model and switch-term correction. After correction, the residuals between measured scattering parameters and with the literature-based finite-element simulations were below −40 dB from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. This multistate single-connection calibration is compatible with both wafer-probed and connectorized microwave-microfluidic devices for accurate impedance spectroscopy and materials characterization without the need for multiple device measurements.
Autors: Xiao Ma;Nathan D. Orloff;Charles A. E. Little;Christian J. Long;Isaac E. Hanemann;Song Liu;Jordi Mateu;James C. Booth;James C. M. Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1099 - 1107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Cooperative Localization
Abstract:
To solve the problem of unknown noise covariance matrices inherent in the cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles, a new adaptive extended Kalman filter is proposed. The predicted error covariance matrix and measurement noise covariance matrix are adaptively estimated based on an online expectation-maximization approach. Experimental results illustrate that, under the circumstances that are detailed in the paper, the proposed algorithm has better localization accuracy than existing state-of-the-art algorithms.
Autors: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Bo Xu;Zhemin Wu;Jonathon A. Chambers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 353 - 368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Class of Planar Ultrawideband Modular Antenna Arrays With Improved Bandwidth
Abstract:
The theory, design, fabrication, and measurement of a new class of planar ultrawideband modular antenna (PUMA) arrays are presented. The proposed PUMA array class achieves twice the bandwidth (from 3:1 to 6:1) of the conventional shorted via-based PUMA without using an external matching network and while retaining convenient unbalanced feeding, manufacturing, and assembly characteristics. The chief enabling technical innovation hinges upon the reconfiguration of shorting vias into capacitively-loaded vias that simultaneously: 1) mitigate low-frequency bandwidth-limiting loop modes and 2) shift problematic common-mode resonances out-of-band. A simple theoretical model based on ridged waveguides is proposed that qualitatively and quantitatively explains this novel common-mode mitigation. An infinite array operating over 3.53–21.2 GHz (6:1) is designed to achieve active VSWR < {2, 2.5, 3.8} while scanning to {broadside, 45°, 60°}, respectively, without oversampling the aperture. D-plane cross-polarization is around {−15, −10} dB for {45°, 60°} scans with high efficiency, i.e., 0.5 dB co-polarized gain loss on average. A dual-polarized prototype 256-port (128 elements per polarization) array is fabricated and measured having good agreement with full-wave finite array simulations.
Autors: John T. Logan;Rick W. Kindt;Michael Y. Lee;Marinos N. Vouvakis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 692 - 701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New CNN-Based Method for Multi-Directional Car License Plate Detection
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) -based method for high-accuracy real-time car license plate detection. Many contemporary methods for car license plate detection are reasonably effective under the specific conditions or strong assumptions only. However, they exhibit poor performance when the assessed car license plate images have a degree of rotation, as a result of manual capture by traffic police or deviation of the camera. Therefore, we propose the a CNN-based MD-YOLO framework for multi-directional car license plate detection. Using accurate rotation angle prediction and a fast intersection-over-union evaluation strategy, our proposed method can elegantly manage rotational problems in real-time scenarios. A series of experiments have been carried out to establish that the proposed method outperforms over other existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of better accuracy and lower computational cost.
Autors: Lele Xie;Tasweer Ahmad;Lianwen Jin;Yuliang Liu;Sheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 507 - 517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Fault Classifier in Transmission Lines Using Intrinsic Time Decomposition
Abstract:
As nonstationarity exists in fault signals of transmission lines, their classification and quantification remain a challenging issue. This paper presents a new scheme for feature extraction in an attempt to achieve high fault classification accuracy. The proposed scheme consists of three steps: first, the proper rotation components (PRCs) matrix of current signals captured from one end of the protected line is constructed using the intrinsic time decomposition, a fast time-domain signal processing tool with no need for sensitive tuning parameters. Second, the singular value decomposition and nonnegative matrix factorization are employed to decompose the PRCs into its significant components. Finally, eight new normalized features extracted from the output of the data processing techniques are fed into the probabilistic neural network classifier. The data processing techniques employed for classification substantially improve the overall quality of the input patterns classified and increase the generalization capability of the trained classifiers. The proposed scheme is evaluated through two simulated sample systems in the PSCAD/EMTDC software and field fault data. Moreover, the effects of the current transformer saturation, decaying dc component, and noisy conditions are evaluated. The comparison results and discussion regarding the different aspects of the problem confirm the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Mohammad Pazoki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 619 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Inversion Method Based on Distorted Born Iterative Method for Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient Electromagnetics
Abstract:
A new iterative inversion algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the electrical conductivity profile in a stratified underground medium for the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system. In forward modeling, we simplify the mathematical expressions of the magnetic fields generated by a finite line source in the layered ground to semianalytical forms in order to save the computation time. The Fréchet derivative is derived for the electromagnetic response at the receivers due to a small perturbation of the conductivity in a certain layer underground. The initial expression of the Fréchet derivative has an expensive triple integral and contains the Bessel function in the integrand. It is simplified by partially eliminating the integration along the source line and deriving the analytical expression for the integration in the vertical direction inside the perturbed layer. In the inverse solution, we use the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM). This is the first time that the DBIM is applied to data measured by the GREATEM system. Besides, the forward and inverse procedures are carried out in the frequency domain and based on the Fréchet derivative of a line source. We demonstrate the validity of our forward model, Fréchet derivative, inverse model, and the precision as well as robustness of the inversion algorithm through numerical computation and comparisons. Finally, we apply the inversion algorithm to the measured data and compare the retrieved conductivity to the actual drilling data.
Autors: Bingyang Liang;Chen Qiu;Feng Han;Chunhui Zhu;Na Liu;Hai Liu;Fubo Liu;Guangyou Fang;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 877 - 887
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Link Adaptation Method to Mitigate SINR Mismatch in Ultra-Dense Small Cell LTE Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a new interference problem caused by idle small cells, which have no associated user equipment in ultra-dense small cell long-term evolution (LTE) networks. Specifically, we investigate the effect of idle small cells on the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of the cell-specific reference signal (CRS) and the data signals. We confirm that CRS interference from idle small cells produces uneven interference pattern across CRS and data signals and eventually causes an SINR mismatch between CRS and data signals as well as between data signals with and without CRS symbols. In addition, these phenomena become severe with cell densification. In order to solve this mismatch problem, we propose a simple link adaptation framework, which utilizes clustered CRS assignment and hybrid SINR measurement. The numerical results show that the proposed method improves the average sum throughput compared with the conventional approaches. Overall, this paper sheds new light on investigating and coping with the interference problem coming from idle small cells in future ultra-dense small cell LTE networks.
Autors: Yosub Park;Jihaeng Heo;Wonsuk Chung;Sungwoo Weon;Sooyong Choi;Daesik Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1109 - 1122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Microfabrication Method for Ion-Trap Chips That Reduces Exposure of Dielectric Surfaces to Trapped Ions
Abstract:
Accumulated electrostatic charges on the dielectric surfaces of ion traps are known to induce stray fields, leading to ion micromotions. In typical microfabricated ion-trap chips, metal electrodes are electrically isolated using thick dielectric pillars, which can accumulate stray charges on their sidewalls. This letter presents a new microfabrication method for ion-trap chips that reduces the exposure of dielectric surfaces to trapped ions. The dielectric pillars are fabricated with large T-shaped overhangs, and the sidewalls and top surfaces are coated with AlCu (1%) films. The bottom sides of the overhang parts provide electrical isolation. To prevent oxidation of the AlCu (1%) films, the electrode surfaces are coated with an additional Au film. The fabricated chips were implemented to trap 174Yb+ ions, and the laser-induced stray fields were measured. The results indicated that the trap chip fabricated by the newly developed method generates significantly smaller stray fields as compared with previous chips. [2017-0233]
Autors: Seokjun Hong;Yeongdae Kwon;Changhyun Jung;Minjae Lee;Taehyun Kim;Dong-il Dan Cho;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 28 - 30
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Paradigm in High-Speed and High-Efficiency Silicon Photodiodes for Communication—Part I: Enhancing Photon–Material Interactions via Low-Dimensional Structures
Abstract:
Photodetectors (PDs) used in communication systems require ultrafast response, high efficiency, and low noise. PDs with such characteristics are increasingly in demand for data centers, metro data links, and long-haul optical networks. In a surface-illuminated PD, high speed and high efficiency are often a tradeoff, since a high-speed device needs a thin absorption layer to reduce the carrier transit time, whereas a high-efficiency device needs a thick absorption layer to compensate for the low absorption coefficient of some semiconductors such as Si and Germanium (Ge) or SiGe alloys at wavelengths near the bandgap. In this part of this review, we present the recent efforts in enhancing the photon–material interactions by using low-dimensional structures that can control light for more interaction with the photoabsorbing materials, slow down the propagation group velocity and reduce surface reflection. We present recent demonstrations of high-speed PDs based on nanostructures enabled by both synthetic bottom-up or transformative top-down processing methods. In particular, we detail a CMOS-compatible ultrafast surface-illuminated Si PD with 30-ps full-width at half-maximum, and >50% efficiency at 850 nm. A complementary discussion on device challenges and the integration of low-dimensional structures will be presented in the part II of this review.
Autors: Hilal Cansizoglu;Ekaterina Ponizovskaya Devine;Yang Gao;Soroush Ghandiparsi;Toshishige Yamada;Aly F. Elrefaie;Shih-Yuan Wang;M. Saif Islam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 372 - 381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New ZVS Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter for Battery Charging With Reduced Losses Over Full-Load Range
Abstract:
A new zero-voltage switching full-bridge dc–dc converter for battery charging is proposed in this paper. The proposed isolated dc–dc converter is used for the dc–dc conversion stage of the electric vehicle charger. The primary switches in dc–dc converter turn-on at zero voltage over the battery-charging range with the help of passive auxiliary circuit. The diode clamping circuit on the primary side minimizes the severity of voltage spikes across the secondary rectifier diodes, which are commonly present in conventional full-bridge dc–dc converters. The main switches are controlled with an asymmetrical pulse-width modulation (APWM) technique resulting in higher efficiency. APWM reduces the current stress of the main switches and the circulating losses compared with the conventional phase-shift modulation method by controlling the auxiliary inductor current over the entire operating range of the proposed converter. The steady-state analysis of auxiliary circuit and its design considerations are discussed in detail. A 100-kHz 1.2-kW full-bridge dc–dc converter prototype is developed. The experimental results are presented to validate the analysis and efficiency of the proposed converter.
Autors: Venkata Ravi Kishore Kanamarlapudi;Benfei Wang;Nandha Kumar Kandasamy;Ping Lam So;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 571 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Non-Volatile Ternary Content-Addressable Memory Cell for Low-Power and Variation-Toleration Operation
Abstract:
A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ)-based ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) cell is proposed which consists of 12 transistors and two MTJs. The proposed TCAM cell does not have static power consumption during search operation and therefore ensures highly energy efficient operation. For search operation, the resistance of an MTJ in the anti-parallel state is compared with that of an MTJ in the parallel state and therefore the proposed TCAM cell shows excellent tolerance to the variations of device characteristics. The performance of the proposed TCAM cell is evaluated by simulation and compared with previously reported MTJ-based TCAM cells. The proposed TCAM cells show smaller failure rate of search operation under the same operating condition and device variations.
Autors: Dooho Cho;Kyungmin Kim;Changsik Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 1.2 kV 4H-SiC Buffered-Gate (BG) MOSFET: Analysis and Experimental Results
Abstract:
A novel 1.2-kV-rated 4H-SiC buffered-gate MOSFET (BG-MOSFET) structure is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to have superior high frequency figures-of-merit (HF-FOMs) for the first time. From the measured data on devices fabricated in a 6-in foundry, the BG-MOSFET is demonstrated to have and smaller HF-FOM [], and and smaller HF-FOM [], when compared with the conventional MOSFET and split-gate MOSFET, respectively.
Autors: Kijeong Han;B. J. Baliga;Woongje Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 248 - 251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Adaptive Kalman Filter With Inaccurate Process and Measurement Noise Covariance Matrices
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel variational Bayesian (VB)-based adaptive Kalman filter (VBAKF) for linear Gaussian state-space models with inaccurate process and measurement noise covariance matrices is proposed. By choosing inverse Wishart priors, the state together with the predicted error and measurement noise covariance matrices are inferred based on the VB approach. Simulation results for a target tracking example illustrate that the proposed VBAKF has better robustness to resist the uncertainties of process and measurement noise covariance matrices than existing state-of-the-art filters.
Autors: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Zhemin Wu;Ning Li;Jonathon Chambers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 594 - 601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Identify the miRNA-mRNA Causal Regulatory Modules in Cancer
Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in many biological processes by regulating the target genes, especially in the initiation and development of cancers. Therefore, the identification of the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules is important for understanding the regulatory mechanisms. Most computational methods only used statistical correlations in predicting miRNA-mRNA modules, and neglected the fact there are causal relationships between miRNAs and their target genes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called CALM (the causal regulatory modules) to identify the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules through integrating the causal interactions and statistical correlations between the miRNAs and their target genes. Our algorithm largely consists of three steps: it first forms the causal regulatory relationships of miRNAs and genes from gene expression profiles and detects the miRNA clusters according to the GO function information of their target genes, then expands each miRNA cluster by greedy adding (discarding) the target genes to maximize the modularity score. To show the performance of our method, we apply CALM on four datasets including EMT, breast, ovarian, and thyroid cancer and validate our results. The experiment results show that our method can not only outperform the compared method, but also achieve ideal overall performance in terms of the functional enrichment.
Autors: Jiawei Luo;Wei Huang;Buwen Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 309 - 315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Broadband and High-Isolation Dual-Polarized Microstrip Antenna Array Based on Quasi-Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology
Abstract:
A dual-polarized (DP) aperture-coupled microstrip antenna array with high isolation, broadband, and low cross polarization for Ku-band is proposed based on the quasi-substrate integrated waveguide (Q-SIW) technology. The proposed microstrip antenna array is excited by two orthogonal four-way corporate (parallel) feed networks, which not only has a multistage structure with broadband but also provides pairs of differential outputs. The Q-SIW structure, composed of several reflectors and substrate integrated metal pillars, is used to increase the bandwidth, improve the isolation, and reduce the influence of feed network. The measured and simulated results show that the DP array exhibits an impedance bandwidth of 26.37% for vertical port and 27.77% for horizontal port. The cross polarization level is better than −34 dB and −40 dB for two ports, and the isolation between the two ports is above 32 dB.
Autors: Wei Wang;Jing Wang;Aimeng Liu;Yuhang Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 951 - 956
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Construction of Complementary Sets With Flexible Lengths Based on Boolean Functions
Abstract:
Golay complementary sets (GCSs) have been proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratios (PAPRs) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). They have upper bounds depending on the set sizes. The constructions of GCSs based on generalized Boolean functions have been proposed in the literature. However, most of these constructed GCSs have limited lengths, and hence they are not feasible for practical OFDM communication systems. This letter proposes a new construction of GCSs with flexible lengths. The proposed construction is a direct construction based on generalized Boolean functions. In addition, the constructed GCSs have various constellation sizes, set sizes, and upper bounds on PAPR.
Autors: Chao-Yu Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 260 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel EMG Interface for Individuals With Tetraplegia to Pilot Robot Hand Grasping
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new human-machine interface for individuals with tetraplegia. We investigated the feasibility of piloting an assistive device by processing supra-lesional muscle responses online. The ability to voluntarily contract a set of selected muscles was assessed in five spinal cord-injured subjects through electromyographic (EMG) analysis. Two subjects were also asked to use the EMG interface to control palmar and lateral grasping of a robot hand. The use of different muscles and control modalities was also assessed. These preliminary results open the way to new interface solutions for high-level spinal cord-injured patients.
Autors: Wafa Tigra;Benjamin Navarro;Andrea Cherubini;X. Gorron;Anthony Gelis;Charles Fattal;David Guiraud;Christine Azevedo Coste;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 291 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Illuminance Control Strategy for Roadway Lighting Based on Greenshields Macroscopic Traffic Model
Abstract:
Most street lights currently deployed have constant illumination levels or vary based on a predetermined schedule. However, with advances in lighting controls, intelligent transportation systems, and the efforts of transportation agencies at regional and national levels to better sustain and manage the transportation system by monitoring the roadway network, many different types of real-time traffic data are available; which enables the implementation of a traffic responsive outdoor light system. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) has proposed a class-based lighting control model based on a number of roadway parameters, some of which are traffic related. However, the adaptation of the available traffic data to the existing model is not obvious. In addition, the CIE model can be improved to better reflect traffic characteristics to increase energy efficiency of the overall street lighting system. The intention of this research is to quantify the relationship between real-time traffic, and roadway lighting and to develop a control strategy based on real-time traffic data in order to reduce light energy consumption, enhance safety, and maximize throughput of the roadway. Significant energy savings were observed when the proposed control strategy was implemented in two case studies using available lighting and traffic data for Washington, DC, and Montgomery County, MD, representing urban and rural roadway networks, respectively.
Autors: Neveen Shlayan;Kiran Challapali;Dave Cavalcanti;Talmai Oliveira;Yong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Interconnected Structure of Graphene-Carbon Nanotubes for the Application of Methane Adsorption
Abstract:
In this paper, the methane adsorption properties of a new 3-D structure, graphene connected with carbon nanotubes (G-CNTs) was investigated, which has a great significance to the development of methane sensors. The junctions of the armchair graphene connected with (6, 0) and (4, 4) CNTs (arm-60 and arm-44) were selected. First, the adsorption energy on different sites was analyzed via first-principles theory to find out the best methane adsorption site. The results showed that the adsorption energy of arm-44 was a little bigger than that of arm-60. Moreover, the adsorption energy was bigger, when the adsorption site was closer to the junction. Second, the adsorption capacity of various gases (H2, O2, CO, CO2, NO2, and CH4) was compared via molecular dynamics. The methane adsorption capacity of arm-60 was found to be the biggest. As the fugacity is increased, the methane adsorption capacity increased gradually. Oppositely, the adsorption capacity was inversely proportional to the temperature. Finally, the effects of Al, P, Si, N, and B doping on methane adsorption capacity were reported. The B doping had the best power to improve the methane adsorption capacity, whereas the N and Si doping were unfavorable for the methane adsorption capacity.
Autors: Ning Yang;Daoguo Yang;Liangbiao Chen;Dongjing Liu;Miao Cai;Xuejun Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1555 - 1561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Interfacing Technique for Distributed Hybrid Simulations Combining EMT and Transient Stability Models
Abstract:
The steady increase of power electronic devices and nonlinear dynamic loads in large-scale ac/dc systems desperately requires an efficient simulation method. However, the traditional hybrid simulation, which incorporates various components into a single electromagnetic-transient (EMT) subsystem, causes great difficulty in network partitioning and significant deterioration in simulation efficiency. To resolve these issues, a distributed hybrid simulation method is proposed in this paper. The key factor leading the success of this method is a distinct interfacing technique, which includes: 1) a new approach based on the two-level Schur complement to update the interfaces by taking full consideration of the couplings between different EMT subsystems; and 2) a combined interaction protocol to further improve the efficiency while guaranteeing the simulation accuracy. The improved performances of the proposed method in terms of efficiency and accuracy have been verified by the simulation studies on the modified IEEE 39 system as well as a practical ac/dc system, both of which consist of a two-terminal voltage-source converter HVdc and nonlinear dynamic loads.
Autors: Dewu Shu;Xiaorong Xie;Qirong Jiang;Qiuhua Huang;Chunpeng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 130 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method for Calculating the Ring-Core Fluxgate Demagnetization Factor
Abstract:
In this paper, demagnetization factor of the ring-core fluxgate is examined. Several sensors are analyzed by calculating their demagnetization factors with three well-known formulas in addition to a finite-element method (FEM) analysis software. Calculated values are compared to the measured ones and theoretical values are shown to vary significantly. None of the studied formulas succeed in achieving an error level below 60% in all cases that 28 sensors are tested. Moreover, FEM analysis is found to provide consistent and satisfactory results in good agreement with the previously reported measurement data as well as with our measurements performed for the two sensors designed. The optimum dimension range for each formula that results in a reasonable demagnetization factor value is discussed and the stability of each formula is analyzed. Our paper points out that a new demagnetization factor formula for the ring-core is essential by taking into account the high error levels caused by the well-known formulas in the literature. Finally, we propose a novel method to calculate the factor accurately for a wide range of dimensions.
Autors: İlker Yağlıdere;Ece Olcay Güneş;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Mutual Coupling Compensation Method for Underdetermined Direction of Arrival Estimation in Nested Sparse Circular Arrays
Abstract:
A simple mutual coupling (MC) compensation method for nested sparse circular arrays that is capable of underdetermined direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed. Sparse signal reconstruction (SSR) has offered a renewed interest to the problem of DOA estimation. In SSR framework, DOA estimation is accomplished by finding the sparse coefficients of the array covariance vectors in an overcomplete basis, which achieves high resolution and is statistically robust even in low signal-to-noise ratio. We use a nested sparse circular array composed of dense and sparse parts, which obtains very low MC. Thus, we propose a banded-like circulant MC matrix (MCM), which has a very few MC coefficients. By incorporating the MCM in the DOA estimation problem, the proposed array’s capability of estimating more sources than sensors is improved. As compared with conventional methods, the proposed technique is cost effective and easy to implement, while achieving better performance. Simulation results show that a better underdetermined DOA estimation performance is achieved. We use two methods: subspace based method—MUSIC and SSR method -based optimization.
Autors: Thomas Basikolo;Koichi Ichige;Hiroyuki Arai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 909 - 917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Network Structure with Power Efficiency and High Availability for Data Centers
Abstract:
Designing a cost-effective network for data centers that can deliver sufficient bandwidth and provide high availability has drawn tremendous attentions recently. In this paper, we propose a novel server-centric network structure called RCube, which is energy efficient and can deploy a redundancy scheme to improve the availability of data centers. Moreover, RCube shares many good properties with BCube, a well known server-centric network structure, yet its network size can be adjusted more conveniently. We also present a routing algorithm to find paths in RCube and an algorithm to find multiple parallel paths between any pair of source and destination servers. In addition, we theoretically analyze the power efficiency of the network and availability of RCube under server failure. Our comprehensive simulations demonstrate that RCube provides higher availability and flexibility to make trade-off among many factors, such as power consumption and aggregate throughput, than BCube, while delivering similar performance to BCube in many critical metrics, such as average path length, path distribution and graceful degradation, which makes RCube a very promising empirical structure for an enterprise data center network product.
Autors: Zhenhua Li;Yuanyuan Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 254 - 268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Self-Interference Cancellation Scheme for Channel-Unaware Differential Space-Time Two-Way Relay Networks
Abstract:
This paper considers channel-unaware two-way relay networks in which two single-antenna nodes exchange information via multiple non-regenerative relays, each with multiple antennas. A novel self-interference cancellation scheme for distributed differential space-time signalling is developed. Despite the absence of channel-state information, this scheme enables self-interference to be completely eliminated, thereby maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio of the nodes. First, we obtain a lower bound on the pairwise error probability (PEP) under residual self-interference and we show that this bound approaches a non-zero constant at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), indicating a zero diversity order and an asymptotic error floor. Second, we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the proposed scheme to eliminate self-interference perfectly. Proper operation of this scheme requires the relays to have an even number of active antennas and for relays with odd number of active antennas, such a scheme does not exist. Third, we show that, when self-interference is cancelled perfectly, the error floor vanishes and an upper bound on the PEP approaches zero at high SNRs. In this case, it is shown that the diversity gain is equal to the number of relays and is independent of the number of antennas per relay. Finally, it is shown that the coding gain increases with increasing the number of antennas per relay and converges to a constant as the number of relay antennas becomes large.
Autors: Salime Bameri;Siamak Talebi;Ramy H. Gohary;Halim Yanikomeroglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1226 - 1241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Wide Duty Cycle Range Wide Band High Frequency Isolated Gate Driver for Power Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel single source fed isolated gate driver circuit based on the dual-forward converter topology. The two forward converters are paralleled at the secondary side to achieve 0%–100 duty cycle range together with galvanic isolation. The gate driver switching frequency is independent of the main pulse-width modulation frequency (PWM). As a result, the gate driver switching devices and magnetics are designed for high frequencies independent of the main PWM frequency. At high frequencies, problems of resonance due to parasitics become significant. This paper discusses this problem and proposes a novel solution to mitigate it. In addition, this paper also presents a novel solution and circuit to produce negative gate pulse for miller clamp. The proposed circuit can be used for any application, irrespective of switching frequency, thus making it a wide band generalized gate driver. The circuit is analyzed and verified experimentally.
Autors: B. Satish Naik;S. Shan;L. Umanand;B. Subba Reddy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 437 - 446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Numerically Efficient Method for Predicting the Scattering Characteristics of a Complex Metallic Target Located Inside a Large Forested Area
Abstract:
An efficient electromagnetic model for the scattering analysis of targets placed in large natural environments is presented. A hybrid formulation combining volume and surface integral equations is used to describe forest environment (dielectric objects) in which metallic structures are present. A large part of the forest can be analyzed electromagnetically by using the characteristic basis function method, whose use enables us to simulate the problem at hand and significantly reduce the dimension of the linear system that needs to be solved.
Autors: L. Hettak;H. Roussel;M. Casaletti;R. Mittra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1177 - 1185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Numerically Stable Solver for Positive Semidefinite Quadratic Programs Based on Nonnegative Least Squares
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new algorithm for solving convex quadratic programs (QP) subject to linear inequality and equality constraints. The method extends an approach recently proposed by the author for solving strictly convex QP's using nonnegative least squares, by making it numerically more robust and able to handle also the nonstrictly convex case, equality constraints, and warm starting from an initial guess. Robustness is achieved by introducing an outer proximal-point iteration scheme that regularizes the problem without altering the solution, and by adaptively weighting the least squares problems encountered while solving the problem. The performance of the resulting QP solver in terms of speed and robustness in the single precision arithmetic is assessed against other optimization algorithms tailored to embedded model predictive control applications.
Autors: Alberto Bemporad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 525 - 531
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parallel Stochastic Number Generator With Bit Permutation Networks
Abstract:
Stochastic computing (SC) is a promising paradigm to realize low-complexity digital circuits that are tolerant to soft errors. Stochastic circuits include a stochastic number generator (SNG) to generate a stochastic number that corresponds to a given binary number. Conventional SNGs, which employ linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) to generate stochastic numbers in a serial manner would cost significantly in time. In this brief, a parallel SNG has been proposed, which can generate stochastic numbers in parallel by transforming the input binary number to a modified unary number and permuting it using a bit permutation network. Further, a method to share a single LFSR among multiple SNGs has been presented. Experimental results show that the proposed SNG can achieve improvement in SC correlation and energy-delay-product by 28.57% and , respectively, when compared to the existing shared LFSR-based SNG. For applications, such as edge detector, multiplier, and complex multiplication, the proposed SNG has achieved reduction in execution time and area-delay-product by up to and , respectively, as compared to others.
Autors: Vikash Sehwag;N. Prasad;Indrajit Chakrabarti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 231 - 235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parametric Level Set Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography
Abstract:
This paper presents an image reconstruction method based on parametric level set (PLS) method using electrical impedance tomography. The conductivity to be reconstructed was assumed to be piecewise constant and the geometry of the anomaly was represented by a shape-based PLS function, which we represent using Gaussian radial basis functions (GRBF). The representation of the PLS function significantly reduces the number of unknowns, and circumvents many difficulties that are associated with traditional level set (TLS) methods, such as regularization, re-initialization and use of signed distance function. PLS reconstruction results shown in this article are some of the first ones using experimental EIT data. The performance of the PLS method was tested with water tank data for two-phase visualization and with simulations which demonstrate the most popular biomedical application of EIT: lung imaging. In addition, robustness studies of the PLS method w.r.t width of the Gaussian function and GRBF centers were performed on simulated lung imaging data. The experimental and simulation results show that PLS method has significant improvement in image quality compared with the TLS reconstruction.
Autors: Dong Liu;Anil Kumar Khambampati;Jiangfeng Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 451 - 460
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Part of the Energy "In Crowd": Changing People's Energy Behavior via Group-Based Approaches
Abstract:
One of the most critical and pressing solutions needed to address global climate change is the transition to secure, affordable, and sustainable-energy systems. This transition is usually considered a technological challenge because it involves the integration of renewable energy, a trend toward decentralizing energy generation, and more demandside participation. However, involving consumers in the transition is crucial for its success. For example, sustainable-energy transitions may require consumers to adopt sustainable-energy sources, technologies, and energy-efficiency measures as well as change their direct and indirect energy use behaviors to the limited and fluctuating supply of (renewable) energy. However, such behaviors may not always be easy for consumers to adopt, as they can entail personal sacrifice and discomfort or require them to change habits or infrastructure, which can be cognitively and financially demanding. To guarantee a sustainable future for all, it is critical that we understand what motivates consumers' energy behaviors and how we can promote consumers' motivation to engage in sustainable-energy behaviors and act beyond immediate personal interests.
Autors: Lise Jans;Thijs Bouman;Kelly Fielding;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 35 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Passive Wireless Microelectromechanical Pressure Sensor for Harsh Environments
Abstract:
A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive-type passive wireless pressure sensor designed to operate in harsh environments at temperatures up to 1000 °C is presented. The pressure sensor has a sapphire-based diaphragm and structural body, and a platinum-based capacitive element. The capacitive element is configured as a part of a slot patch antenna that is designed to operate in a far-field sensing mechanism with a Ku-band electrical resonant frequency of 15 GHz. The electrical ground plane resides on the backside of the diaphragm, which deflects in response to an applied pressure. The electrical resonant frequency of the pressure sensor changes as a function of the applied pressure to the diaphragm. An increase in the applied pressure, for example, results in a decrease in the electrical resonant frequency. The sensitivity of the pressure sensor is related to the change in applied pressure to the change in the electrical resonant frequency. Three proof-of-concept dynamic pressure sensors are reported using silicon-based diaphragms with antenna diameters of 5.6, 5.7, and 5.8 mm, and measured sensitivities of 2.2, 2.2, and 5.1 kHz/Pa, respectively, up to 900 Pa. In addition, three proof-of-concept static pressure sensors are reported with corresponding measured sensitivities of 3.4, 3.1, and 2.5 kHz/Pa up to 900 Pa. A high-temperature dynamic pressure sensor designed for harsh environments is also reported using a sapphire-based diaphragm with an antenna diameter of 3.8 mm and measured sensitivity of 21.7 kHz/Pa up to 800 Pa. [2017-0210]
Autors: John E. Rogers;Yong-Kyu Yoon;Mark Sheplak;Jack W. Judy;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 73 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Piezoresistive Tactile Sensor Array for Touchscreen Panels
Abstract:
Touchscreen panels (TSPs), as human–machine interfaces, have been ubiquitously adopted in our daily life, especially in consumer electronics and numerous industrial applications. However, the lack of sensing the force information in conventional TSPs draws compromises in gesture strategies and user experiences, leading to complex gestures, multi-level menus, waiting and so on. This paper investigated a piezoresistive tactile sensor array, which sensed the force amplitude of a touch event with the location information using four tactile cells. The development of the sensor array prototype has been discussed, including the design, fabrication, packaging, and tests. Each sensor in the array was tested, demonstrating the sensitivity of 0.31 mV/mN in the normal direction. The responses of the sensor array to a 30-mN normal force at various locations along two diagonal lines have been tested, gathering high agreements with numerical solutions. The approach for quantifying the force and location information using a lookup table based on the least square method has been discussed by the probe tests with a 50-mN force in the normal direction on the sensor array. The sensor array showed the capability to achieve the location resolution of 2 mm with tested forces ranging from 0.01 to 0.25 N. The prototype of concept shed light on reducing the number of tactile cells for touchscreen applications. Further numerical analysis indicates the sensor array has the scalability for potential applications, in which a larger area of detection is needed without increasing the number of tactile cells.
Autors: Shichao Yue;Walied A. Moussa;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1685 - 1693
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Pliable Index Coding
Abstract:
In pliable index coding, we consider a server with messages and clients, where each client has as side information a subset of the messages. We seek to minimize the number of broadcast transmissions, so that each client can recover any one unknown message she does not already have. Previous work has shown that the pliable index coding problem is NP-hard and requires at most broadcast transmissions, which indicates exponential savings over the conventional index coding that requires in the worst case transmissions. In this paper, building on a decoding criterion that we propose, we first design a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that can realize the exponential benefits, by achieving, in the worst case, a performance upper bounded by broadcast transmissions. We extend our algorithm to the -requests case, where each client requires unknown messages that she does not have, and show that our algorithm requires at most broadcast transmissions. We construct lower bound instances that require at least transmissions for linear pliable index coding and at least transmissions for the- -requests case, indicating that both our upper and lower bounds are polynomials of and differ within a factor of . We provide a probabilistic analysis over random instances and show that the required number of transmissions is almost surely , as compared with the for index coding. In addition, we show that these upper and lower bounds also hold for vector pliable index coding in the worst case instances and the random graph instances, implying that vector coding does not provide benefits in terms of these bounds. Our numerical experiments show that our algorithm outperforms existing algorithms for pliable index coding by up to 50% less transmissions.
Autors: Linqi Song;Christina Fragouli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 979 - 999
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Power-Efficient Reconfigurable OTA-C Filter for Low-Frequency Biomedical Applications
Abstract:
A power-efficient operational-transconductance-amplifier-capacitor (OTA-C) filter for biomedical applications is presented with detailed noise analysis. This filter consists of a cascade of biquadratic sections, each of which is configured via a serial-peripheral-interface circuit embedded with non-volatile memories to provide low pass or bandpass response. All filter parameters, including the gains, natural frequency, and quality factor, are orthogonally adjustable by programming charges on floating-gate bias transistors. The reconfigurable biquadratic section is composed of four power-efficient linearized OTAs. Each OTA consists of complementary hextuple-diffusor-quadruple-differential-pairs (HDQDPs) and a floating-gate common-mode feedback scheme. A developed computer algorithm for transistor dimension optimization is adopted to extend the input linear range of the HDQDP based on nonlinearity cancellation. A prototype chip is designed and fabricated in a CMOS process to demonstrate reconfigurability and performance of the proposed filter. Each biquadratic section occupies with a frequency tuning range more than five decades. Measured spurious-free dynamic ranges (SFDR) at the low pass and bandpass outputs from one of the biquadratic sections are 52.6 and 54.55 dB, respectively, when the natural frequency is programmed at 2 kHz with power consumption of 107.2 nW. A fourth-order Chebyshev low pass and an eighth-order Butterworth bandpass responses are implemented with characterized SFDRs of 50.43 and 48.3 dB, respectively.
Autors: Sheng-Yu Peng;Yu-Hsien Lee;Tzu-Yun Wang;Hui-Chun Huang;Min-Rui Lai;Chiang-Hsi Lee;Li-Han Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 543 - 555
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Prediction Backed Model for Quality Assessment of Screen Content and 3-D Synthesized Images
Abstract:
In this paper, we address problems associated with free-energy-principle-based image quality assessment (IQA) algorithms for objectively assessing the quality of Screen Content (SC) and three-dimensional (3-D) synthesized images and also propose a very fast and efficient IQA algorithm to address these issues. These algorithms separate an image into predicted and disorder residual parts and assume disorder residual part does not contribute much to the overall perceptual quality. These algorithms fail for quality estimation of SC images as information of textual regions in SC images are largely separated into the disorder residual part and less information in the predicted part and subsequently, given a negligible emphasis. However, this is in contrast with the characteristics of human vision. Since our eyes are well trained to detect text in daily life. So, our human vision has prior information about text regions and can sense small distortions in these regions. In this paper, we proposed a new reduced-reference IQA algorithm for SC images based upon a more perceptually relevant prediction model and distortion categorization, which overcomes problems with existing free-energy-principle-based predictors. From experiments, it is validated that the proposed model has a better capability of efficiently estimating the quality of SC images as compared to the recently developed reduced-reference IQA algorithms. We also applied the proposed algorithm to judge the quality of 3-D synthesized images and observed that it even achieves better performance than the full-reference IQA metrics specifically designed for the 3-D synthesized views.
Autors: Vinit Jakhetiya;Ke Gu;Weisi Lin;Qiaohong Li;Sunil Prasad Jaiswal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 652 - 660
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Probabilistic Framework for Tracking the Formation and Evolution of Multi-Vehicle Groups in Public Traffic in the Presence of Observation Uncertainties
Abstract:
Future self-driving cars and current ones with advanced driver assistance systems are expected to interact with other traffic participants, which often are multiple other vehicles. Object vehicle tracking forms a key part of resolving this interaction. Furthermore, descriptions of the vehicle group behaviors, like group formations or splits, can enhance the utility of the tracking information for further motion planning and control decisions. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic method to estimate the formation and evolution, including splitting, re-grouping, and so on, of object vehicle groups and the membership conditions for individual object vehicles forming the groups. A Bayesian estimation approach is used to first estimate the states of the individual vehicles in the presence of uncertainties due to sensor imperfections and other disturbances acting on the individual object vehicles. The closeness of the individual vehicles in both their positions and velocity is then evaluated by a probabilistic collision condition. Based on this, a density-based clustering approach is applied to identify the vehicle groups as well as the identity of the individual vehicles in each group. An estimation of the state of the group as well as of the group boundary is also given. Finally, detailed numerical experiments are included, including one on real-time traffic intersection data, to illustrate the workings and the performance of the proposed approach. The potential application of the approach in motion planning of autonomous vehicles is also highlighted.
Autors: Qian Wang;Beshah Ayalew;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 560 - 571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Pulse Frequency Modulation Interpretation of VCOs Enabling VCO-ADC Architectures With Extended Noise Shaping
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose to study voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) based on the equivalence with pulse frequency modulators (PFMs). This approach is applied to the analysis of VCO-based analog-to-digital converters (VCO-ADCs) and deviates significantly from the conventional interpretation, where VCO-ADCs have been described as the first-order modulators. A first advantage of our approach is that it unveils systematic error components not described by the equivalence with a conventional modulator. A second advantage is that, by a proper selection of the pulses generated by the PFM, we can theoretically construct an open loop VCO-ADC with an arbitrary noise shaping order. Unfortunately, with the exception of the first-order noise shaping case, the required pulse waveforms cannot easily be implemented on the circuit level. However, we describe circuit techniques to achieve a good approximation of the required pulse waveforms, which can easily be implemented by practical circuits. Finally, our approach enables a straightforward description of multistage modulator architectures, which is an alternative and practically feasible way to realize a VCO-ADC with extended noise shaping.
Autors: Eric Gutierrez;Luis Hernandez;Fernando Cardes;Pieter Rombouts;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 444 - 457
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A PV Residential Microinverter With Grid-Support Function: Design, Implementation, and Field Testing
Abstract:
Microinverter-based photovoltaic (PV) systems now represent about 8% of the U.S. residential market, and offer many advantages including safety, performance, and simplified installation. The next-generation of PV microinverter will include more ancillary functions to support grid stability and reliability in more distributed generation smart-grid systems. A commercial ready PV microinverter not only focuses on efficiency and cost, but also on reliability, manufacturability, compliance of various grid-code, and electromagnetic interference regulations. This paper presents a detailed design and development process of a microinverter system from concept all the way to final commercial-ready prototype. Various design tradeoffs such as topology, control, filter solutions and power supplies, and mechanical packaging are provided. The required prototype testing and final system field tests are also presented. The presented design and test process intends to accelerate the future microinverter system design and development toward a commercial ready product.
Autors: Dong Dong;Mohammed S. Agamy;Maja Harfman-Todorovic;Xiaohu Liu;Luis Garces;Rui Zhou;Philip Cioffi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 469 - 481
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A QCM Sensor Array-Based Electronic Tongue With the Optimized Oscillator Circuit Using FPGA
Abstract:
In this paper, an electronic tongue (ET) based on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array was designed and the methods for sensor data analysis were described. In this regard, as chemical sensors, QCM crystals coated with three different phthalocyanines were employed to discriminate toxic chemicals in liquid media. For sensors’ preparation, an automatic coating instrument was developed based on the airbrush technique. The oscillator circuits used in the coating instrument and measurement setup were optimized to minimize the noise and mutual interference of the other oscillator circuits in the sensor array. The designed measurement system, which was responsible for collecting and storing data, communicating with a computer, consisted of a field-programmable gate-array-based control unit. The measurement system collected training data from the sensor array, and then computer application using MATLAB used an artificial neural network to find the composition of toxic chemicals in the sample water. The measurement system was tested for three different toxic chemicals, and the average success rate in predicting them was 4.08%. The desired chemicals can be detectable by preparing the necessary sensor array with the proposed ET.
Autors: Fırat Aydemir;Mehmet Ali Ebeoğlu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 431 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Randomized Algorithm for Parsimonious Model Identification
Abstract:
Identifying parsimonious models is generically a “hard” nonconvex problem. Available approaches typically rely on relaxations such as Group Lasso or nuclear norm minimization. Moreover, incorporating stability and model order constraints into the formalism in such methods entails a substantial increase in computational complexity. Motivated by these challenges, in this paper we present algorithms for parsimonious linear time invariant system identification aimed at identifying low-complexity models which i) incorporate a priori knowledge on the system (e.g., stability), ii) allow for data with missing/nonuniform measurements, and iii) are able to use data obtained from several runs of the system with different unknown initial conditions. The randomized algorithms proposed are based on the concept of atomic norm and provide a numerically efficient way to identify sparse models from large amounts of noisy data.
Autors: Burak Yılmaz;Korkut Bekiroglu;Constantino Lagoa;Mario Sznaier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 532 - 539
Publisher: IEEE
 

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