Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 0

» $E_{ {gamma }}$ -Resolvability
Abstract:
The conventional channel resolvability refers to the minimum rate needed for an input process to approximate the channel output distribution in total variation distance. In this paper, we study -resolvability, in which total variation is replaced by the more general distance. A general one-shot achievability bound for the precision of such an approximation is developed. Let be a random transformation, be an integer, and . We show that in the asymptotic setting where , a (nonnegative) randomness rate above is sufficient to approximate the output distribution using the channel , where , and is also necessary in the case of finite and . In particular, a randomness rate of is alw- ys sufficient. We also study the convergence of the approximation error under the high-probability criteria in the case of random codebooks. Moreover, by developing simple bounds relating and other distance measures, we are able to determine the exact linear growth rate of the approximation errors measured in relative entropy and smooth Rényi divergences for a fixed-input randomness rate. The new resolvability result is then used to derive: 1) a one-shot upper bound on the probability of excess distortion in lossy compression, which is exponentially tight in the i.i.d. setting; 2) a one-shot version of the mutual covering lemma; and 3) a lower bound on the size of the eavesdropper list to include the actual message and a lower bound on the eavesdropper false-alarm probability in the wiretap channel problem, which is (asymptotically) ensemble-tight.
Autors: Jingbo Liu;Paul Cuff;Sergio Verdú;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2629 - 2658
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $i$CAR-II: Infrastructure-Based Connectivity Aware Routing in Vehicular Networks
Abstract:
With the high demand of mobile Internet services, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become a promising technology to enable vehicular Internet access. However, the development of a reliable routing protocol to route data packets between vehicles and infrastructure gateways is still a challenging task due to the high mobility and frequent changes of the network topology. The conventional position-based routing (PBR) in VANETs can neither guarantee the existence of a routing path between the source and the destination prior to the transmission nor provide connection duration information, which makes it unsuitable to route Internet packets. In this paper, we propose a novel infrastructure-based connectivity aware routing protocol called CAR-II that enables multihop vehicular applications, as well as mobile data offloading and Internet-based services. CAR-II consists of a number of algorithms triggered and run by vehicles to predict local network connectivity and update location servers with real-time network information, in order to construct a global network topology. By providing real-time connectivity awareness, CAR-II improves the routing performance in VANETs by dynamically selecting routing paths with guaranteed connectivity and reduced delivery delay. Detailed analysis and simulation-based evaluations of CAR-II demonstrate the validity of using VANETs for mobile data offloading and the significant improvement of VANETs performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and end to end delay.
Autors: Nizar Alsharif;Xuemin Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4231 - 4244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $L_0$ Regularized Stationary-Time Estimation for Crowd Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, we tackle the problem of stationary crowd analysis which is as important as modeling mobile groups in crowd scenes and finds many important applications in crowd surveillance. Our key contribution is to propose a robust algorithm for estimating how long a foreground pixel becomes stationary. It is much more challenging than only subtracting background because failure at a single frame due to local movement of objects, lighting variation, and occlusion could lead to large errors on stationary-time estimation. To achieve robust and accurate estimation, sparse constraints along spatial and temporal dimensions are jointly added by mixed partials (which are second-order gradients) to shape a 3D stationary-time map. It is formulated as an L0 optimization problem. Besides background subtraction, it distinguishes among different foreground objects, which are close or overlapped in the spatio-temporal space by using a locally shared foreground codebook. The proposed technologies are further demonstrated through three applications. 1) Based on the results of stationary-time estimation, 12 descriptors are proposed to detect four types of stationary crowd activities. 2) The averaged stationary-time map is estimated to analyze crowd scene structures. 3) The result of stationary-time estimation is also used to study the influence of stationary crowd groups to traffic patterns.
Autors: Shuai Yi;Xiaogang Wang;Cewu Lu;Jiaya Jia;Hongsheng Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 981 - 994
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $V$ -band $times 8$ Frequency Multiplier With Optimized Structure and High Spectral Purity Using 65-nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
This paper proposes a V-band frequency multiplier for 60-GHz wireless communication systems using 65-nm CMOS technology. The frequency multiplier consists of three stages of amplifiers and three stages of doublers. The second and fifth stages of the frequency multiplier are balanced structures, while the third stage of the frequency multiplier is a single-ended structure. The proposed frequency multiplier is optimized, and it has low power consumption, high spectral purity, and a small size. It occupies an area of mm2 and achieves a maximum output power of −1.8 dBm with an input power of −24 dBm in the frequency range of 46.4–52 GHz. The circuit consumes 55 mA from a 1-V supply. All harmonic suppressions are over 37.6 dBc in the frequency range of 46.4–52 GHz. These results represent the state-of-the-art for CMOS frequency multipliers.
Autors: Jae-Sun Kim;Hyun-Myung Oh;Chul Woo Byeon;Ju Ho Son;Jeong Ho Lee;Jooseok Lee;Choul-Young Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 506 - 508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-Bit Quantization and Oversampling at the Receiver: Communication Over Bandlimited Channels With Noise
Abstract:
A bandlimited additive white Gaussian noise channel is considered where the output is 1-bit quantized and oversampled with respect to the Nyquist rate. We consider root raised cosine filters at the transmitter and receiver. In particular, we focus on a roll-off factor equal to 1 and 0. Because of the oversampling the channel has infinite memory. An auxiliary channel law is proposed which describes the resulting received sequences based on a truncated waveform. The random distortion due to the residual sidelobes can be considered as an additional noise term in the auxiliary channel law. The auxiliary channel law is utilized for computing a lower bound on the achievable rate and in a further step for optimizing a Markov source model. Different signaling schemes have been considered, such as BPSK and ASK. Moreover, Nyquist signaling and faster-than-Nyquist signaling are considered. The resulting achievable rates are superior as compared with results from the literature on bandlimited channels with noise, 1-bit quantization, and oversampling at the receiver.
Autors: Lukas Landau;Meik Dörpinghaus;Gerhard P. Fettweis;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1007 - 1010
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Analytical Modeling of Surface Potential and Threshold Voltage for Vertical Super-Thin Body FET
Abstract:
In this paper, a 2-D analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage of novel vertical super-thin body (VSTB) FET has been derived by solving 2-D Poisson equation. The analytical surface potential expression for gate-side surface and sidewall side surface has been modeled using parabolic surface potential approximation. The threshold voltage model for the VSTB FET has been derived by applying strong inversion criterion at the surface potential minimum value. The threshold voltage model for the VSTB FET has been analyzed by varying the body thickness, oxide thickness, and channel doping concentrations. The drain-induced barrier lowering and threshold voltage roll-off parameters are also extracted and analyzed for different body thicknesses. The models for surface potential and threshold voltage have been compared with the results obtained from the 2-D numerical device simulator and a very good agreement between the two has been observed.
Autors: Saurav Roy;Amitabh Chatterjee;Dheeraj Kumar Sinha;Rimma Pirogova;Srimanta Baishya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2106 - 2112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 IEEE CIS Awards [Society Briefs]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of select CIS society awards.
Autors: Janusz Kacprzyk;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 8 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 RFIC Symposium
Abstract:
Provides a notice of upcoming conference events of interest to practitioners and researchers.
Autors: Kevin Kobayashi;Walid Ali-Ahmad;Stefano Pellerano;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 95 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 28-nm Latch-Type Sense Amplifier Modification for Coupling Suppression
Abstract:
With the development of modern semiconductor fabrication technology, the channel length of the CMOS device and the device pitch continually shrink accompanied by more and more severe process variation and signal coupling effect, respectively. In this paper, we explain how the coupling effect interferes with the action of the sense amplifier (SA); then we introduce a coupling suppressed SA. In our design, we adjust the time control. The coupled signals are classified and suppressed by different turn on currents. The new architecture can achieve obvious improvement under differential input in our Monte Carlo simulation. The area and speed cost can be omitted. Through our work, we recommend our design of SA and draw attention to the coupling effect for other circuits.
Autors: Yiping Zhang;Ziou Wang;Canyan Zhu;Lijun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1767 - 1773
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2D Observer-Based Control of a Vascular Microrobot
Abstract:
The paper addresses the 2D observer-based control of a magnetic microrobot navigating in a cylindrical blood vessel along a reference trajectory. In particular, this robot faces the nonlinear drag force induced by the pulsatile blood flow, which can hardly be measured. We consequently propose a mean value theorem (MVT) based observer to estimate the blood velocity from the sole measurement of the robot position. We also prove the stability of the observer-based backstepping controller. The resulting estimation and tracking are then illustrated through simulations, as well as robustness to parametric uncertainty, measurement noise, and dynamical errors when the pulsatile blood flow is incorrectly modeled.
Autors: Lounis Sadelli;Matthieu Fruchard;Antoine Ferreira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2194 - 2206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Morphology Prediction of Progressive Spinal Deformities From Probabilistic Modeling of Discriminant Manifolds
Abstract:
We introduce a novel approach for predicting the progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 3-D spine models reconstructed from biplanar X-ray images. Recent progress in machine learning has allowed to improve classification and prognosis rates, but lack a probabilistic framework to measure uncertainty in the data. We propose a discriminative probabilistic manifold embedding where locally linear mappings transform data points from high-dimensional space to corresponding low-dimensional coordinates. A discriminant adjacency matrix is constructed to maximize the separation between progressive (P) and nonprogressive (NP) groups of patients diagnosed with scoliosis, while minimizing the distance in latent variables belonging to the same class. To predict the evolution of deformation, a baseline reconstruction is projected onto the manifold, from which a spatiotemporal regression model is built from parallel transport curves inferred from neighboring exemplars. Rate of progression is modulated from the spine flexibility and curve magnitude of the 3-D spine deformation. The method was tested on 745 reconstructions from 133 subjects using longitudinal 3-D reconstructions of the spine, with results demonstrating the discriminatory framework can identify between P and NP of scoliotic patients with a classification rate of 81% and the prediction differences of 2.1° in main curve angulation, outperforming other manifold learning methods. Our method achieved a higher prediction accuracy and improved the modeling of spatiotemporal morphological changes in highly deformed spines compared with other learning methods.
Autors: Samuel Kadoury;William Mandel;Marjolaine Roy-Beaudry;Marie-Lyne Nault;Stefan Parent;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1194 - 1204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 360° Phase Detector Cell for Measurement Systems Based on Switched Dual Multipliers
Abstract:
This letter presents a 360° phase detector cell for performing phase-shift measurements on multiple output systems. An analog phase detector, capable of detecting a maximum range of ±90°, has been used to perform a double multiplication of two signals, both in-phase and phase-shifted. The proposed solution broadens the frequency range beyond other solutions that require to fulfill the quadrature condition. Subsequently, the possibility of reaching the theoretical limit of phase shift within a hybrid coupler (<90° ± 90°) is discussed by using four straight-line equations to characterize the phase detector response. The proposed solution allows to extend up to 360° the phase detection range and provide an increased immunity with respect to both impedance mismatching and phase deviations within the hybrid coupler. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design, a phase detector cell prototype has been implemented using a commercial hybrid coupler with a phase shift of 92.5° ± 0.5° at 3.1–5.9 GHz, an external switch and a microcontroller with 2 kB of memory. Measurements show a range of detection of 360° (±180°) across the tested frequency band of 2.7–6 GHz.
Autors: Baltasar Pérez;Victor Araña Pulido;Javier Perez-Mato;Francisco Cabrera;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 503 - 505
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D X-ray tech for easy reverse engineering of ICs [News]
Abstract:
A team of researchers based in Switzerland is on the way to laying bare much of the secret technology inside commercial processors. They pointed a beam of X-rays at a piece of an Intel processor and were able to reconstruct the chip's warren of transistors and wiring in three dimensions. In the future, the team says, this imaging technique could be extended to create high-resolution, large-scale images of the interiors of chips. The technique is a significant departure from the way the chip industry currently looks inside finished chips to reverse engineer them or check that intellectual property hasn't been misused. Today, reverseengineering outfits progressively remove layers of a processor and take electron microscope images of one small patch of the chip at a time.
Autors: Rachel Courtland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 11 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5-GHz V2V Channel Characteristics for Parking Garages
Abstract:
Aiming for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure applications, we provide radio propagation channel characterization results for parking garage channels in the 5 GHz, based on experimental data collected in four typical above-ground parking garages. As a common scenario in urban or suburban settings, such garages provide an indoor propagation environment for vehicular communication systems. Multiple measurements were conducted to characterize the parking garage channel, including same floor and different floor measurements, with and without line of sight, with full and empty garages, and in both motionless and mobile conditions. Path loss, small-scale fading Ricean K-factor, and root-mean-square delay spread (RMS-DS) are quantified. Statistical tapped delay line models with Markov chains that describe the birth/death of multipath components are also provided. Our results provide channel impulse responses for in-garage driving tests, allowing the performance of V2V communication systems in parking garages to be evaluated or simulated based upon the channel models provided in this paper.
Autors: Ruoyu Sun;David W. Matolak;Pengyu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3538 - 3547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5:1 Bandwidth Dielectric Rod Antenna Using a Novel Feed Structure
Abstract:
We present an ultrawideband dielectric rod antenna using a novel V-shaped twin-wire tapered transverse electromagnetic waveguide as the feed structure. The new feed taper allows for much wider bandwidth and resolves the pattern degradation in higher frequencies, which is typically encountered in endfire mode dielectric rod antennas. The three sections of the antenna geometry, namely, the feed taper, the rod body, and the radiation taper, are concurrently designed to achieve a 5:1 frequency bandwidth covering 6–30 GHz, 17-dB maximum gain and sidelobe levels below −20 dB over the entire band. The design is fabricated using Rexolit_1422 (epsilon_) and measured performance is compared with simulation results, illustrating the effectiveness of the new feed structure in providing 5:1 bandwidth with stable radiation patterns within the entire band.
Autors: Anas J. Abumunshar;Kubilay Sertel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2208 - 2214
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Mobile and Wireless Communications Technology (Osseiran, A. et al; 2016) [Book Reviews]
Abstract:
This book was written by leading experts in the field of 5G mobile communications. The contents are based on several deliverables of the European Union (EU) project, Mobile and Wireless Communication Enablers for the Twenty-Twenty Information Society (METIS), which was accomplished between 2012 and 2015 by 25 companies and institutions from all over Europe. After a short introduction in Chapter 1, the following 13 chapters reflect the results of the work packages of the METIS project. The book may be a good starting point to become acquainted with novel transmission techniques and networking solutions proposed for 5G system. Nearly 600 references will help the interested reader dive deeper into a specific topic. It may also serve as a valuable source of information for graduate students specializing in mobile communications. I can truly recommend this book to the entire wireless communication community.
Autors: Rafal Krenz;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 18 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Network Slicing - Part 1: Concepts, Principles, and Architectures
Abstract:
The articles in this special section focus on the technologies, applications, and services supported by 5G mobile commuincations.
Autors: Konstantinos Samdanis;Steven Wright;Albert Banchs;Antonio Capone;Mehmet Ulema;Kazuaki Obana;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 70 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G-Enabled Cooperative Intelligent Vehicular (5GenCIV) Framework: When Benz Meets Marconi
Abstract:
As one of the most popular social media platforms today, Twitter provides people with an effective way to communicate and interact with each other. Through these interactions, influence among users gradually emerges and changes people's opinions. Although previous work has studied interpersonal influence as the probability of activating others during information diffusion, they ignore an important fact that information diffusion is the result of influence, while dynamic interactions among users produce influence. In this article, the authors propose a novel temporal influence model to learn users' opinion behaviors regarding a specific topic by exploring how influence emerges during communications. The experiments show that their model performs better than other influence models with different influence assumptions when predicting users' future opinions, especially for the users with high opinion diversity.
Autors: Xiang Cheng;Chen Chen;Wuxiong Zhang;Yang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 53 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G-ICN: Delivering ICN Services over 5G Using Network Slicing
Abstract:
The challenging requirements of 5G, from both the applications and architecture perspectives, motivate the need to explore the feasibility of delivering services over new network architectures. As 5G proposes application-centric network slicing, which enables the use of new data planes realizable over a programmable compute, storage, and transport infrastructure, we consider information- centric networking as a candidate network architecture to realize 5G objectives. This can coexist with end-to-end IP services that are offered today. To this effect, we first propose a 5G-ICN architecture and compare its benefits (i.e., innovative services offered by leveraging ICN features) to current 3GPP-based mobile architectures. We then introduce a general application-driven framework that emphasizes the flexibility afforded by network functions virtualization and software defined networking over which 5G-ICN can be realized. We specifically focus on the issue of how mobility as a service (MaaS) can be realized as a 5G-ICN slice, and give an in-depth overview on resource provisioning and inter-dependencies and coordination among functional 5G-ICN slices to meet the MaaS objectives. The article tries to show the flexibility of delivering services over ICN where virtualization of control and data plane can be used by applications to meet complex service logic execution while creating value to its end users.
Autors: Ravishankar Ravindran;Asit Chakraborti;Syed Obaid Amin;Aytac Azgin;Guoqiang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 101 - 107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 75–110-GHz $W$ -band High-Linearity Traveling-Wave T/R Switch by Using Negative Gate/Body-Biasing in 90-nm CMOS
Abstract:
In this letter, a 75–110-GHz W-band high-linearity traveling-wave single-pole-double-throw switch in 90-nm CMOS GUTM 1P9M is presented. Compared with the traditional traveling-wave switch with negative body-biasing technique, the proposed design applies the negative biasing to the gate terminals simultaneously. Therefore, the third-order intermodulation product is significantly reduced. The measured results show that the insertion loss is less than 3.4 dB, return loss is better than 10 dB, and Tx-to-Rx isolation is higher than 40 dB, respectively. For the linearity of the switch, the measured IP1dB is higher than 15 dBm and IIP3 is 37.1 dBm at 94 GHz, respectively. The proposed switch presents good performance of insertion loss, isolation, IP1dB, and IIP3, among the compared millimeter-wave CMOS switches.
Autors: Wen-Chian Lai;Chien-Chang Chou;Shih-Chiao Huang;Tzuen-Hsi Huang;Huey-Ru Chuang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 488 - 490
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 800 Gb/s (8 × 100 Gb/s) Nyquist Half-Cycle Single-Sideband Modulation Direct-Detection Transmission Over 320 km SSMF at C-band
Abstract:
Direct detection shows great attraction in short- and medium-reach transmission for its low cost and easy integration. Especially, single-sideband (SSB) Nyquist subcarrier modulation is a promising technology due to its high spectral efficiency and strong tolerance to chromatic dispersion. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate 800 Gb/s (8 × 100 Gb/s) direct-detection wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission over 320 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) and half-cycle SSB subcarrier modulation. Each channel carries 25 Gbd 16-QAM SSB signal and the channel spacing is 35 GHz. The nonlinear performance is discussed for both single channel and WDM systems. The bit error rate of the WDM system transmitting over 320 km SSMF is 6.73 × 10–3. Considering 20% hard-decision forward error correction and frame redundancy, a net bit rate of 650.4 Gb/s is achieved with a spectral efficiency of 2.32 b/s/Hz. With this spectral efficient modulation technique, our study achieves C-band high-capacity direct-detection WDM systems with metro distance transmission as long as 320 km SSMF.
Autors: Kaiheng Zou;Yixiao Zhu;Fan Zhang;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1900 - 1905
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Estimation of Human Forearm and Wrist Dynamic Properties
Abstract:
It is important to estimate the 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) impedance of human forearm and wrist (i.e., forearm prono-supination, and wrist flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) in motor control and in the diagnosis of altered mechanical resistance following stroke. There is, however, a lack of methods to characterize 3 DOF impedance. Thus, we developed a reliable and accurate impedance estimation method, the distal internal model based impedance control (dIMBIC)-based method, to characterize the 3 DOF impedance, including cross-coupled terms between DOFs, for the first time. Its accuracy and reliability were experimentally validated using a robot with substantial nonlinear joint friction. The 3 DOF human forearm and wrist impedance of eight healthy subjects was reliably characterized, and its linear behavior was verified. Thus, the dIMBIC-based method can provide us with 3 DOF forearm and wrist impedance regardless of nonlinear robot joint friction. It is expected that, with the proposed method, the 3 DOF impedance estimation can promote motor control studies and complement the diagnosis of altered wrist and forearm resistance post-stroke by providing objective impedance estimates, including cross-coupled terms.
Autors: Kyungbin Park;Pyung-Hun Chang;Sang Hoon Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 436 - 446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.7-V 0.6- $mu text{W}$ 100-kS/s Low-Power SAR ADC With Statistical Estimation-Based Noise Reduction
Abstract:
This paper presents a power-efficient noise reduction technique for successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) based on the statistical estimation theory. It suppresses both comparator noise and quantization error by accurately estimating the ADC conversion residue. It allows a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to be achieved with a noisy low-power comparator and a relatively low resolution digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The proposed technique has low hardware complexity, requiring no change to the standard ADC operation except for repeating the least significant bit (LSB) comparisons. Three estimation schemes are studied and the optimal Bayes estimator is chosen for a prototype 11-b ADC in 65-nm CMOS. The measured SNR is improved by 7 dB with the proposed noise reduction technique. Overall, it achieves 10.5-b effective number of bits while operating at 100 kS/s and consuming from a 0.7-V power supply.
Autors: Long Chen;Xiyuan Tang;Arindam Sanyal;Yeonam Yoon;Jie Cong;Nan Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1388 - 1398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1–3 GHz Delta–Sigma-Based Closed-Loop Fully Digital Phase Modulator in 45-nm CMOS SOI
Abstract:
This paper presents a new fully digital architecture for an RF phase modulator with significantly improved phase resolution. The modulator utilizes 32 variable delay-lines in a delay-locked loop (DLL) configuration to provide 1–3 GHz operation with coarse 5-bit resolution. A 5-bit low-glitch multiplexer with accurate delay control on the control lines is used to select different taps of the DLL according to the baseband digital phase data to generate the desired phase modulated signal at the output. To further increase the effective resolution, a high speed 10-bit input, 5-bit output digital delta–sigma modulator (DSM) is added in front of the multiplexer. The DSM compensates for the phase truncation occurring in the 5-bit DLL. The impact of delay mismatch and phase offset in the DLL on the phase modulator output performance are studied. The phase modulator IC is implemented in 45-nm CMOS SOI and achieves <2% rms EVM together with 55-dB rejection of close-to-carrier emissions for an 8-Mb/s GMSK signal at 2.3 GHz, with power consumption below 35 mW.
Autors: Hamed Gheidi;Toshifumi Nakatani;Vincent W. Leung;Peter M. Asbeck;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1185 - 1195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1-V 5-MHz Bandwidth 68.3-dB SNDR Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator With a Feedback-Assisted Quantizer
Abstract:
A low-power continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) incorporating a multi-bit feedback-assisted quantizer (FBAQ) is presented in this paper. The proposed multi-bit quantizer is placed in a negative feedback loop to reduce the signal swing at its input. As a result, the number of comparator required for signal quantization is reduced. Furthermore, the modulator is optimized for low-voltage swing operation, in which the excess-loop-delay compensation is embedded without requiring additional hardware. With a 240-MHz sampling clock, this CTDSM achieves a peak SNDR of 68.3 dB and a dynamic range of 71 dB over a 5-MHz signal bandwidth. Fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS process, this chip consumes 4.6 mW from a 1-V supply, which corresponds to a figure of merit (FoM) of 216 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Chan-Hsiang Weng;Yung-Yu Lin;Tsung-Hsien Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1085 - 1093
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.5-GHz 6.144T Correlations/s 64 $times $ 64 Cross-Correlator With 128 Integrated ADCs for Real-Time Synthetic Aperture Imaging
Abstract:
A 65-nm CMOS, 18-mm2, 1.5-GHz 64 64 cross-correlator with 128 on-chip analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) enables real-time synthetic aperture radiometric imaging. This brief enables high-resolution synthetic aperture radiometry by greatly improving the integration and energy efficiency of the mixed-signal baseband cross-correlator. The design supports analog-in and digital correlation out, removing approximately 5 W of power that would otherwise be needed for I/O between the ADCs and the digital correlation core. The prototype 6.144T correlation/s 1.5 Gsamples/s 64 64 correlator is designed for satellite-based radiometric imaging of water in the atmosphere. Massive parallelism together with an optimized correlation scheme leads to a measured energy consumption of only 0.35 pJ/correlation/cycle. A correlation efficiency greater than 90% is achieved for input signal levels greater than −30 dBm.
Autors: John Bell;Phil Knag;Shuanghong Sun;Yong Lim;Thomas Chen;Jeffrey Fredenburg;Chia-Hsiang Chen;Chunyang Zhai;Aaron Rocca;Nicholas Collins;Andres Tamez;Jorge A. Pernillo;Justin M. Correll;Alan B. Tanner;Zhengya Zhang;Michael P. Flynn;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1450 - 1457
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 15–21 GHz I/Q Upconverter With an On-Chip Linearization Circuit for 10 Gbps mm-Wave Links
Abstract:
This letter presents a 15–21 GHz I/Q upconverter, based on two Gilbert-cell mixers with an on-chip wideband linearization loop that extends the linear region and allows power efficient operation at backoff power levels. A quadrature LO signal is generated using an integrated two-stage polyphase filter. Measurements show a conversion gain of −5.5 dB, an output 1-dB compression point of 0 dBm, and an image suppression of 40 dB over the 6-GHz output bandwidth. An error vector magnitude of 3.5% is obtained for a 10-Gb/s 64-QAM signal with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The circuit is integrated in a 55-nm BiCMOS process and occupies . The dc power consumption is 61 mW.
Autors: David Del Rio;Iñaki Gurutzeaga;Ainhoa Rezola;Juan F. Sevillano;Igone Velez;Vincent Puyal;Jose Luis Gonzalez-Jimenez;Roc Berenguer;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 512 - 514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 170-dB $Omega $ CMOS TIA With 52-pA Input-Referred Noise and 1-MHz Bandwidth for Very Low Current Sensing
Abstract:
A fully integrated current sensing interface chip employing a capacitive-feedback transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is presented. A robust dc current removal block is proposed to prevent the dc portion of the input current from saturating the output voltage. This block allows the TIA to operate in the presence of a wide range of input dc currents, and the cancellation loop is designed to enhance its stability. The TIA is fully integrated in a standard 0.13 CMOS technology, and a gain of 170 dB is achieved without requiring any off-chip resistors. The integrated input-referred current noise of the interface circuit is 0.4, 3.8, and 52 pARMS within 0.01, 0.1, and 1 MHz integration bandwidths, respectively.
Autors: Mohammad Taherzadeh-Sani;Said M. Hussain Hussaini;Hamidreza Rezaee-Dehsorkh;Frederic Nabki;Mohamad Sawan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1756 - 1766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.8 mW/Gb/s, 14 Gb/s Serial Link Transceiver
Abstract:
Design techniques to improve energy efficiency of serial link transceivers are presented. Power consumption is reduced by using: 1) low-power clock generation, recovery, and distribution schemes; 2) charge-based circuits to implement analog front-end and samplers/flip-flops; and 3) a partially segmented voltage-mode (VM) output driver. An -oscillator based digital phase-locked loop (PLL) is used to generate a low jitter clock that is shared between the transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx). The clock recovery unit uses a local ring-oscillator based PLL to reduce the number of phase interpolators and the amount of high-frequency clock distribution. Charge-based samplers that were shown to operate with limited return-to-zero voltage swings and consume only dynamic power are modified to provide non-return-to-zero outputs and used extensively in the deserializer and Rx front-end circuits. A partially segmented VM output driver with embedded 2-tap de-emphasis is proposed to reduce power consumption of pre-drivers. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process, the 14 Gb/s transceiver prototype employs aforementioned techniques and achieves an energy efficiency of 2.8 mW/Gb/s. The Tx achieves a phase margin of 0.36 UI (BER = 10−12) at the end of an 11 dB loss channel with an energy efficiency of 0.89 mW/Gb/s. The Rx recovers clock with 1.8 psrms long term absolute jitter at BER < 10−12 and achieves an energy efficiency of 1.69 mW/Gb/s. The -oscillator based digital PLL achieves an integrated jitter of 0.605 psrms with an energy efficiency of 0.5 mW/GHz at 7 GHz output frequency.
Autors: Saurabh Saxena;Guanghua Shu;Romesh Kumar Nandwana;Mrunmay Talegaonkar;Ahmed Elkholy;Tejasvi Anand;Woo-Seok Choi;Pavan Kumar Hanumolu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1399 - 1411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28-GHz Phased-Array Receiver Front End With Dual-Vector Distributed Beamforming
Abstract:
This paper presents a 28-GHz four-channel phased-array receiver in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology for fifth-generation cellular application. The phased-array receiver employs scalar-only weighting functions within each receive path and then global quadrature power combining to realize beamforming. We discuss both the theory and nonidealities of this architecture and then circuit design details for our phased-array front-end prototype. Differential low-noise amplifiers and dual-vector variable-gain amplifiers are used to realize each front end in a compact area of 0.3 mm2. Across 4-b phase settings, each array element achieves 5.1–7 dB noise figure, −16.8 to −13.8 dBm input-referred 1-dB compression point, and −10.5 to −8.9 dBm input-referred third-order intercept point. The average gain per element is 10.5 dB at 29.7 GHz, whereas the 3-dB bandwidth is 24.5% (26.5–33.9 GHz). Root-mean-squared gain and phase errors are less than 0.6 dB and 5.4° across 28–32 GHz, respectively, and all four elements provide well-matched and well-isolated responses. Power consumption is 136 mW per element, equaling 546 mW for the four-element array.
Autors: Yi-Shin Yeh;Benjamin Walker;Ed Balboni;Brian Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1230 - 1244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4-Megapixel Cooled CCD Division of Focal Plane Polarimeter for Celestial Imaging
Abstract:
The field of astronomy relies on spectral and polarization imagery recorded across a wide range of spectra to make inferences about imaged objects from nearby and distant galaxies. One of the challenges in recording celestial polarization information is recording multiple images filtered with various polarization optics, such as linear polarization filters or retarders, and with low-noise, low-dark-current sensors. In this paper, we present a division of focal plane polarimeter that can operate at room temperature down to −20 °C. When the imaging sensor operates at −20 °C, the dark currents is reduced by two orders of magnitude, which improves the polarization extinction ratio by ~5-fold. Comprehensive optoelectronic tests are presented with data recorded with the polarimeter.
Autors: Radoslav Marinov;Nan Cui;Missael Garcia;Samuel B. Powell;Viktor Gruev;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2725 - 2733
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45–75 GHz Vector Modulator MMIC With Built-In Voltage Converter
Abstract:
This letter presents a 45–75 GHz balanced vector modulator (VM) with a built-in voltage converter for quadrature phase shift keying modulation. With embedded voltage converter, the design becomes less sensitive to threshold voltage variation. The effect of the Lange coupler’s coupling factor and cold FET’s total gate width on wideband symmetry performance of the modulator is investigated. A 30-GHz operation bandwidth centered at 60 GHz is achieved by using a 0.15- GaAs pHEMT process. On-wafer measurement results of the VM show that, from 58 to 67 GHz, the amplitude and phase errors are better than ±0.45 dB and ±2°, respectively. Within a wide frequency range of 45–67 GHz, for all modulation states, the amplitude and phase errors are within ±0.9 dB and ±4°, respectively, while the insertion loss is less than 11.5 dB and return loss is better than 10 dB.
Autors: Dawei Zhang;Bo Zhang;Hongxi Yu;Jun Li;Thangarasu Bharatha Kumar;Kaixue Ma;Kiat Seng Yeo;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 515 - 517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 51.3-MHz 21.8-ppm/°C CMOS Relaxation Oscillator With Temperature Compensation
Abstract:
A 51.3-MHz 18- 21.8-ppm/°C relaxation oscillator is presented in 90-nm CMOS. The proposed oscillator employs an integrated error feedback and composite resistors to minimize its sensitivity to temperature variations. For a temperature range from −20 °C to 100 °C, the fabricated circuit demonstrates a frequency variation less than ±0.13%, leading to an average frequency drift of 21.8 ppm/°C. As the supply voltage changes from 0.8 to 1.2 V, the frequency variation is ±0.53%. The measured rms jitter and phase noise at 1-MHz offset are 89.27 ps and −83.29 dBc/Hz, respectively.
Autors: Yu-Kai Tsai;Liang-Hung Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 490 - 494
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 58-nm 2-Gb MLC “B4-Flash” Memory with Flexible Multisector Architecture
Abstract:
A 58-nm 2-Gb multi-level cell (MLC) B4-Flash memory with flexible multisector architecture has been developed, which can be realized by unique features of B4-Flash with P-channel cell; large-data programming with small cell current thanks to back bias-assisted band-to-band tunneling-induced hot electron (B4-HE) injection mechanism, simple erase sequence without over-erase problem. In this architecture, each program and erase unit size can be extended from 256 B to 4 KB and from 256 KB to 4 MB, respectively, by utilizing 8 sectors & 2 banks simultaneous operation, and consequently 10 times faster 3.7 MB/s rewrite speed than that of conventional NOR flash can be realized by 4 KB / 980 programming and 4 MB / 80 ms erasing. A fast 110-ns random access with enough read margin has been achieved by simultaneous parallel sensing at 3 op-amps with cell-bias compensation scheme. This paper proves that B4-Flash can be a candidate for various applications which need both fast rewrite speed and fast random access as a fast rewritable NOR-type flash with MLC capability and scalability.
Autors: Taku Ogura;Yasushi Kasa;Kazuhide Kurosaki;Mitsuhiro Tomoeda;Hisakazu Otoi;Satoshi Shimizu;Masafumi Katsumata;Natsuo Ajika;Kazuo Kobayashi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1435 - 1442
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6-mW, 70.1-dB SNDR, and 20-MHz BW Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulator Using Low-Noise High-Linearity Feedback DAC
Abstract:
A 4-bit, third-order, continuous-time modulator is presented for use in wireless communications systems. Based on small-signal noise models, analyses for reducing noise in the feedback digital-to-analog converter (DAC) are presented in detail. This enables easy performance/area optimization for the DAC unit elements and the RC noise filter in the DAC bias circuits. To obtain high linearity while simplifying the DAC design, circuit- and layout-level design techniques for minimizing switching time mismatches among and inside the DAC unit elements are presented. As a result, glitch-induced harmonic distortion is greatly reduced, requiring only a simple data-weighted averaging for the multibit DAC. In combination with multipath multistage op amps used to implement active-RC integrators, the presented techniques make it feasible to design a high-performance modulator with low power and small area, which is desired in many wireless communications systems. The experimental prototype, implemented in a 28-nm CMOS technology, achieves a 72.6-dB dynamic range, a 70.7-dB peak SNR, and a 70.1-dB peak signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio for a signal bandwidth of 20 MHz. The total power consumption is 6 mW from a 1- and 1.4-V supply, of which analog and digital circuits dissipate 4.5 and 1.5 mW, respectively. The total active area is 0.058 mm2.
Autors: Je-Kwang Cho;Sunsik Woo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1742 - 1755
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6.78-MHz Single-Stage Wireless Power Receiver Using a 3-Mode Reconfigurable Resonant Regulating Rectifier
Abstract:
A 6.78-MHz wireless power receiver using a 3-mode reconfigurable resonant regulating rectifier for resonant wireless power transfer is presented. The proposed receiver improves power conversion efficiency and reduces die area and off-chip components by achieving power conversion plus voltage regulation in one stage, using only four on-chip power transistors and one off-chip capacitor. Moreover, the proposed 3-mode operation reduces the output voltage ripples and accomplishes switching synchronization easily during mode switching. The proposed pulsewidth modulation controller using ramp-stacking technique and type-II compensation achieves tight voltage regulation in the full loading range with fast transient responses. An adaptive sizing method is also employed to further improve the light-load efficiency of the receiver. Fabricated in a standard 0.35- CMOS process using 5-V devices, the receiver regulates the output voltage at 5 V and delivers a maximum power of 6 W. The measured peak efficiency reaches 92.2% when delivering an output power of 3.5 W. For a load step between 0.5 and 5 W, the overshoot and undershoot are less than 300 mV and the settling times are less than 16 .
Autors: Lin Cheng;Wing-Hung Ki;Chi-Ying Tsui;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1412 - 1423
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz Dual-Vector Doherty Beamformer
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate a 60-GHz transmit beamformer implemented in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology which includes a Doherty amplifier driven by a dual-vector phase rotator (DVR). In addition, a benchmarking circuit comprising another DVR followed by two class-AB amplifiers, each nearly identical to the carrier amplifier within the Doherty, is included which allows us to measure the Doherty improvement in terms of efficiency and output power over conventional approaches. The dual-vector Doherty element achieves 28-dB gain with an output 1-dB compression point of +16.7 dBm. A power-added efficiency (PAE) of 16.5% is realized at 1-dB compression, with 10.8% and 7% PAE at 3- and 6-dB back-off, respectively. A stand-alone Doherty amplifier achieves a 17.1-dBm output 1-dB compression point at 23.7% PAE and a 6-dB back-off PAE of 13%. The DVR performs the phase shifting for each phased-array element necessary for beamforming, as well as providing tunable amplitude balance and phase separation between input signals to the Doherty amplifier. This allows optimization of both linearity and efficiency profiles across frequency. The Doherty element is capable of generating full 360° phase shifts with 5-b accuracy having root-mean-squared errors less than 0.6 dB in amplitude and 6° in phase from 60 to 66 GHz.
Autors: Kevin Greene;Anirban Sarkar;Brian Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1373 - 1387
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 94-GHz 4TX–4RX Phased-Array FMCW Radar Transceiver With Antenna-in-Package
Abstract:
A 94-GHz phased-array transceiver IC for frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar with four transmitters, four receivers, and integrated LO generation has been designed and fabricated in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology, and integrated into an antenna-in-package module. The transceiver, targeting gesture recognition applications for mobile devices, has been designed using phased-array techniques to reduce the total DC power while still maintaining the required link budget for FMCW operation. The complete array achieves state-of-the-art for W-band per-element power consumption of 106 mW per TX element and 91 mW per RX element, and measurements indicate a per-element output power of 6.4 dBm and single-sideband noise figure of 12.5 dB at 94 GHz. The array is able to achieve a beam steering range of ±20° while maintaining at least 3 dB main lobe to side lobe levels. The complete chip-antenna module has been tested to characterize basic FMCW radar functionality. Initial radar experiments suggest a sub-5-cm range resolution is possible with 3.68 GHz RF sweep bandwidth, which is in line with theoretical predictions.
Autors: Andrew Townley;Paul Swirhun;Diane Titz;Aimeric Bisognin;Frédéric Gianesello;Romain Pilard;Cyril Luxey;Ali M. Niknejad;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1245 - 1259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 95-dBA DR Digital Audio Class-D Amplifier Using a Calibrated Digital-to-Pulse Converter
Abstract:
A digital class-D amplifier (CDA) converts an audio digital stream into sound directly and power-efficiently. It first encodes the pulse-code-modulated audio input into a digital pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signal. It needs a digital-to-pulse converter (DPC) to translate this digital PWM signal into a series of analog binary pulses accurately. We report a 5-3 segmented DPC that includes both a counter and a delay line for pulse width conversion. The timing skews along the delay line are detected using a zero-crossing detection scheme and corrected in the digital domain. This calibration can operate continuously in the background. A digital CDA prototype was fabricated using a 65-nm CMOS technology. It includes the aforementioned PWM modulator and DPC. It also integrated an open-loop switching driver to deliver the DPC’s output to a speaker. This digital CDA consumes under a 1-V supply when the input is zero and no output power is transferred to the external load. It can deliver 13.3 mW to a resistive load in the H-bridge topology with 89% power efficiency. For a 1-kHz sine-wave input, it achieves 95 dBA dynamic range, 93.6 dBA peak SNR, 86.4 dBA peak SNDR, and 0.006% THD at -2-dBFS input level. The core area of the chip is .
Autors: Chih-Min Chang;Jieh-Tsorng Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1106 - 1117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bipolar-Pulse Voltage Method for Junction Temperature Measurement of Alternating Current Light-Emitting Diodes
Abstract:
We introduce a new method for measuring the junction temperature of alternating current light-emitting diodes. This method employs a periodic bipolar voltage pulse signal as the input, and utilizes the amplitude of corresponding output current as the temperature sensitive parameter (TSP), of which a linear temperature dependence is proven in a prior experiment in this paper. On the basis of the TSP, we devise a detailed procedure—first, measure the thermal resistance of the package of ac-LEDs, which further contributes to the calculation of junction temperatures under various power inputs. Comparisons between values calculated by using this method and those obtained directly from a thermocouple indicate a decent accuracy of the former. The advantage of this method benefits from the stability of thermal resistance under different driving conditions that one could immediately obtain the junction temperature by measuring the electric and optical powers.
Autors: Honghui Zhu;Yijun Lu;Tingzhu Wu;Ziquan Guo;Lihong Zhu;Jingjing Xiao;Yi Tu;Yulin Gao;Yue Lin;Zhong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2326 - 2329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bit-to-Symbol Mapping Scheme for Spatial Modulation With Partial Channel State Information
Abstract:
This letter presents a bit to symbol mapping scheme for spatial modulation multiple input single output systems. The proposed scheme relies on the transmitter knowledge of partial information about the channel’s magnitude and the phase for each transmit antenna. The aim of the proposed mapping is to minimize the hamming distance between adjacent symbols, which consequently, reduces the average bit error rate at the receiver. Monte Carlo simulation results corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme as compared with the conventional and hybrid mapping schemes in the literature. As well, the proposed scheme is shown to be less complex as compared with the transmit antenna selection algorithms.
Autors: Saud Althunibat;Raed Mesleh;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 995 - 998
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Millimeter-Wave Hollow Waveguide Coupling Structure Configured by a Wire-Eroded Metal Plug-In
Abstract:
The design of a WR10 waveguide coupling structure is presented. Electrically, it consists of an -plane (series) T-junction and a quarter-wave section. The resulting coupling factor is nearly constant over the entire -band. A milled split-block network and a wire-eroded metal plug-in, which is inserted into a groove in the split block, implement the coupling structure. This modular design makes the coupling factor easily configurable and enables the realization of quarter-wave section heights in the range of tens of micrometers. The plug-in is fabricated by wire erosion, a machining technique based on electrical discharge (spark machining). This enables precise adjustment of the height and length of the quarter-wave section (±2- contour accuracy) and provides polishedlike surface quality (). Hints for the manufacturing of the metal plug-in are given; full-wave simulations as well as measurements of -band prototype structures are evaluated, and the possibility of a postfabrication adjustment of the metal plug-ins is shown.
Autors: Christian Koenen;Uwe Siart;Thomas F. Eibert;Garrard D. Conway;Ulrich Stroth;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 434 - 436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Reflectarray Antenna Using Triple Gapped Rings With Attached Phase-Delay Lines
Abstract:
A broadband linearly polarized single-layer reflectarray antenna constructed by element cells of triple gapped rings with phase-delay lines (TGR-PDLs) attached to the outer one is presented in this communication. The novel TGR-PDL element is composed of three circular rings, each with a pair of gaps which are orthogonally positioned, and two identical PDLs are attached to each half of the outer ring. The characteristics of the proposed element are first analyzed and then a linear and smooth phase response covering about 600° is obtained by adjusting the length of the PDL. Based on the element cell, an offset-fed reflectarray antenna of an octagon-shaped aperture with 266 mm in diameter is designed, fabricated, and measured to verify the broadband property of the proposed element. The measurement results show that about 31.5% of 1-dB gain bandwidth is realized, and the maximum gain at the center frequency of 10 GHz is about 25.78 dBi, which is equivalent to about 50% aperture efficiency.
Autors: Chunhui Han;Yunhua Zhang;Qingshan Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2713 - 2717
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Charge Mapping Method for the Capacitance of Conducting Plate
Abstract:
In this letter, a charge mapping method (CMM) is proposed to solve for the charge distribution and capacitance of conducting plate. Based on two examples, it is speculated that linear transformation plays a more important role than the mapping of boundary curves in the charge mapping between two conducting plates. The capacitances for rectangles and parallelogram conducting plates are simulated to validate the proposed CMM. Compared with the method of moments (MoM), the CMM exhibits same level of precision with a relative error of 2%, but takes less time as the linear transformation scale is increased. This is due to a reduction in the dimension of calculated matrix equation. When the linear transformation scale is 450, computation time using the CMM is only about 1/3rd of that required by MoM.
Autors: Xiaobo Liu;Zhaoxian Zeng;Jingsi Zhang;Rui Lu;Wei Li;Xiaoli Dong;Anxue Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 425 - 427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Passive LPTV Nonmagnetic Circulator and Its Application in a Full-Duplex Receiver
Abstract:
Recently, we demonstrated the first CMOS nonmagnetic nonreciprocal passive circulator based on N-path filters that uses time variance to break reciprocity. Here, the analysis of performance metrics, such as loss, isolation, linearity, and tuning range, is presented in terms of the design parameters. The analysis is verified by the measured performance of a 65-nm CMOS circulator prototype that exhibits 1.7 dB of loss in the transmitter-antenna (TX-ANT) and antenna-receiver (ANT-RX) paths, and has high isolation [TX–RX, up to 50 dB through tuning and 20-dB bandwidth (BW) of 32 MHz] and a tuning range of 610–850 MHz. Through an architectural feature specifically designed to enhance TX linearity, the circulator achieves an in-band TX-ANT input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of +27.5 dBm, nearly two orders of magnitude higher than the ANT-RX IIP3 of +8.7 dBm. The circulator is also integrated with a self-interference-canceling full-duplex (FD) RX featuring an analog baseband (BB) SI canceller. The FD RX achieves 42-dB on-chip SI suppression across the circulator and analog BB domains over a 12-MHz signal BW. In conjunction with digital SI and its input-referred third-order intermodulation (IM3) cancellation, the FD RX demonstrates 85-dB overall SI suppression, enabling an FD link budget of −7-dBm TX average output power and −92-dBm noise floor.
Autors: Negar Reiskarimian;Jin Zhou;Harish Krishnaswamy;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1358 - 1372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Single Conductor Transmission Line Launcher for Telemetry in Borehole Drilling
Abstract:
A very compact and conformal launcher for single conductor transmission lines (SCTLs) at the HF-band is presented. Also the concept of using drill pipes as the conductor of SCTL is introduced for the first time to satisfy the need for cost-effective and real-time data communication in drilling process. It is shown that a TM surface wave can be launched effectively making use of the drilling mud around the drill pipe. Provision of TM surface wave launchers that can fit within the borehole at both ends makes it feasible to transmit data over the drill pipe from downhole to the surface and vice versa. The launcher is composed of an open ended helical conductor which concentrically surrounds the drill pipe with appropriate pitch and length forming a compact surface wave launcher. Keeping its dimension smaller than 0.005λ × 0.005λ × 0.03λ, the proposed launcher provides 2% fractional bandwidth at low HF-band.
Autors: S. Mohammad Amjadi;Kamal Sarabandi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2674 - 2681
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Two Via Slot-Type Electromagnetic Bandgap Structure
Abstract:
A novel two via slot-type electromagnetic bandgap (TVS-EBG) structure is presented in this letter. Design and analysis of the TVS-EBG structure are done by using the analytical model. In the central located via EBG (CLV-EBG) and the edge located via EBG (ELV-EBG) structure, current flowing through via gives the inductor () and the gap between the adjacent cells gives the capacitance (). From the analytical model, in order to design compact EBG structure, the product of should be high. TVS-EBG structure increases the value of and per unit EBG cell by making a slot on the square patch of the cell and two via between square patch of the cell and ground plane. TVS-EBG structure simulated using Ansoft HFSS and tested. Simulated and experimental results prove that, compared with CLV-EBG, complementary split ring resonator-based EBG, and ELV-EBG, a size reduction of 35.29%, 17.20%, and 13.48% has been achieved, respectively.
Autors: Pramod P. Bhavarthe;Surendra S. Rathod;Kuraparthi T. V. Reddy;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 446 - 448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Analysis of CMUT Receiving Architectures for the Design Optimization of Integrated Transceiver Front Ends
Abstract:
A formal comparison between fundamental RX amplifier configurations for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is proposed in this paper. The impact on both RX and the pulse-echo frequency response and on the output SNR is thoroughly analyzed and discussed. It is shown that the resistive-feedback amplifier yields a bandpass RX frequency response, while both open-loop voltage and capacitive-feedback amplifiers exhibit a low-pass frequency response. For a given power dissipation, it is formally proved that a capacitive-feedback amplifier provides a remarkable SNR improvement against the commonly adopted resistive feedback stage, achieved at the expense of a reduced pulse-echo center frequency, making its use convenient in low-frequency and midfrequency ultrasound imaging applications. The advantage mostly comes from a much lower noise contributed by the active devices, especially with low-, broadband transducers. The results of the analysis are applied to the design of a CMUT front end in BIPOLAR-CMOS-DMOS Silicon-on-Insulator technology operating at 10-MHz center frequency. It comprises a low-power RX amplifier, a high-voltage Transmission/Reception switch, and a 100-V TX driver. Extensive electrical characterization, pulse-echo measurements, and imaging results are shown. Compared with previously reported CMUT front ends, this transceiver demonstrates the highest dynamic range and state-of-the-art noise performance with an RX amplifier power dissipation of 1 mW.
Autors: Marco Sautto;Alessandro Stuart Savoia;Fabio Quaglia;Giosuè Caliano;Andrea Mazzanti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 826 - 838
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product With Existing Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products
Abstract:
The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015 to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every 2-3 days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. The Level 2 radiometer-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36-km Earth-fixed grid using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. This paper provides the first comparison of the validated-release L2_SM_P product with soil moisture products provided by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Aquarius, Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) missions. This comparison was conducted as part of the SMAP calibration and validation efforts. SMAP and SMOS appear most similar among the five soil moisture products considered in this paper, overall exhibiting the smallest unbiased root-mean-square difference and highest correlation. Overall, SMOS tends to be slightly wetter than SMAP, excluding forests where some differences are observed. SMAP and Aquarius can only be compared for a little more than two months; they compare well, especially over low to moderately vegetated areas. SMAP and ASCAT show similar overall trends and spatial patterns with ASCAT providing wetter soil moistures than SMAP over moderate to dense vegetation. SMAP and AMSR2 largely disagree in their soil moisture trends and spatial patterns; AMSR2 exhibits an overall dry bias, while desert areas are observed to be wetter than SMAP.
Autors: Mariko S. Burgin;Andreas Colliander;Eni G. Njoku;Steven K. Chan;Francois Cabot;Yann H. Kerr;Rajat Bindlish;Thomas J. Jackson;Dara Entekhabi;Simon H. Yueh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2959 - 2971
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison Between Natural Resonances and Characteristic Mode Resonances of an Infinite Circular Cylinder
Abstract:
Here, some aspects in the interpretation of the solutions of a PEC infinite circular cylinder with the Theory of Characteristic Modes are presented. First, natural resonances and characteristic mode resonances (CMRs) are introduced and compared. Second, characteristic eigenvalues are used to find those natural resonances considering complex values. Furthermore, by linking the standard and the generalized eigenvalue problems, a relation between natural resonances and characteristic mode eigenvalues is shown. Finally, the thesis stating that external CMR does not imply maximum field scattering is also demonstrated.
Autors: Tomás Bernabeu-Jiménez;Alejandro Valero-Nogueira;Felipe Vico-Bondia;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2759 - 2763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuous Power-Controlled Microwave Belt Drier Improving Heating Uniformity
Abstract:
Due to the nonuniform energy distribution in a microwave (MW) cavity, MW-based heating applications remain a substantial barrier. A continuous power-controlled MW conveyor-belt drier using multiple 2.45-GHz MW sources improves heating uniformity. By controlling the input power of MW sources sequentially, the electric field and temperature variations, hot and cold spots in the MW cavity, have been significantly reduced. Experimental results show that the MW heating using the proposed continuous power-controlled method can achieve an improved heating uniformity of approximately 34% compared with a simultaneous multiple input method (conventional mode).
Autors: Sang-Hyeon Bae;Min-Gyo Jeong;Ji-Hong Kim;Wang-Sang Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 527 - 529
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Convolutional Neural Network for Fault Classification and Diagnosis in Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes
Abstract:
Many studies on the prediction of manufacturing results using sensor signals have been conducted in the field of fault detection and classification (FDC) for semiconductor manufacturing processes. However, fault diagnosis used to find clues as to root causes remains a challenging area. In particular, process monitoring using neural networks has been employed to only a limited extent because it is a black box model, making the relationships between input data and output results difficult to interpret in actual manufacturing settings, despite its high classification performance. In this paper, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) model, named FDC-CNN, in which a receptive field tailored to multivariate sensor signals slides along the time axis, to extract fault features. This approach enables the association of the output of the first convolutional layer with the structural meaning of the raw data, making it possible to locate the variable and time information that represents process faults. In an experiment on a chemical vapor deposition process, the proposed method outperformed other deep learning models.
Autors: Ki Bum Lee;Sejune Cheon;Chang Ouk Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 135 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cost-Efficient Communication Framework for Battery-Switch-Based Electric Vehicle Charging
Abstract:
Charging management for EVs on the move has become an increasingly important research problem in smart cities. Major technical challenges include the selection of charging stations to guide charging plans, and the design of cost-efficient communication infrastructure between the power grid and EVs. In this article, we first present a brief review on state-of-the-art EV charging management schemes. Next, by incorporating battery switch technology to enable fast charging service, a publish/subscribe communication framework is provisioned to support the EV charging service. After that, we develop a fully distributed charging management scheme with consideration of urban travel uncertainties, for example, traffic congestion and drivers' preferences. This would benefit from low privacy sensitivity, as EVs' status information will not be released through management. Results demonstrate a guidance for the provisioning of a P/S communication framework to improve EV drivers' experience, for example, charging waiting time and total trip duration. Also, the benefit of a P/S communication framework is reflected in terms of the communication efficiency. Open research issues in this emerging area are also presented.
Autors: Yue Cao;Shusen Yang;Geyong Min;Xing Zhang;Houbing Song;Omprakash Kaiwartya;Nauman Aslam;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 162 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Criterion for Exponential Consensus of Time-Varying Non-Monotone Nonlinear Networks
Abstract:
In this technical note, we present new results on exponential consensus for continuous-time nonlinear time varying networks. A key feature in the following is that the monotonicity property is not required, unlike most of existing literature on the subject. Moreover, we give an estimate of the exponential rate of convergence towards the agreement manifold. Finally, representative example and counterexample are given.
Autors: S. Manfredi;D. Angeli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2483 - 2489
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data Streaming Algorithm for Detection of Superpoints With Small Memory Consumption
Abstract:
A superpoint is a host that communicates with a large number of distinct destinations (sources) within a measurement period. Identifying superpoints is an important and meaningful task for network security and monitoring. To keep up with the line speed in a high-speed network, fast memory is indispensable for detecting superpoints. Moreover, the memory is also expensive and size-limited. In this letter, we propose a new data streaming algorithm for detecting superpoints, called Snare, which can work in tight memory space and yield good performance. Its accuracy and efficiency come from a new data structure snare and the compensation mechanism for the number of lost flows. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that Snare can detect superpoints accurately and efficiently.
Autors: Lei Zheng;Dongrui Liu;Weijiang Liu;Zhaobin Liu;Zhiyang Li;Tiantian Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1067 - 1070
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Dual-Rate Control Method for a Heat Exchanging Process
Abstract:
The heat exchanging process is a strong nonlinear and cascade industrial unit, which is effected by the large random disturbances in the steam pressure, the outdoor temperature, and the water discharged by users. To solve this problem, in this paper, a PI controller with unmodeled dynamic compensation is combined with a dual-rate control, and a dynamic model of the supply water temperature in the outer loop with linear model and unknown higher order nonlinear is established by introducing the dynamics of the closed-loop control system for the steam flow-rate with a lifting method. This is then used in designing a one-step optimal PI control algorithm with unmodeled dynamics compensation. Second, a data-driven dual-rate control method is proposed for the control of water temperature and steam flow-rate. The stability and convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Finally, both, a contrast simulated experiment with the interval intelligent cascade control algorithm and an industrial application are included to demonstrate that the proposed method can control water temperature and steam flow-rate with large random disturbances within the target range of values for process requirements.
Autors: Yao Jia;Tianyou Chai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4158 - 4168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Hybrid ARX and Markov Chain Modeling Approach to Process Identification With Time-Varying Time Delays
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider an important practical industrial process identification problem where the time delay can change at every sampling instant. We model the time-varying discrete time-delay mechanism by a Markov chain model and estimate the Markov chain parameters along with the time-delay sequence simultaneously. Besides time-varying delay, processes with both time-invariant and time-variant model parameters are also considered. The former is solved by an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, while the latter is solved by a recursive version of the EM algorithm. The advantages of the proposed identification methods are demonstrated by numerical simulation examples and an evaluation on pilot-scale experiments.
Autors: Yujia Zhao;Alireza Fatehi;Biao Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4226 - 4236
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Soft Sensor Modeling Method Based on Deep Learning and its Application
Abstract:
Soft sensors have been widely used in industrial processes. The core issue of data-driven soft sensors is building soft sensor models with excellent performance and robustness. This paper introduces deep learning to soft sensor modeling and proposes a novel soft sensor modeling method based on a deep learning network that integrates denoising autoencoders with a neural network (DAE-NN). An improved gradient descent is employed to update the model parameters. The proposed modeling method is able to capture the essential information of input data through deep architecture, building soft sensors with excellent performance. The DAE-NN-based soft sensor is applied in practical applications to estimate the oxygen content in flue gasses in 1000-MW ultrasuperficial units. Comparing conventional soft sensor modeling methods, i.e., shallow learning methods, DAE-NN-based soft sensor significantly improves the performance and generalization of data-driven soft sensors. Deep learning provides a very effective and promising method for soft sensor modeling.
Autors: Weiwu Yan;Di Tang;Yujun Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4237 - 4245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deep Learning Approach to UAV Image Multilabeling
Abstract:
In this letter, we face the problem of multilabeling unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery, typically characterized by a high level of information content, by proposing a novel method based on convolutional neural networks. These are exploited as a means to yield a powerful description of the query image, which is analyzed after subdividing it into a grid of tiles. The multilabel classification task of each tile is performed by the combination of a radial basis function neural network and a multilabeling layer (ML) composed of customized thresholding operations. Experiments conducted on two different UAV image data sets demonstrate the promising capability of the proposed method compared to the state of the art, at the expense of a higher but still contained computation time.
Autors: Abdallah Zeggada;Farid Melgani;Yakoub Bazi;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 694 - 698
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Design of a Impedance Tuner With Programmable Characteristic for RF Amplifiers
Abstract:
This letter presents the quantitative analysis of a novel reflection type electronic impedance tuner. The proposed impedance tuner consists of a 3-dB 90° coupler, variable phase shifter, and attenuator. A 180° variable phase shifter with constant insertion loss and wide variation range low phase shifting attenuator was used to independently control the magnitude and phase of the proposed impedance tuner. Due to independent controls of phase and magnitude, the proposed impedance tuner has a programmable characteristic. The fabricated impedance tuner shows a uniform impedance distribution in polar form with magnitude deviation of less than average 0.24 dB for standing wave ratio at 2.14 GHz.
Autors: Seungho Jeong;Junhyung Jeong;Yongchae Jeong;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 473 - 475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Diagnostic Space Vector-Based Index for Rotor Electrical Fault Detection in Wound-Rotor Induction Machines Under Speed Transient
Abstract:
This paper investigates a new approach for the detection of rotor electrical faults in three-phase wound-rotor induction machines. The method is assessed in a wind energy conversion system, where the rotor side of the wound-rotor induction machine is supplied by a static converter for the control of active and reactive power flows from the generator to the electrical grid. Here, a diagnostic space vector is presented that sensibly improves the rotor fault detection in wound-rotor induction machine by combining the spectral signatures of both rotor current and voltage space vectors. The dc component of this diagnostic space vector, that is equal to zero in healthy conditions and different from zero under rotor asymmetry, is adopted as rotor fault index. The main advantages of the proposed technique are the implementation simplicity and the capability to operate even during speed transients. The technique is also validated by means of simulation and laboratory scale experimental tests.
Autors: Yasser Gritli;Claudio Rossi;Domenico Casadei;Fiorenzo Filippetti;Gérard-André Capolino;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3892 - 3902
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital Polar Transmitter With DC–DC Converter Supporting 256-QAM WLAN and 40-MHz LTE-A Carrier Aggregation
Abstract:
A digital polar transmitter is introduced using 9-b thermometer-coded uniform cells for wideband signal. By analyzing amplitude and phase paths impairment which causes both in-band and out-of-band distortions, a 960-MHz delay tuner is designed for precise amplitude and phase alignment. Furthermore, two digital pre-distortion algorithms for digital power amplifier (DPA) are implemented and compared. Importantly, an on-chip dc–dc converter is included for direct battery connection and output power control. Boosted cascode gate bias improves PA efficiency at low power region. The proposed design is fabricated using a 55-nm RF CMOS technology. This DPA including digital amplitude modulation (AM) filtering achieves peak power of +21.9 dBm with 41% drain efficiency in continuous-wave measurements. It achieves EVM of 2.9% with 20-MHz IEEE 802.11ac compliance of 256-QAM OFDM signal, and also achieves EVM of 4.5% (CC0)/4.8% (CC1) with 40-MHz LTE-A carrier aggregation compliance of 64-QAM OFDM signal.
Autors: Qiuyao Zhu;Sheng Yu;Sizhou Wang;Lun Huang;Zhaogang Wang;Xuejun Zhang;Yang Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1196 - 1209
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct Solution to Biobjective Partitioning Problem in Electric Power Networks
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel Laplacian spectrum-based approach to directly solve biobjective network partitioning problems. The proposed approach is applied to a typical power system partitioning problem in context of smart grids, where the resultant Pareto front considering two incompatible objectives can adaptively provide useful clustering information for a flexible and distributed system control. This approach has proven to be effective and computationally efficient through a case study of the IEEE 118-bus system.
Autors: Youwei Jia;Zhao Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2481 - 2483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Extended Ebers–Moll Model Topology for SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Phototransistors Based on Drift–Diffusion Hydrodynamic Behavior
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel type of compact circuit model for silicon germanium (SiGe) heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) that is justified from the distributed nature of both its electrical and optical behaviors. The proposed model is based on a modified Ebers–Model structure and contains 28 different parameters. It is independent of the nature of the base bias (current or voltage), as opposed to existing models. The method to identify that the architecture of the model is original as it makes use of a drift–diffusion numerical simulation of a SiGe HPT adjusted to experimental data. A good fit of the model both in amplitude and phase is obtained through the nine optomicrowave S-parameters.
Autors: Alae Bennour;Frédéric Moutier;Jean-Luc Polleux;Catherine Algani;Said Mazer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2267 - 2274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Polarization $X$ -Band Traveling-Wave Antenna Panel for Small-Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar
Abstract:
This paper investigated the possibility of using an -band traveling-wave antenna for application in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) on a small-satellite platform. A rectangular slotted parallel-plate antenna panel capable of radiating dual polarization over the same physical aperture was selected for this purpose. The design procedure, which provides for an optimal antenna pattern in a SAR application, is described. A meta-heuristic multiobjective optimization algorithm was applied to synthesize an appropriate far-field pattern, which enhances the quality of the SAR image. Subsequently, the optimization results were used to build a more realistic model of the antenna panel in electromagnetic simulation software. An antenna panel was fabricated, and its electrical characteristics were measured. The fabricated prototype weighed 1310 g and measurements showed nearly 50% aperture efficiency for both circular polarizations [34.6-dBic right-hand circular polarized (RHCP), 34.5-dBic left-hand circular polarized (LHCP), and peak gain at 9.65 GHz], with low side-lobes. A beam shift of 2.1° was observed between the RHCP and LHCP beams at the design center frequency and was later analyzed to be the result of an error in the modeling of the adhesive layer.
Autors: Vinay Ravindra;Prilando Rizki Akbar;Miao Zhang;Jiro Hirokawa;Hirobumi Saito;Akira Oyama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2144 - 2156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic $p$ -Adaptive DGTD Algorithm for Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Simulations
Abstract:
In the time-domain simulation of electromagnetic and multiphysics problems, the distributions of physical quantities of interest vary in both space and time. To achieve a good spatial resolution, high-order basis functions can be used to expand the unknown quantities, which is known as the -refinement. However, a global and static -refinement will increase the computational cost significantly. In this paper, a dynamic -adaptation algorithm is proposed based on the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method, which is able to determine and adjust the basis order in a given discretization element in real time of the simulation. Based on the relation between the nodal and modal approximations defined on unstructured tetrahedral elements, an error estimator, which is very cheap to compute, is developed to determine the proper basis order to achieve a desired numerical accuracy. The dynamic -adaptation algorithm proposed in this paper is able to capture the fast varying physics by changing the order of basis functions wherever and whenever needed. Several numerical examples adopted from multiple physical disciplines are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility of the proposed algorithm in the simulation of electromagnetic and multiphysics problems.
Autors: Su Yan;Jian-Ming Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2446 - 2459
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast and Reliable Cross-Point Three-State/Cell ReRAM
Abstract:
We present a fast and reliable fully integrated cross-point three-state cell resistive random access memory. We accomplish swift back-and-forth hopping among the three resistance states by current-limiting set and in situ bit line regulating reset writing. The self-stuffing word line driver alleviates resistance variations in medium and low resistance states by 2.3 times and 3 times, respectively. The proprietary analog-to-digital converter type transimpedance sense amplifier achieves fast and reliable multilevel read. We integrated a 16-kbit cross-point array and periphery circuits using 350-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Soon-Chan Kwon;Jong-Min Baek;Jong-Moon Choi;Kee-Won Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1622 - 1631
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Reliable Image Quality Predictor by Fusing Micro- and Macro-Structures
Abstract:
A fast reliable computational quality predictor is eagerly desired in practical image/video applications, such as serving for the quality monitoring of real-time coding and transcoding. In this paper, we propose a new perceptual image quality assessment (IQA) metric based on the human visual system (HVS). The proposed IQA model performs efficiently with convolution operations at multiscales, gradient magnitude, and color information similarity, and a perceptual-based pooling. Extensive experiments are conducted using four popular large-size image databases and two multiply distorted image databases, and results validate the superiority of our approach over modern IQA measures in efficiency and efficacy. Our metric is built on the theoretical support of the HVS with lately designed IQA methods as special cases.
Autors: Ke Gu;Leida Li;Hong Lu;Xiongkuo Min;Weisi Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3903 - 3912
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Feasibility Study of Nonlinear Spectroscopic Measurement of Magnetic Nanoparticles Targeted to Cancer Cells
Abstract:
Objective: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an emerging platform for targeted diagnostics in cancer. An important component needed for translation of MNPs is the detection and quantification of targeted MNPs bound to tumor cells. Method: This study explores the feasibility of a multifrequency nonlinear magnetic spectroscopic method that uses excitation and pickup coils and is capable of discriminating between quantities of bound and unbound MNPs in 0.5 ml samples of KB and Igrov human cancer cell lines. The method is tested over a range of five concentrations of MNPs from 0 to 80 μg/ml and five concentrations of cells from 50 to 400 000 count per ml. Results: A linear model applied to the magnetic spectroscopy data was able to simultaneously measure bound and unbound MNPs with agreement between the model-fit and lab assay measurements (p < 0.001). The detectable iron of the presented method to bound and unbound MNPs was < 2 μg in a 0.5 ml sample. The linear model parameters used to determine the quantities of bound and unbound nanoparticles in KB cells were also used to measure the bound and unbound MNP in the Igrov cell line and vice versa. Conclusion: Nonlinear spectroscopic measurement of MNPs may be a useful method for studying targeted MNPs in oncology. Significance: Determining the quantity of bound and unbound MNP in an unknown sample using a linear model represents an exciting opportunity to translate multifrequency nonlinear spectroscopy methods to in vivo applications where MNPs could be targeted to cancer cells.
Autors: Bradley W. Ficko;Christian NDong;Paolo Giacometti;Karl E. Griswold;Solomon G. Diamond;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 972 - 979
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fine-Grained Indoor Location-Based Social Network
Abstract:
Existing Location-based social networks (LBSNs), e.g., Foursquare, depend mainly on GPS or cellular-based localization to infer users’ locations. However, GPS is unavailable indoors and cellular-based localization provides coarse-grained accuracy. This limits the accuracy of current LBSNs in indoor environments, where people spend 89 percent of their time. This in turn affects the user experience, in terms of the accuracy of the ranked list of venues, especially for the small screens of mobile devices, misses business opportunities, and leads to reduced venues coverage. In this paper, we present CheckInside: a system that can provide a fine-grained indoor location-based social network. CheckInside leverages the crowd-sensed data collected from users’ mobile devices during the check-in operation and knowledge extracted from current LBSNs to associate a place with a logical name and a semantic fingerprint. This semantic fingerprint is used to obtain a more accurate list of nearby places as well as to automatically detect new places with similar signature. A novel algorithm for detecting fake check-ins and inferring a semantically-enriched floorplan is proposed as well as an algorithm for enhancing the system performance based on the user implicit feedback. Furthermore, CheckInside encompasses a coverage extender module to automatically predict names of new venues increasing the coverage of current LBSNs. Experimental evaluation of CheckInside in four malls over the course of six weeks with 20 participants shows that it can infer the actual user place within the top five venues 99 percent of the time. This is compared to 17 percent only in the case of current LBSNs. In addition, it increases the coverage of existing LBSNs by more than 37 percent.
Autors: Moustafa Elhamshary;Anas Basalmah;Moustafa Youssef;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1203 - 1217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Integrating Content Characteristics into the Future Internet Architecture
Abstract:
Content characteristics such as content size can bring significant benefits for both network management and improving quality of experience. However, the current Internet architecture does not have a direct mechanism to know content characteristics. In this article, we argue that it is necessary to integrate content characteristics into the future Internet architecture. We present the design challenges, propose a framework for implementation, and build a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed framework. To show the benefits of integrating content characteristics into the Internet architecture, we also present numerical results obtained from running experiments on the prototype by using real data traces.
Autors: Hongbin Luo;Yakun Xu;Wanjun Xie;Zhe Chen;Jiawei Li;Hongke Zhang;Han-Chieh Chao;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 22 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework of Vehicle Trajectory Replanning in Lane Exchanging With Considerations of Driver Characteristics
Abstract:
This paper presents a control framework to address a typical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) encountering scenario of lane exchanging with two vehicles traveling on contiguous lanes in the same direction and are maneuvered to exchange lanes. A trajectory generating model for lane-changing maneuver is integrated into the driver–vehicle system. Based on this system, both the risk of collision and the lane-exchanging intentions of the drivers can be considered in the trajectory replanning. A linear time-varying model predictive control with parameters of a discretized nonlinear system is proposed to realize the optimization objectives of satisfying the drivers’ maneuvering intentions and reducing the risk of collision. The optimization problem is subject to the constraints consisting of the human driver preferences, driving habits, and driving capabilities. Simulations have verified the controller's performance and robustness in different scenarios, including different initial conditions for the risk of collision and different combinations of drivers’ preferences and driving habits. The results show that the proposed controller can satisfy drivers’ intentions while avoiding collisions in all these scenarios.
Autors: Jinxiang Wang;Junmin Wang;Rongrong Wang;Chuan Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3583 - 3596
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gain-Scheduling Driver Assistance Trajectory-Following Algorithm Considering Different Driver Steering Characteristics
Abstract:
In this paper, a gain-scheduling, robust, and shared controller is proposed to assist drivers in tracking vehicle reference trajectory. In the controller, the driver steering parameters such as delay time, preview time, and steering gain are assumed to be varying with respect to the different characteristics of drivers, vehicle states, and driving scenarios. Meanwhile, the modeling errors and uncertainties in the tire cornering stiffness are also considered in the driver–vehicle system model and the controller design. A global objective function, considering the tracking error, the driver's physical and mental workloads, and the control effort, is designed to optimize the overall performance of the driver–vehicle system. Constraint on eigenvalue placement is added to the controller design to improve the performance of the closed-loop driver–vehicle system. Simulation results under different maneuvers show that the controller can significantly improve the system performance and reduce the driver's workloads. The controller can reduce the delay time of the driver–vehicle system in emergency maneuvers, particularly for inexperienced drivers.
Autors: Jinxiang Wang;Guoguang Zhang;Rongrong Wang;Scott C. Schnelle;Junmin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1097 - 1108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Digit-Serial Architecture for Montgomery Modular Multiplication
Abstract:
The Montgomery algorithm is a fast modular multiplication method frequently used in cryptographic applications. This paper investigates the digit-serial implementations of the Montgomery algorithm for large integers. A detailed analysis is given and a tight upper bound is presented for the intermediate results obtained during the digit-serial computation. Based on this analysis, an efficient digit-serial Montgomery modular multiplier architecture using carry save adders is proposed and its complexity is presented. In this architecture, pipelined carry select adders are used to perform two final tasks: adding carry save vectors representing the modular product and subtracting the modulus from this addition, if further reduction is needed. The proposed architecture can be designed for any digit size and modulus . This paper also presents logic formulas for the bits of the precomputation used in the Montgomery algorithm for . Finally, evaluation of the proposed architecture on Virtex 7 FPGAs is presented.
Autors: Serdar Süer Erdem;Tuğrul Yanık;Anıl Çelebi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1658 - 1668
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized Combiner Synthesis Technique for Class-E Outphasing Transmitters
Abstract:
In this paper, a generic combiner design technique is developed for class-E outphasing transmitters. The design procedure starts with calculation of the combiner network parameters that guarantee high efficiency switch mode operation of the PAs in each branch. Recently developed continuous class-E modes theory is then utilized to create an additional degree of freedom for calculation of the combiner network parameters. This additional degree of freedom along with duty cycle control provides an important possibility for achieving high average efficiency over a large bandwidth. A CMOS-GaN outphasing transmitter prototype is realized for experimental verification. The prototype provides drain efficiencies higher than 60% at 6 dB back-off across 750–1050 MHz band. Further, the peak output power remains nearly flat versus frequency, where the variation across the band is ±0.18 dB around 44 dBm.
Autors: Mustafa Özen;Mark van der Heijden;Mustafa Acar;Rik Jos;Christian Fager;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1126 - 1139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Geographic Object-Based Approach for Land Classification Using LiDAR Elevation and Intensity
Abstract:
By providing detailed height and intensity land surface information, high-resolution LiDAR data have proved to be effective in supporting land classification when combined with other major geospatial data sources, such as hyperspectral images. However, rectifying and fusing multisource geospatial data involves what normally is a manual and time-consuming process. In this letter, we propose a geographic object-based image analysis approach to enable semiautomatic land classification and mapping using LiDAR elevation and intensity data. The methodological framework consists of a series of operations, including preprocessing, object-based segmentation, creation of statistical variables from elevation and intensity, and semisupervised classification. We have successfully applied this approach to the classification of multiple land features, including asphalt, grass, barren land, swimming pool, shrubland, pavement, and buildings. Results show that our proposed approach performs better than LiDAR analysis methods in classifying different land parcels.
Autors: Xiran Zhou;Wenwen Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 669 - 673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Guaranteed and Efficient Method to Enforce Passivity of Frequency-Dependent Network Equivalents
Abstract:
Rational models of frequency-dependent network equivalents (FDNEs) must be passive to ensure numerical stability in time domain simulations. Therefore, passivity enforcement is an essential step in FDNE rational modeling procedures; however, current approaches are either not guaranteed or not efficient. Here, a positive real lemma based semidefinite programming model is first implemented to guarantee the passivity of the result obtained. Second, this paper incorporates an approach to significantly improve efficiency while guaranteeing passivity by exploiting an important feature of rational models: that constituent complex-pole terms corresponding to dominant resonance peaks can be adjusted to be passive through minor changes, and a partition-based scheme is proposed. Numerical investigations demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient while introducing little additional modeling error.
Autors: Yizhong Hu;Wenchuan Wu;Aniruddha M. Gole;Boming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2455 - 2463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hand Gesture Recognition Sensor Using Reflected Impulses
Abstract:
This paper introduces a hand gesture recognition sensor using ultra-wideband impulse signals, which are reflected from a hand. The reflected waveforms in time domain are determined by the reflection surface of a target. Thus every gesture has its own reflected waveform. Thus we propose to use machine learning, such as convolutional neural network (CNN) for the gesture classification. The CNN extracts its own feature and constructs classification model then classifies the reflected waveforms. Six hand gestures from american sign language (ASL) are used for an experiment and the result shows more than 90% recognition accuracy. For fine movements, a rotating plaster model is measured with 10° step. An average recognition accuracy is also above 90%.
Autors: Seo Yul Kim;Hong Gul Han;Jin Woo Kim;Sanghoon Lee;Tae Wook Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 2975 - 2976
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchical EMS for Aggregated BESSs in Energy and Performance-Based Regulation Markets
Abstract:
The battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been increasingly installed in the power system, especially with the growing penetration rate of the renewable energy sources. However, it is difficult for BESSs to be profitable due to high capital costs. In order to boost the economic value of BESSs, this paper proposes a hierarchical energy management system (HiEMS) to aggregate multiple BESSs, and to achieve multimarket business operations. The proposed HiEMS optimizes the multimarket bids considering a realistic BESS performance model, and coordinates the BESSs and manages their state of charge values, according to their price penalties based on dynamically generated annualized cost. By taking part in the energy market and regulation market at the same time, the cost-performance index (CPI) of the BESS aggregation is greatly improved. The impact of photovoltaic generation on system performance and CPI is also studied.
Autors: T. Zhang;S. X. Chen;H. B. Gooi;J. M. Maciejowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1751 - 1760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchical Smart Street Lighting System With Brute-Force Energy Optimization
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel smart street lighting (SmSL) system in which energy consumption by a group of street lighting poles is minimized based on Brute-Force search algorithm. While outdoor lighting imposes considerable cost, maintenance, safety, and environmental issues; utilization of advanced street lighting system with energy saving, autonomous fault detection, and monitoring capabilities benefits all the players involved including municipalities and distribution companies. The proposed SmSL has a hierarchical platform. The segment or intermediate controller determines the scheduling, switching, and dimming level of each pole based on the proposed optimization subroutine and transmits the controller set points to the local pole controller through power line communications. Optimization of street lighting electrical energy is achieved by minimizing a cost function, considering operational constraints, ambient luminance, and local traffic flow. The local controller acts as an actuator and applies the received commands. The controller inherently responses to lamp fault. Moreover, pole electrical parameters and status of the lamp and its capacitor is transmitted to the intermediate controller. The supervisory controller, which is installed on a server in distribution center monitors the whole system and sends appropriate commands such as minimum required luminance in the area to the segment controller based on WiMAX wireless communications. The whole system is developed and implemented in a pilot street. The experimental results show considerable energy saving with the proposed SmSL and reduced maintenance costs.
Autors: Mohsen Mahoor;Farzad Rajaei Salmasi;Tooraj Abbasian Najafabadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2871 - 2879
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Hybrid Resonant Converter With Wide-Input Regulation for Photovoltaic Applications
Abstract:
A microconverter serves as a front-end dc–dc stage of a microinverter to convert the power from a photovoltaic module to a dc bus. These front-end microconverters require isolation, high-boost ratio, wide-input voltage regulation, and high efficiency. This paper introduces an isolated resonant converter with hybrid modes of operation to achieve wide-input regulation while still maintaining high efficiency. The proposed converter is designed as a series resonant converter with nominal-input voltage and operates under two additional modes: a boost converter with low-input voltage and a buck converter with high-input voltage. Unlike conventional resonant converters, this converter operates at discontinues conduction mode with a fixed frequency, simplifying the design and control. In addition, this converter can achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and/or zero-current switching (ZCS) of the primary-side MOSFETs, ZVS and/or ZCS of the secondary-side MOSFETs, and ZCS of output diodes under all operating conditions. Experimental results using a 300-W prototype achieve a peak efficiency of 98.1% and a California Energy Commission efficiency of 97.6% including all auxiliary and control power at nominal-input voltage.
Autors: Xiaonan Zhao;Lanhua Zhang;Rachael Born;Jih-Sheng Lai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3684 - 3695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Split–Merge Charge Pump for Solar Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
An energy-efficient charge pump (CP) for solar energy harvesting is presented. A multistep split–merge charge transfer operation is introduced to replace the traditional one-step charge transfer process. Theoretically, this method increases the amount of charge transferred by up to 26% while reducing the Joule heat power loss by up to 7%. A five-stage complementary split–merge CP was designed and fabricated in a 0.13- CMOS process. Measured results show an averaged 15.2% improvement of power conversion efficiency and a 1/8-fold reduction of output voltage ripple.
Autors: Yu Wang;Na Yan;Hao Min;C.-J. Richard Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 545 - 549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Reliability Gate Driver Integrated in Flexible AMOLED Display by IZO TFTs
Abstract:
This paper presents a new gate driver integrated by IZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the etch stop layer structure on the polyimide substrate, which consists of nine TFTs and two capacitors. There are several advantages for the proposed gate driver, such as simple circuitry, full-swing output, low power, and good reliability. The proposed gate driver has been successfully integrated in a flexible active matrix organic light emitting display with the resolution of 200 (RGB) , in which the conventional 2T1C pixel circuit with bottom-emission structure is used. It is shown that there are no distortion and good noise-suppressed characteristics for the output signals even up to 600 stages. In addition, the proposed gate driver has a good stability, since no voltage fluctuation occurs under 720-h test. Moreover, the flexible panel works well after a 10000 times repetitive bending performed on a test bench, which is mainly composed of a programmed logic controller and dc motor. During the bending test, the minimum curvature radius of flexible panel can reach to be about 5 mm.
Autors: Wei-Jing Wu;Li-Rong Zhang;Zhi-Ping Xu;Lei Zhou;Hao Tao;Jian-Hua Zou;Miao Xu;Lei Wang;Jun-Biao Peng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1991 - 1996
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Speed and Ultra Low-Power Subthreshold Signal Level Shifter
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel level shifter circuit converting subthreshold signal levels to super-threshold signal levels at high-speed using ultra low-power and a small silicon area, making it well-suited for low-power applications such as wireless sensor networks and implantable medical devices. The proposed circuit introduces a new voltage level shifter topology employing a level-shifting capacitor contributing to increase the range of conversion voltages, while significantly reducing the conversion delay. Such a level-shifting capacitor is quickly charged, whenever the input signal detects a low-to-high transition, in order to boost internal voltage nodes, and quickly reach a high output voltage level. The proposed circuit achieves a shorter propagation delay and a smaller silicon area for a given operating frequency and power consumption compared to other circuit solutions. Measurement results are presented for the proposed circuit fabricated in a 0.18- TSMC technology. The proposed circuit can convert a wide range of the input voltages from 330 mV to 1.8 V, and operate over a frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 MHz. It has a propagation delay of 29 ns and a power consumption of 61.5 nW for input signals 0.4 V, at a frequency of 500-kHz, outperforming previous designs.
Autors: Esmaeel Maghsoudloo;Masoud Rezaei;Mohamad Sawan;Benoit Gosselin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1164 - 1172
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Voltage Pulse Generator With Continuously Variable Pulsewidth Based on a Modified PFN
Abstract:
The amount of stored energy is an important issue in the low-droop and high-precision pulse generation. Pulse forming network (PFN) simulating an open-ended transmission line seems to be useful due to its minimum stored energy. The drawbacks of the PFN include low-output pulse quality and constant pulsewidth, which limit their applications. Another limitation of generating rectangular pulses using PFN is that half of the charged voltage appears in the output when delivering the entire stored energy to the matched load. This paper proposes a structure of PFN-based pulse generator that overcomes the above-mentioned limitations. For continuous pulsewidth adjustment, a lossless scheme is presented. By increasing the ratio of the load magnitude to the characteristic impedance, the amplitude of the output pulse voltage would be approximately equal to that of the charged voltage. Therefore, the semiconductor switches can be utilized in the PFN pulse generator easily. In addition, the pulse quality is enhanced and faster rising time is obtained in comparison with the conventional PFNs. In this proposal, the stored energy quantity is limited to three times the energy needed for the output pulse in the case of . To verify the proposed structure, a prototype is simulated using PSPICE software, and the experimental results are presented.
Autors: Sadegh Mohsenzade;Mostafa Zarghany;Morteza Aghaei;Shahriyar Kaboli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 849 - 858
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Higher Order Hybrid SIE/FEM/SEM Method for the Flexible Electromagnetic Simulation in Layered Medium
Abstract:
A novel hybrid method is developed for the flexible and accurate electromagnetic simulation of penetrable objects in a layered medium (LM). In this method, the original complex simulation domain is first divided into several subdomains, following the spirit of divide-and-conquer. Each subdomain is then meshed and solved independently, where nonconformal mesh is inevitable. The Riemann type transmission condition is utilized at the interfaces of each subdomain to correctly exchange information so that the solutions of all subdomains converge rapidly to the real solution of the original problem. More specifically, in our method, the surface integral equation (SIE) combined with the LM Green's functions (LMGFs) is adopted for the boundary subdomain, while the finite-element method (FEM) and the spectral element method (SEM) are employed for all the other interior dielectric subdomains. The SIE with LMGFs truncates the simulation domain tightly within the object itself, which drastically decreases the number of unknowns. The interior subdomains are modeled by either FEM or SEM, depending on the geometry and material property of each subdomain. To further enhance the simulation capability, higher order approaches are adopted for all the subdomain solvers in this hybrid method. Several numerical examples are demonstrated, where a high convergence and accuracy of this method is observed. This paper will serve as an efficient and flexible simulation tool for the applications of geophysical exploration.
Autors: Yi Ren;Yongpin Chen;Qiwei Zhan;Jun Niu;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2563 - 2574
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Electro-Optic Current Transducer Using a Photodiode-Based Primary Supply
Abstract:
A hybrid electro-optic current transducer for protective relaying application is presented. The transducer combines a Rogowski coil with a reflective mirror based MEMS device located in the high-voltage environment. A Si-based photodiode pumped by close-loop PWM light wave is carefully designed as the optical primary power supply due to the 0.5 mW power consumption of MEMS module. Experiments were made in which the steady-state, transient, frequency and temperature response of the transducer were tested. Test results show that a maximum ratio and phase error of 0.5% and 19 min are respectively achieved for currents over 20–480 A range. In addition, the maximum error drifts of 1% and 16 min were observed over the temperature range of −20 to 80 °C. The transducer has the feature of low-power consumption and cost-effective, and can be widely used in electric power industry.
Autors: Pu Wei;Cheng Cheng;Lu Deng;Hui Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2713 - 2717
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Sampling Method for In-the-Loop Yield Estimation of Analog ICs in an Optimization Process
Abstract:
Analog integrated circuit sizing can be modeled as an optimization problem and solved by optimization heuristics. The resulting solution is dependent on the modeling strategy and on the performance estimation, which is done, in general, by electrical simulations. However, the optimized solution falls on the border of the design space, where a small variation in the device parameters affects the circuit performance. In order to address this issue during sizing steps, a Monte Carlo simulation is included in the optimization loop, leading in a computational effort increasing. This work analyses both Latin Hypercube and the traditional random sampling methods in order to reduce the number of Monte Carlo runs for minimizing the necessary time to estimate the resulting yield at each iteration of the optimization process. Based on these analysis a hybrid sampling method is proposed to lower the Monte Carlo processing time. The methodology is applied for the sizing of a two-stage Miller operational transconductance amplifier, showing advantages in terms of processing time and circuit performance while producing a more efficient search in the design space.
Autors: Robson Andre Domanski;Luiz Antonio da Silva Jr;Paulo Cesar Comassetto de Aguirre;Alessandro Goncalves Girardi;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 779 - 785
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Complex One-Snapshot DOA Estimation Algorithm with Massive ULA
Abstract:
The conventional direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms, e.g., MUSIC, root-MUSIC, and ESPRIT, may not be effective when applying to massive antenna array configuration, because they not only require a large amount of receive snapshots but also suffer from forbiddingly high computational complexity. In this letter, we propose a low-complex DOA estimation algorithm for massive uniform linear array. We first obtain coarse initial DOA estimates via the fast Fourier transmission and then search for the accurate estimates within a very small region. The proposed method needs one snapshot only and could achieve very high accuracy that is close to the Cramér–Rao bound. Simulation results are provided to corroborate the proposed studies.
Autors: Renzheng Cao;Binyue Liu;Feifei Gao;Xiaofei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1071 - 1074
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Complexity Vision-Based System for Real-Time Traffic Monitoring
Abstract:
In this paper a novel, efficient, and fast-performing vision-based system for traffic flow monitoring is presented. Using standard traffic surveillance cameras and effectively applying simple techniques, the proposed method can produce accurate results on vehicle counting in different challenging situations, such as low-resolution videos, rainy scenes, and situations of stop-and-go traffic. Due to the simplicity of the proposed algorithm, the system is able to manage multiple video streams simultaneously in real time. The method follows a robust adaptive background segmentation strategy based on the Approximated Median Filter technique, which detects pixels corresponding to moving objects. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve sufficient accuracy and reliability while showing high performance rates, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods. Tests have proved that the system is able to work with up to 50 standard-resolution cameras at the same time in a standard computer, producing satisfactory results.
Autors: Juan Isaac Engel;Juan Martín;Raquel Barco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1279 - 1288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Frequency Tone Sweep Method for In-Service Fault Location in Subcarrier Multiplexed Optical Fiber Networks
Abstract:
We demonstrate an optical fiber fault location method based on the frequency response of the modulated fiber optical backscattered signal in a steady-state low-frequency step regime. Careful calibration and measurement allows for the reconstruction of the fiber transfer function, which, associated to its mathematical model, is capable of extracting the fiber characteristics. The technique is capable of identifying nonreflective fault events in an optical fiber link and is perfectly compatible with previous methods that focus on the reflective events. The fact that the recuperation of the complex signal is performed in the frequency domain and not via a Fourier transform enables the measurements to overcome the spatial resolution limitation of Fourier transform incoherent-OFDR measurements even with frequency sweep ranges down to 100–100 000 Hz. This result is backed up by a less than 10 meters difference in fault location when compared to standard optical time domain reflectometry measurements.
Autors: Gustavo C. Amaral;Andrea Baldivieso;Joaquim Dias Garcia;Diego C. Villafani;Renata G. Leibel;Luis E. Y. Herrera;Patryk J. Urban;Jean Pierre von der Weid;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2017 - 2025
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Analog Adder and Driver Using a-IGZO TFTs
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel low-power analog circuit, with n-type IGZO TFTs that can function as an adder operator or be designed to operate as a driver. Experiments were set to show summation of up to four signals. However, the design can easily be expanded to add higher number of signals, by appending a single TFT at the input per each additional signal. The circuit is simple, uses a single power supply irrespective to the number of input voltage signals, and shows good accuracy over a reasonable range of input values. By choosing proper TFT dimensions, the topology can replace the typical output drivers of TFT amplifiers, namely the common-drain with current source biasing, or the common-source with diode connected load. The circuit was fabricated with a temperature that does not exceeds 200 °C. Its performance is characterized from measurements at room temperature and normal ambient, with a power supply voltage of 12 V and a load of pF. The proposed circuit has shown a linearity error less than 3.2% (up to an input signal peak-to-peak value of 2 V), a power consumption of and a bandwidth of kHz, under worst case condition (when it is adding four signals with the same frequency). It has shown superior performance in terms of linearity when compared to the typical drivers considered in this study. In addition, it has shown almost the same behavior when measurements were repeated after one year. Therefore, the proposed circuit is a robust viable alternative to conventional approaches, being more compact, and contributes to increase the functionality of large-area flexible electronics.
Autors: Pydi Ganga Bahubalindruni;Vítor Grade Tavares;Rodrigo Martins;Elvira Fortunato;Pedro Barquinha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1118 - 1125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Optical Nanoswitch Based on XPM-Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation
Abstract:
A nonlinear plasmonic nanoswitch with low power consumption is presented based on the cross-phase modulation (XPM) effect in centrosymmetric metals. XPM is exploited to change the nonlinear parameters of media for enhancement of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) process. The XPM-enhanced SHG through applying a pump signal is analyzed using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. The SHG from a gold nanoparticle is inspected and then implemented in a plasmonic nanoswitch. In the proposed nanoswitch, the pump wave determines the selected output port. The suggested approach not only provides a controlling method for active optical devices such as switches, but also makes it possible to use optical sources with lower output intensity to enter the nonlinear regime and accordingly reduces the device power consumption.
Autors: Saeed Farazi;Abbas Zarifkar;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1988 - 1994
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Antenna Using Planar Sector-Shaped Endfire Elements
Abstract:
A single-layer circularly polarized (CP) antenna with omnidirectional radiation in the azimuth plane has been designed and evaluated. The concept is the combination of multiple identical endfire CP antenna elements in a circular array configuration. The design of each element is based on the superposition of two closely spaced complementary current sources, which are, respectively, realized by a sectorial parallel-plate cavity and arc-shaped strip arms. A meandered double-sided parallel strip line is introduced to adjust the phase relationship between two orthogonal linear polarized components. All antenna elements can be simultaneously excited by adopting a single coaxial probe in the center of the overall structure. Take 5.8-GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band applications (5.725–5.875 GHz), for example, a prototype with a diameter of and a low profile of was fabricated. Experimental results show that the designed antenna has a usable bandwidth from 5.68 to 5.91 GHz (the common overlapped bandwidth limited by the −10 dB and the 3-dB axial ratio). Within the operation band, good omnidirectivity and a wide coverage can be obtained.
Autors: Qing-Xin Chu;Mao Ye;Xin-Rong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2240 - 2247
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Reconfigurable Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna With Frequency, Polarization, and Radiation Pattern Agility
Abstract:
A novel cavity-backed slot antenna, with the ability of reconfiguring the frequency, polarization, and radiation pattern, is presented. The reconfigurability is realized by electronically controlling the state of switches between two crossed slots etched on the surfaces of a substrate integrated waveguide cavity. The antenna is capable of simultaneously changing the radiation patterns between forward and backward directions, switching the polarization among two orthogonal linearly polarized (LP) and two orthogonal circularly polarized (CP) states, tuning between three frequency bands for LP states and between two frequency bands for CP states. A fully functional prototype is developed and tested, demonstrating the antenna with measured gains of approximately 4 dBi and stable unidirectional radiation patterns for all 20 states. In addition, the proposed design possesses a low profile of 0.01 free-space wavelength.
Autors: Lei Ge;Yujian Li;Jianpeng Wang;Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2182 - 2189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Magnetic Ranging-Aided Dead-Reckoning Positioning System for Pedestrian Applications
Abstract:
This paper investigates the applicability of a developed Magnetic Positioning System (MPS) as a support for a dead-reckoning inertial navigation system (DR-INS) for pedestrian applications. The integrated system combines the complementary properties of the separate systems, operating over long periods of time and in cluttered indoor areas with partial nonline-of-sight conditions. The obtained results show that the proposed approach can effectively improve the coverage area of the MPS and the operation time with bounded errors of the DR-INS. In particular, a solution that provides bounded position errors of 1–2 m over significantly long periods of time up to 45 min, in realistic indoor environments, is demonstrated. Moreover, system applicability is also shown in those scenarios where arbitrary orientations of the MPS mobile node are considered and an MPS position estimate is not available due to less than three distance measurements.
Autors: Valter Pasku;Alessio De Angelis;Antonio Moschitta;Paolo Carbone;John-Olof Nilsson;Satyam Dwivedi;Peter Händel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 953 - 963
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Magnetic Tank System for Wireless Power Transfer
Abstract:
This letter presents a tank system for wireless power transfer with magnetically coupled resonance. It contains two interconnected transmitting resonant coils placed perpendicular to each other and forms a magnetic resonant tank. Due to the combined effects of these two transmitting coils, there will always be magnetic flux that goes through the receiver regardless of axial misalignment between the transmitter and the receiver. The transfer efficiency thus improves and becomes less sensitive to axial misalignment than the conventional system. A prototype is fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards and tested. Both the simulation and test results show that the proposed system can enhance power transfer performances over a relatively good distance and a large range of misalignment angles. The receiver is functional even when it is perpendicular to the transmitter. Therefore, the proposed system can serve as a good candidate for applications such as wireless power supply to underwater motors.
Autors: Zhu Liu;Zhizhang Chen;Jinyan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 443 - 445
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Improving Overlapping of Testing and Design
Abstract:
Testing is a critical activity in product development. The academic literature provides limited insight about overlapping between upstream testing and downstream design tasks, especially in considering the qualitative differences between activities that are overlapped. In general, the existing literature treats two overlapped sequential activities as similar, and suggests optimal overlapping policies, techniques, and time–cost assessment. However, this case study-based research identifies that the overlapping of upstream testing with downstream design activities has different characteristics than the overlapping of two design activities. This paper first analyzes the characteristics that affect the overlapping of upstream testing and downstream design activities, and then proposes a method to reduce the time of rework in cases where the upstream testing is overlapped with subsequent redesign phases.
Autors: Khadija Tahera;Chris Earl;Claudia Eckert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 179 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Measuring Orientation Within a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Using Gravity and the Static Magnetic Field (VectOrient)
Abstract:
In MRI brain imaging, subject motion limits obtainable image clarity. Due to the hardware layout of an MRI scanner, gradient excitations can be used to rapidly detect position. Orientation, however, is more difficult to detect and is commonly calculated by comparing the position measurements of multiple spatially constrained points to a reference dataset. The result is increased size of the apparatus the subject must wear, which can influence the imaging workflow. In optical based methods marker attachment sites are limited due to the line of sight requirement between the camera and marker, and an external reference frame is introduced. To address these challenges a method called VectOrient is proposed for orientation measurement that is based on vector observations of gravity and the MRI scanner’s static magnetic field. A prototype device comprising of an accelerometer, magnetometer and angular rate sensor shows good MRI compatibility. Phantom scans of a pineapple with zero scanner specific calibration achieve comparable results to a rigid body registration algorithm with deviations less than 0.8 degrees over 28 degree changes in orientation. Dynamic performance shows potential for prospective motion correction as rapid changes in orientation (peak 20 degrees per second) can be corrected. The pulse sequence implemented achieves orientation updates with a latency estimated to be less than 12.7 ms, of which only a small fraction (<1 ms) is used for computing orientation from the raw sensor signals. The device is capable of quantifying subject respiration and heart rates. The proposed approach for orientation estimation could help address some limitations of existing methods such as orientation measurement range, temporal resolution, ease of use and marker placement.
Autors: Adam van Niekerk;Andre van der Kouwe;Ernesta Meintjes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1129 - 1139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Miniature Feeding Network for Aperture-Coupled Wearable Antennas
Abstract:
A miniature feeding network for aperture-coupled wearable antennas is proposed. In wearable systems, it allows to minimize the dimensions of the rigid printed circuit board (PCB) carrying the electronics and feeding the textile antenna. This optimizes the comfort of the user. Simultaneously, it avoids traditional probe feeding that has the disadvantage of requiring a single soldering point, which has a high risk of being broken with time due to movements of the user or washing. On top, since the aperture is implemented on the PCB, it can be fabricated with excellent dimensional tolerances that do not change during use. The proposed feeding topology is prototyped for applications in the industrial, scientific, and medical band (2.4–2.4835 GHz), resulting in dimensions of at 2.45 GHz, realized on a PCB substrate of mm2 ( at 2.45 GHz). The demonstration antenna incorporating the new feeding network has a realized gain of 5.6 dBi, a total efficiency of 47%, a low cross-polarization, and a high front-to-back ratio. Simulations and experiments agree well, proving the validity of the new concept.
Autors: Jiahao Zhang;Sen Yan;Guy A. E. Vandenbosch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2650 - 2654
Publisher: IEEE
 

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