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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 08-2010 sorted by title, page: 17
» Multimodal Registration Procedure for the Initial Spatial Alignment of a Retinal Video Sequence to a Retinal Composite Image
Abstract:
Accurate placement of lesions is crucial for the effectiveness and safety of a retinal laser photocoagulation treatment. Computer assistance provides the capability for improvements to treatment accuracy and execution time. The idea is to use video frames acquired from a scanning digital ophthalmoscope (SDO) to compensate for retinal motion during laser treatment. This paper presents a method for the multimodal registration of the initial frame from an SDO retinal video sequence to a retinal composite image, which may contain a treatment plan. The retinal registration procedure comprises the following steps: 1) detection of vessel centerline points and identification of the optic disc; 2) prealignment of the video frame and the composite image based on optic disc parameters; and 3) iterative matching of the detected vessel centerline points in expanding matching regions. This registration algorithm was designed for the initialization of a real-time registration procedure that registers the subsequent video frames to the composite image. The algorithm demonstrated its capability to register various pairs of SDO video frames and composite images acquired from patients.
Autors: Broehan, A. M.;Tappeiner, C.;Rothenbuehler, S. P.;Rudolph, T.;Amstutz, C. A.;Kowal, J. H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1991 - 2000
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multimode Digital Controller for Synchronous Buck Converters Operating Over Wide Ranges of Input Voltages and Load Currents
Abstract:
This paper describes a digital pulsewidth modulation/pulse-frequency modulation (PWM/PFM) controller with input-voltage feedforward (IVFF) for synchronous buck dc–dc converters. The controller includes automatic PWM/PFM mode switching and effective synchronous operation with a minimum number of active components and without the need for current sensing in PFM mode of operation. IVFF improves efficiency and dynamic performance over a wide range of input voltages. Controller parameters, including the PWM switching frequency, the PFM pulse period, and the mode transition point are programmable, which enables efficiency optimization. Experimental results are shown for a synchronous buck converter with 5–12 V input voltage, and 1.3 V, 0–10 A output.
Autors: Zhang, X.;Maksimovic, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 25, issue:8, pages: 1958 - 1965
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multimode Reconfigurable Digital Modulator Architecture for Fractional- PLLs
Abstract:
This brief presents the analysis, design, and implementation of a multimode reconfigurable digital Sigma–Delta modulator for use in fractional- phase-locked loops. Analysis of second-, third-, and fourth-order modulators with respect to PLL phase noise contribution in the presence of loop nonlinearities is performed. Optimal architectures in each order are found and a single reconfigurable modulator is designed and implemented on FPGA. The proposed architecture is able to cover seven different modes of operation and spans three orders, thus offering a great degree of noise-shaping flexibility suitable for multistandard wireless applications. A case study for LTE/WiMAX is further presented for demonstration.
Autors: Bou Sleiman, S.;Ismail, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 592 - 596
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multimonostatic Shape Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Cylinders by a Kirchhoff-Based Approach
Abstract:
The inverse problem of reconstructing the shape of dielectric cylinders by aspect-limited multimonostatic multifrequency electromagnetic scattering data is dealt with. The problem is formulated as a linear one by means of the physical-optics approximation distributional approach. The difference with respect to the case of perfectly electrical conducting scatterers is pointed out, since the penetrability of the scatterers is taken into account by considering the contribution of the “shadowed” side to the local reflection coefficient. The adopted model allows one to predict that both the “illuminated” and “shadowed” sides of the scatterer provide contribution to the reconstructed image but with a delocalization depending on the relative dielectric permittivity. The numerical results confirm this expectation and show the effectiveness of the approach.
Autors: Brancaccio, A.;Leone, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 48, issue:8, pages: 3152 - 3161
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multiobjective Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Applied to Planning of the Volt/Var Problem in Distributions Systems
Abstract:
This paper deals with integrated voltage and reactive power control (volt/var) for radial distribution feeders in planning issues, by means of the application of automatic voltage regulators (AVRs) banks and capacitors. A multiobjective genetic algorithm (SPEA2) improved using fuzzy logic is presented to solve the volt/var problem, since it is a combinatorial multiobjective optimization problem. The expert knowledge is taken into account via fuzzy logic in order to reduce the search space using voltage regulators in standard units. According to the multiobjective optimization fundamentals, an optimal solution ensemble is obtained, which concomitantly represents the solutions to both objectives, in such way that the operational restrictions of systems are satisfied. The algorithm is evaluated for a known 69-bus feeder in the literature of the subject. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed method provides good concordance between the obtained solution and the Pareto front.
Autors: de Souza, B. A.;de Almeida, A. M. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1274 - 1281
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiobjective Particle Swarm Approach for the Design of a Brushless DC Wheel Motor
Abstract:
The roots of swarm intelligence are deeply embedded in the biological study of self-organized behaviors in social insects. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is one of the modern metaheuristics of swarm intelligence, which can be effectively used to solve nonlinear and non-continuous optimization problems. The basic principle of PSO algorithm is formed on the assumption that potential solutions (particles) will be flown through hyperspace with acceleration towards more optimum solutions. Each particle adjusts its flying according to the flying experiences of both itself and its companions using equations of position and velocity. During the process, the coordinates in hyperspace associated with its previous best fitness solution and the overall best value attained so far by other particles within the group are kept track and recorded in the memory. In recent years, PSO approaches have been successfully implemented to different problem domains with multiple objectives. In this paper, a multiobjective PSO approach, based on concepts of Pareto optimality, dominance, archiving external with elite particles and truncated Cauchy distribution, is proposed and applied in the design with the constraints presence of a brushless DC (Direct Current) wheel motor. Promising results in terms of convergence and spacing performance metrics indicate that the proposed multiobjective PSO scheme is capable of producing good solutions.
Autors: dos Santos Coelho, L.;Barbosa, L. Z.;Lebensztajn, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 2994 - 2997
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multiperiod Remanufacturing Planning With Uncertain Quality of Inputs
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider production planning when inputs have different and uncertain quality levels, and there are capacity constraints. This situation is typical of most remanufacturing environments, where inputs are product returns (also called cores). Production (remanufacturing) cost increases as the quality level decreases, and any unused cores may be salvaged at a value that increases with their quality level. Decision variables include, for each period and under a certain probabilistic scenario, the amount of cores to grade, the amount to remanufacture for each quality level, and the amount of inventory to carry over for future periods for ungraded cores, graded cores, and finished remanufactured products. Our model is grounded with data collected at a major original equipment manufacturer that also remanufactures. We formulate the problem as a stochastic program; although it is a large linear program, it can be solved easily using Cplex. We provide a numeric study to generate insights into the nature of the solution.
Autors: Denizel, M.;Ferguson, M.;Souza, G. G. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 394 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiphysics Problems via the Cell Method: The Role of Tonti Diagrams
Abstract:
A common structure of several physical laws emerges naturally from the Tonti diagrams of different physical theories so that topological operators can be built only once and used to assemble the stiffness matrices and the coupling terms of the various problems. This process is known in algebraic topology as coboundary process and is presented as the theoretical background for solving multiphysics problems. The main contribution of this paper is to show that the discrete setting provided by Tonti diagrams not only allows to define discrete counterparts of the differential operators and constituive matrices, but that the same matrices can be used to set up the coupling terms in multiphysics problem formulations. The proposed method is compared with a commercial code on an electro-thermo-mechanical benchmark.
Autors: Alotto, P.;Freschi, F.;Repetto, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 2959 - 2962
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiple Binary ZCZ Sequence Sets With Good Cross-Correlation Property Based on Complementary Sequence Sets
Abstract:
In this paper, two types of multiple binary zero correlation zone (ZCZ) sequence sets are constructed: 1. Each set is a binary -ZCZ sequence set, which is one of the best cases in the known constructions. 2. Among all the sets, the sequences still possess good cross-correlation property within the zone of length . In particular, the first type sequence sets have a common zero correlation zone of length , which solves the previous research problem. These multiple binary ZCZ sequence sets are suitable for multiuser environments.
Autors: Tang, X.;Fan, P.;Lindner, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 56, issue:8, pages: 4038 - 4045
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiple Model Adaptive Control With Mixing
Abstract:
Despite the remarkable theoretical accomplishments and successful applications of adaptive control, the field is not sufficiently mature to solve challenging control problems where strict performance and robustness guarantees are required. Critical to the design of practical control systems for these challenging applications, and currently lacking in parameter estimation-based adaptive control schemes, is an approach that explicitly accounts for robust-performance and stability specifications. Towards this goal, this paper describes a robust adaptive control approach called adaptive mixing control that makes available the full suite of powerful design tools from LTI theory, e.g., mixed- synthesis. The stability and robustness properties of adaptive mixing control are analyzed. It is shown that the mean-square regulation error is of the order of the modeling error provided the unmodeled dynamics satisfy a norm-bound condition. And when the parameter estimate converges to its true value, which is guaranteed if a persistence of excitation condition is satisfied, the adaptive closed-loop system converges exponentially fast to a closed-loop system comprising the plant and some LTI controller that satisfies the control objective. A benchmark example is presented, which is used to compare the adaptive mixing controller with other adaptive schemes.
Autors: Kuipers, M.;Ioannou, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 55, issue:8, pages: 1822 - 1836
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multiple steady state current-voltage characteristics in drift-diffusion modelisation of N type and semi-insulating GaAs Gunn structures
Abstract:
Theoretical and numerical investigations of carriers transport in N-Semi-Insulating (SI)-N and P-SI-P diodes is extended to the case of extrinsic (N type) or SI samples with Gunn like electric field dependent mobilities. The results obtained in a preceding publication [1] are valid as long as the bulk electric field does not increase above a threshold field Eth associated with the beginning of negative electron differential mobility values: ?n,diff=(dvn/dE)<0, vn being the electron drift velocity. Convergence and stability problems occur only, for the steady state numerical simulation, in long N+-N-N+ or N+-SI(N-)-N+ diodes. SI(N-) characterizes a SI layer which keeps, under...
Autors: J.C., Manifacier
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Multiple-finger turn-on uniformity in silicon-controlled rectifiers
Abstract:
Turn-on uniformity of two multi-finger silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) with different combinations of anode/cathode regions are studied using the transmission line pulsing (TLP) tester. The finger turn-on mechanisms of these devices are explained from the current flow path and equivalent circuit views. The dV/dt effect of pulses with different rise times on the finger turn-on behavior of the SCRs are also investigated experimentally.
Autors: You, Li , Juin J., Liou
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Multiplexed Analysis of Proteins in Tissue Using Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging
Abstract:
We present a new application of multispectral analysis for subcellular measurement of multiple proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue and cells. Typically, the targets of interest are present in the same or spatially overlapping cellular compartments. Such co-localization can complicate analysis and interpretation of the images obtained using traditional fluorescence, especially when spectrally overlapping labels are present. The spectral properties of currently available fluorescent dyes set an upper limit to the number of molecules that can be detected simultaneously with traditional fluorescence. By exciting a set of fluorophores at the same wavelength and unmixing their emission signals from background autofluorescence, we were able to image three targets in a single channel. This parallel imaging approach provides significant advantages for multiplexed analysis of tissues and cells.
Autors: Barash, E.;Dinn, S.;Sevinsky, C.;Ginty, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 29, issue:8, pages: 1457 - 1462
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multistability in Networks With Self-Excitation and High-Order Synaptic Connectivity
Abstract:
This paper presents new results on multistability of networks when neurons undergo self-excitation and second-order synaptic connectivity. Due to self-excitation of neurons, we split state space into invariant regions and establish new criteria of coexistence of equilibria (periodic orbits) which are exponentially stable. It is shown that high-order synaptic connectivity and external inputs play an important role on the number of equilibria and their convergent dynamics. As a consequence, our results refute traditional viewpoint: high-order interactions of neurons have faster convergence rate and greater storage capacity than first-order ones. Finally, numerical simulations will illustrate our new and interesting results.
Autors: Huang, Z.;Song, Q.;Feng, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 2144 - 2155
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multistability of Recurrent Neural Networks With Time-varying Delays and the Piecewise Linear Activation Function
Abstract:
In this brief, stability of multiple equilibria of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays and the piecewise linear activation function is studied. A sufficient condition is obtained to ensure that -neuron recurrent neural networks can have equilibrium points and of them are locally exponentially stable. This condition improves and extends the existing stability results in the literature. Simulation results are also discussed in one illustrative example.
Autors: Zeng, Z.;Huang, T.;Zheng, W. X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 21, issue:8, pages: 1371 - 1377
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multistatic and MIMO Distributed ISAR for Enhanced Cross-Range Resolution of Rotating Targets
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new technique to exploit the data acquired simultaneously by multiple radar sensors carried by multiple air platforms to increase the cross-range resolution of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images of rotating targets. This distributed ISAR technique is devised for two different cases: 1) multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) case with each platform carrying an active radar that transmits and receives RF waveforms and 2) multistatic case with a single platform carrying an active radar (transmitting and receiving) and the remaining platforms equipped with passive sensors (namely, receiving only). The processing chain proposed for the distributed ISAR is shown, together with the results obtained against simulated ISAR data for both the MIMO and the multistatic cases. The performance analysis shows that the proposed technique is able to provide an increase of the cross-range resolution up to the number of platforms in the multistatic case and even higher in the MIMO case, if the platforms are properly located. This is of great benefit in applications where the target rotation angle is insufficient to guarantee the desired resolution. A typical case is the imaging of ship targets with rotation induced by the sea swell structure under low sea state conditions. To make the results appealing for practical application, the performance degradation is also analyzed arising from errors in the knowledge of both the target rotation motion and the acquisition geometry. Experimental data collected by a ground-based radar operating together with a rotating platform are processed by following the presented distributed ISAR technique to validate the proposed approach.
Autors: Pastina, D.;Bucciarelli, M.;Lombardo, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 48, issue:8, pages: 3300 - 3317
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multitone Photoconductive Sensors for Free-Space Optics
Abstract:
A multitone frequency-biasing technique is applied to an integrated photoconductive (PC) sensor for application to free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. The introduced technique and integrated device provide the required optical transmission, detection, and retroreflection capabilities for both passive uplink and active downlink operations. The physical structure incorporates three triangular PC switches, with 450- GaAs gaps, assembled in a corner-cube retroreflector architecture. The retroreflective nature of the element establishes a bidirectional passive uplink between the PC sensor and transmitter/source, whereas the three PC switches together provide unidirectional reception of incident optical signals during active downlink operation. At the same time, the threefold symmetry of the structure, together with the multitone biasing, provides a frequency-domain balancing mechanism to optimize the sensor alignment. The prototype is presented with both theoretical and experimental analyses, and proof-of-concept FSO communication is demonstrated over an indoor 5-m link length.
Autors: Jin, X.;Holzman, J. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 2, issue:4, pages: 659 - 669
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiuser Cooperative Multiplexing with Interference Suppression in Wireless Relay Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider multiuser cooperative multiplexing schemes in cellular networks with fixed relays and address the problem of inter-user interference. We propose two schemes to mitigate the effect of the interference: an interference cancellation scheme and a cooperative precoding scheme. The interference cancellation scheme utilizes the broadcast nature of the signal transmitted to the fixed relay, and is based on a decode-and-forward relaying protocol. We provide a capacity bound for the proposed scheme, and also propose a power reduction scheme for the fixed relay. For the cooperative precoding scheme, we employ a cooperative linear filter at the transmitter to eliminate interference. Simulation results show that both proposed schemes enhance the achievable throughput significantly.
Autors: Sung, Chang Kyung;Collings, Iain B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 9, issue:8, pages: 2528 - 2538
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiuser MISO Transmitter Optimization for Intercell Interference Mitigation
Abstract:
The transmitter optimization (i.e., steering vectors and power allocation) for a MISO broadcast channel subject to general linear constraints is considered. Such constraints include, as special cases, the sum-power, per-antenna or per-group-of-antennas power, and “forbidden interference direction” constraints. We consider both the optimal dirty-paper coding and simple suboptimal linear zero-forcing beamforming strategies, and provide numerically efficient algorithms that solve the problem in its most general form. As an application, we consider a multicell scenario with partial cell cooperation, where each cell optimizes its transmitter by taking into account interference constraints on specific users in adjacent cells. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated in a simple system scenario including two adjacent cells and distance-dependent pathloss, under different fairness criteria that emphasize the bottleneck effect of users near the cell “edge.” Our results show that this “active” Intercell Interference (ICI) mitigation outperforms the conventional “static” ICI mitigation based on fractional frequency reuse.
Autors: Huh, H.;Papadopoulos, H. C.;Caire, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 58, issue:8, pages: 4272 - 4285
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multivariate Image Segmentation Using Semantic Region Growing With Adaptive Edge Penalty
Abstract:
Multivariate image segmentation is a challenging task, influenced by large intraclass variation that reduces class distinguishability as well as increased feature space sparseness and solution space complexity that impose computational cost and degrade algorithmic robustness. To deal with these problems, a Markov random field (MRF) based multivariate segmentation algorithm called “multivariate iterative region growing using semantics” (MIRGS) is presented. In MIRGS, the impact of intraclass variation and computational cost are reduced using the MRF spatial context model incorporated with adaptive edge penalty and applied to regions. Semantic region growing starting from watershed over-segmentation and performed alternatively with segmentation gradually reduces the solution space size, which improves segmentation effectiveness. As a multivariate iterative algorithm, MIRGS is highly sensitive to initial conditions. To suppress initialization sensitivity, it employs a region-level -means (RKM) based initialization method, which consistently provides accurate initial conditions at low computational cost. Experiments show the superiority of RKM relative to two commonly used initialization methods. Segmentation tests on a variety of synthetic and natural multivariate images demonstrate that MIRGS consistently outperforms three other published algorithms.
Autors: Qin, A. K.;Clausi, D. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 19, issue:8, pages: 2157 - 2170
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator
Abstract:
We developed a heterostructure to assess accurately the strain evolution upon nanopatterning of 15 nm thick tensile strained silicon-on-insulator (SSOI). Here the long-standing concern of substrate background in micro-Raman analysis was circumvented by the introduction of a Ge layer underneath the buried oxide. Unprecedented insights into the strain behavior in SSOI nanostructures were obtained by combining deep UV and visible micro-Raman probes. We found that the formation of edges results in a strong relaxation near the surface parallel to an increase in the strain at the Si/oxide interface. This disparity in the strain evolution between surface and interface leads to the coexistence of compressive and tensile strained regions within the same structure at a lateral dimension of 50 nm. This heterogeneous distribution of strain should be taken into account in the design and fabrication of SSOI-based nanodevices.
Autors: Moutanabbir, O.;Reiche, M.;Hahnel, A.;Oehme, M.;Kasper, E.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 97, issue:5, pages: 053105 - 053105-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Multiwindow S-method for instantaneous frequency estimation and its application in radar signal analysis
Abstract:
A new distribution that provides high concentration in the time-frequency domain is proposed. It is based on the S-method and multiwindow approach, where different order Hermite functions are employed as multiple windows. The resulting distribution will be referred to as the multiwindow S-method. It preserves favourable properties of the standard S-method, whereas the distribution concentration is improved by using Hermite functions of just a few first orders. The proposed distribution is appropriate for radar signal analysis, as it will be proven by experimental examples.
Autors: Orovic, I.;Stankovic, S.;Thayaparan, T.;Stankovic, L.J.;
Appeared in: IET Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 4, issue:4, pages: 363 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
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» N-Polar InAlN/AlN/GaN MIS-HEMTs
Abstract:
N-polar metal–insulator–semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) were fabricated from a GaN/AlN/InAlN/GaN heterostructure grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a vicinal sapphire substrate, using as the gate insulator. Hall measurements in van der Pauw geometry on the heterostructure showed a sheet charge density and a mobility of and 1135 , respectively. Resistance measurements revealed anisotropic conductivity with respect to the surface steps induced by the substrate misorientation, and the sheet resistance of the 2-D electron gas was as low as 226 in the parallel direction. MIS-HEMTs with a gate length of 0.7 and a source–drain spacing of 2.2 had a peak drain current of 1.47 A/mm and an on-resistance of 1.45 . At a drain bias of 8 V, the current- and power-gain cutoff frequencies were 14 and 25 GHz, respectively.
Autors: Brown, D. F.;Nidhi,;Wu, F.;Keller, S.;DenBaars, S. P.;Mishra, U. K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 31, issue:8, pages: 800 - 802
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nanocomposite Phase-Change Memory Alloys for Very High Temperature Data Retention
Abstract:
Phase-change memory alloys based on germanium, antimony, and tellurium with nanophase dielectric inclusions are investigated for material and electrical properties. The new alloys are prepared by cosputtering with a target creating nanophase dielectric inclusions. The addition of the dielectric inclusions significantly increases the crystallization temperature without affecting the required programming current. In memory device configurations, the nanocomposite alloys exhibit a ten-year data retention above 200 and a cycle life greater than cycles while maintaining the SET programming speed of 250 ns.
Autors: Czubatyj, W.;Hudgens, S. J.;Dennison, C.;Schell, C.;Lowrey, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 31, issue:8, pages: 869 - 871
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nanometrology Using a Quasiperiodic Pattern Diffraction Optical Ruler
Abstract:
This paper presents a nanometrology optical ruler imaging system to enable rapid wafer-scale nanometrology, particularly for scanning probe microscopes. The ruler is generated by the diffraction of a stabilized laser by a metal thin-film pattern. Microfabrication techniques create a high-count quasiperiodic aperture array in the film which generates a translationally asymmetric feature-dense optical diffraction pattern well suited for the nanometrology application. An imager array samples the optical ruler and calculates its position by Fourier transform cross-correlation methods. Numerically, it is found that improving the imager by pixel count and size can reduce positioning errors down to 1/120th of the pixel size, after which further improvements yield no reduction in error. Experiments using a modest complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor imager demonstrate a positioning accuracy of 1/124th of the pixel size, or 29 nm. This system will enable high-precision high-throughput metrology and fabrication of nano- and microelectromechanical systems. [2009-0331]
Autors: Yoshimizu, N.;Lal, A.;Pollock, C. R.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 19, issue:4, pages: 865 - 870
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nanoscale thermally induced stress analysis by complementary Scanning Thermal Microscopy techniques
Abstract:
Thermally induced stress is determined using boundary values obtained by complementary Scanning Joule Expansion Microscopy and Scanning Thermal Microscopy. The stress function is then solved with the Finite Element Method. Surface stress analysis as well as stress analysis of multilayered structures are performed in order to demonstrate the application of the developed measurement technique to reliability investigations.
Autors: M., Fakhri , A.-K., Geinzer , R., Heiderhoff , L.J., Balk
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Narrow-Band Frequency Analysis for White-Light Spectroscopy Diagnostics
Abstract:
Precancerous conditions in tissue are often characterized by a slight increase in the nuclei size of epithelium cells. There has been research in the determination of precancerous tissue using white-light spectroscopy as an optical biopsy. In this paper, we investigate white light scattering off of tissue phantoms, created with polystyrene microspheres. When analyzing scattered white light, it is well known that the size of the scatterer contributes to a specific spatial oscillation pattern as a function of the wavelength. However, when examining a mixture of two or more different sized scatterers, it is difficult to relate this oscillation pattern to the specific scatterer sizes composing the mixture. To overcome this challenge, we convert this spatial oscillation pattern into the Fourier domain, which emphasizes a signature frequency peak for each particular component of the mixture. To improve our results, we use a narrow bandpass optical filter when interrogating the sample. This reduces noise in the frequency domain and isolates a single signature frequency for each scatterer in the mixture.
Autors: Popov, K. A.;Kurzweg, T. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 886 - 892
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» NBTI and hot carrier effect of Schottky-barrier p-MOSFETs
Abstract:
The experimental investigation of NBTI and hot carrier induced device degradation in Pt-silicided Schottky-barrier p-MOSFETs has been performed. The investigations on the threshold voltage shifts, the degradation of inverse subthreshold slope, and the decrease of ION/IOFF ratio have been carried out using the modulation of Schottky-barrier height and width. After NBTI and hot carrier stress, the decrease of ION could be explained by the lower hole tunneling current through the more increased Schottky-barrier height and the increased IOFF could be explained by the increase of the amount of electron thermal emission and tunneling through thinner Schottky-barrier into the near drain....
Autors: Jin-Young, Kim , Jun-Seok, Oh , Won-Ju, Cho , Jong Tae, Park
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» NBTI degradation effect on advanced-process 45nm high-k PMOSFETs with geometric and process variations
Abstract:
Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become an important reliability concern for nano-scaled complementary metal oxide (CMOS) devices. This paper presents the effect of NBTI for a 45nm advanced-process high-k dielectric with metal gate PMOS transistor. The device had incorporated advanced-process flow steps such as stress engineering and laser annealing in order to achieve high on-state drain current drive performance. To explore NBTI effects on an advanced-process sub-micron device, the 45nm high-k PMOS transistor was simulated extensively with a wide range of geometric and process variations. The device was simulated at varying thicknesses in the dielectric layer, oxide interfacial layer,...
Autors: S.F. Wan Muhamad, Hatta , N., Soin , D. Abd, Hadi , J.F., Zhang
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Nd:YAG-laser-induced wet chemical etching of titanium and stainless steel
Abstract:
Laser-induced wet chemical etching of titanium and stainless steel foils in phosphoric and sulphuric acid was investigated. Focussing of cw-Nd:YAG laser radiation at power levels up to 7 W to a focal spot diameter of about 25 ?m resulted in chemical etching of grooves at speeds up to 90 ?m s-1 and cutting of foils at velocities of 10-50 ?m s-1. Aspect ratios up to 2 were obtained. Fabrication of free-standing microstructures is demonstrated.
Autors: R., Nowak , S., Metev , G., Sepold
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Near Duplicate Identification With Spatially Aligned Pyramid Matching
Abstract:
A new framework, termed spatially aligned pyramid matching, is proposed for near duplicate image identification. The proposed method robustly handles spatial shifts as well as scale changes, and is extensible for video data. Images are divided into both overlapped and non-overlapped blocks over multiple levels. In the first matching stage, pairwise distances between blocks from the examined image pair are computed using earth mover's distance (EMD) or the visual word with distance based method with scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features. In the second stage, multiple alignment hypotheses that consider piecewise spatial shifts and scale variation are postulated and resolved using integer-flow EMD. Moreover, to compute the distances between two videos, we conduct the third step matching (i.e., temporal matching) after spatial matching. Two application scenarios are addressed—near duplicate retrieval (NDR) and near duplicate detection (NDD). For retrieval ranking, a pyramid-based scheme is constructed to fuse matching results from different partition levels. For NDD, we also propose a dual-sample approach by using the multilevel distances as features and support vector machine for binary classification. The proposed methods are shown to clearly outperform existing methods through extensive testing on the Columbia Near Duplicate Image Database and two new datasets. In addition, we also discuss in depth our framework in terms of the extension for video NDR and NDD, the sensitivity to parameters, the utilization of multiscale dense SIFT descriptors, and the test of scalability in image NDD.
Autors: Xu, D.;Cham, T. J.;Yan, S.;Duan, L.;Chang, S.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 20, issue:8, pages: 1068 - 1079
Publisher: IEEE
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» Near-MLD MIMO Detection Based on a Modified Ant Colony Optimization
Abstract:
In wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, maximum-likelihood detection (MLD), is impractical because it requires an exhaustive search. This letter formulates MIMO MLD as a pathfinding problem shows it can be solved using a modified ant colony optimization. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves near-MLD performance with low computational complexity.
Autors: Lain, Jenn-Kaie;Chen, Jyun-Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 14, issue:8, pages: 722 - 724
Publisher: IEEE
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» Near-Optimal Joint Antenna Selection for Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks
Abstract:
This paper considers a joint antenna selection method in amplify-and-forward (AF) relay networks where the source, relay and destination terminals are all equipped with multiple antennas. The fact that the system's full diversity can be maintained by antenna selection at each terminal makes it a promising solution to reduce the hardware complexity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) terminals while realizing the diversity benefits of MIMO in relay networks. Since the exhaustive search for antenna subset selection is computationally prohibitive, we devise a low-complexity near-optimal joint antenna selection algorithm based on a constrained cross entropy optimization (CCEO) method to maximize the achievable rate and the convergence is guaranteed. Simulation results reveal both the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm and the significant performance improvement over other benchmark selection techniques. Finally, it is illustrated that the proposed CCEO algorithm can always achieve near-optimal results regardless of the number of selected antennas, outage probabilities and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at the terminals.
Autors: Zhang, Yangyang;Zheng, Gan;Ji, Chunlin;Wong, Kai-Kit;Edwards, David J.;Cui, Tiejun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 9, issue:8, pages: 2401 - 2407
Publisher: IEEE
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» Negative Power Penalties of Optical OFDM Signal Transmissions in Directly Modulated DFB Laser-Based IMDD Systems Incorporating Negative Dispersion Fibers
Abstract:
Detailed investigations of dynamic negative power penalty characteristics of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) signal transmissions are undertaken, for the first time, in directly modulated distributed feedback (DFB) laser (DML)-based intensity modulation and direct detection (IMDD) systems incorporating negative dispersion fibers such as MetroCor fibers. Excellent agreements between numerical simulations and real-time experimental measurements are obtained over a wide diversity of transmission conditions of the aforementioned systems. The physical mechanism underpinning the occurrence of negative power penalties is the reduction in subcarrier intermixing impairment due to the compensation between DML positive frequency chirps and MetroCor negative chromatic dispersions. It is also shown that the negative power penalty is independent of both cyclic prefix and signal modulation format and, more importantly, controllable when adaptive modulation and/or appropriate adjustments of DML operating conditions are applied.
Autors: Zheng, X.;Jin, X.Q.;Giddings, R.P.;Wei, J.L.;Hugues-Salas, E.;Hong, Y.H.;Tang, J.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 2, issue:4, pages: 532 - 542
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nested Arrays: A Novel Approach to Array Processing With Enhanced Degrees of Freedom
Abstract:
A new array geometry, which is capable of significantly increasing the degrees of freedom of linear arrays, is proposed. This structure is obtained by systematically nesting two or more uniform linear arrays and can provide degrees of freedom using only physical sensors when the second-order statistics of the received data is used. The concept of nesting is shown to be easily extensible to multiple stages and the structure of the optimally nested array is found analytically. It is possible to provide closed form expressions for the sensor locations and the exact degrees of freedom obtainable from the proposed array as a function of the total number of sensors. This cannot be done for existing classes of arrays like minimum redundancy arrays which have been used earlier for detecting more sources than the number of physical sensors. In minimum-input–minimum-output (MIMO) radar, the degrees of freedom are increased by constructing a longer virtual array through active sensing. The method proposed here, however, does not require active sensing and is capable of providing increased degrees of freedom in a completely passive setting. To utilize the degrees of freedom of the nested co-array, a novel spatial smoothing based approach to DOA estimation is also proposed, which does not require the inherent assumptions of the traditional techniques based on fourth-order cumulants or quasi stationary signals. As another potential application of the nested array, a new approach to beamforming based on a nonlinear preprocessing is also introduced, which can effectively utilize the degrees of freedom offered by the nested arrays. The usefulness of all the proposed methods is verified through extensive computer simulations.
Autors: Pal, P.;Vaidyanathan, P. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 58, issue:8, pages: 4167 - 4181
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nested Polar Codes for Wiretap and Relay Channels
Abstract:
We show that polar codes asymptotically achieve the whole capacity-equivocation region for the wiretap channel when the wiretapper's channel is degraded with respect to the main channel, and the weak secrecy notion is used. Our coding scheme also achieves the capacity of the physically degraded receiver-orthogonal relay channel. We show simulation results for moderate block length for the binary erasure wiretap channel, comparing polar codes and two edge type LDPC codes.
Autors: Andersson, Mattias;Rathi, Vishwambhar;Thobaben, Ragnar;Kliewer, Jorg;Skoglund, Mikael;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 14, issue:8, pages: 752 - 754
Publisher: IEEE
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» Network Address Translation: Extending the Internet Address Space
Abstract:
Network Address Translation (NAT) and Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT) are widely used to separate networks and share IPv4 addresses. They're valuable tools for network administrators and help with the imminent exhaustion of IPv4 address space and the transition to IPv6. This article surveys recent standardization efforts in this area.
Autors: Dan Wing;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 66 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
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» Network Coding-Aware Routing in Wireless Networks
Abstract:
A recent approach—COPE, presented by Katti (Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 2006, pp. 243–254)—for improving the throughput of unicast traffic in wireless multihop networks exploits the broadcast nature of the wireless medium through opportunistic network coding. In this paper, we analyze throughput improvements obtained by COPE-type network coding in wireless networks from a theoretical perspective. We make two key contributions. First, we obtain a theoretical formulation for computing the throughput of network coding on any wireless network topology and any pattern of concurrent unicast traffic sessions. Second, we advocate that routing be made aware of network coding opportunities rather than, as in COPE, being oblivious to it. More importantly, our model considers the tradeoff between routing flows close to each other for utilizing coding opportunities and away from each other for avoiding wireless interference. Our theoretical formulation provides a method for computing source–destination routes and utilizing the best coding opportunities from available ones so as to maximize the throughput. We handle scheduling of broadcast transmissions subject to wireless transmit/receive diversity and link interference in our optimization framework. Using our formulations, we compare the performance of traditional unicast routing and network coding with coding-oblivious and coding-aware routing on a variety of mesh network topologies, including some derived from contemporary mesh network testbeds. Our evaluations show that a route selection strategy that is aware of network coding opportunities leads to higher end-to-end throughput when compared to coding-oblivious routing strategies.
Autors: Sengupta, S.;Rayanchu, S.;Banerjee, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1158 - 1170
Publisher: IEEE
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» Network-on-chip architectures for neural networks
Abstract:
Providing highly flexible connectivity is a major architectural challenge for hardware implementation of reconfigurable neural networks. We perform an analytical evaluation and comparison of different configurable interconnect architectures (mesh NoC, tree, shared bus and point-to-point) emulating variants of two neural network topologies (having full and random configurable connectivity). We derive analytical expressions and asymptotic limits for performance (in terms of bandwidth) and cost (in terms of area and power) of the interconnect architectures considering three communication methods (unicast, multicast and broadcast). It is shown that multicast mesh NoC provides the highest performance/cost ratio and consequently it is the most suitable...
Autors: Dmitri, Vainbrand , Ran, Ginosar
Appeared in: Microprocessors and Microsystems
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Networked Control Systems With Communication Constraints: Tradeoffs Between Transmission Intervals, Delays and Performance
Abstract:
There are many communication imperfections in networked control systems (NCS) such as varying transmission delays, varying sampling/transmission intervals, packet loss, communication constraints and quantization effects. Most of the available literature on NCS focuses on only some of these aspects, while ignoring the others. In this paper we present a general framework that incorporates communication constraints, varying transmission intervals and varying delays. Based on a newly developed NCS model including all these network phenomena, we will provide an explicit construction of a continuum of Lyapunov functions. Based on this continuum of Lyapunov functions we will derive bounds on the maximally allowable transmission interval (MATI) and the maximally allowable delay (MAD) that guarantee stability of the NCS in the presence of communication constraints. The developed theory includes recently improved results for delay-free NCS as a special case. After considering stability, we also study semi-global practical stability (under weaker conditions) and performance of the NCS in terms of gains from disturbance inputs to controlled outputs. The developed results lead to tradeoff curves between MATI, MAD and performance gains that depend on the used protocol. These tradeoff curves provide quantitative information that supports the network designer when selecting appropriate networks and protocols guaranteeing stability and a desirable level of performance, while being robust to specified variations in delays and transmission intervals. The complete design procedure will be illustrated using a benchmark example.
Autors: Heemels, W. P. M. H.;Teel, A. R.;van de Wouw, N.;Nesic, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 55, issue:8, pages: 1781 - 1796
Publisher: IEEE
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» Neural Network-Based Approach for ATC Estimation Using Distributed Computing
Abstract:
In the competitive electric power market allowing open access transmission environment, the knowledge of available transfer capability (ATC) is very important for optimum utilization of existing transmission facility. ATC information conveys how much power can be transmitted through the power network over and above already committed usage without violation of system security limits. This paper presents a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm neural network (LMANN)-based approach for fast and accurate estimation of system ATC. System ATC has been estimated for both varying load condition as well as for single line outage contingency condition by employing distributed computing. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied for effective input feature selection. Contingency clusters are formed such that each cluster contains almost similar ATC values. For each contingency clusters separate LMANNs have been developed. All the proposed LMANNs have been trained and tested under distributed computing environment and a considerable speed up in the training is obtained. The proposed approach has been examined on 75-bus Indian power system and IEEE 300-bus system and found significantly efficient.
Autors: Pandey, S. N.;Pandey, N. K.;Tapaswi, S.;Srivastava, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1291 - 1300
Publisher: IEEE
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» Neural-Network-Based Adaptive Leader-Following Control for Multiagent Systems With Uncertainties
Abstract:
A neural-network-based adaptive approach is proposed for the leader-following control of multiagent systems. The neural network is used to approximate the agent's uncertain dynamics, and the approximation error and external disturbances are counteracted by employing the robust signal. When there is no control input constraint, it can be proved that all the following agents can track the leader's time-varying state with the tracking error as small as desired. Compared with the related work in the literature, the uncertainty in the agent's dynamics is taken into account; the leader's state could be time-varying; and the proposed algorithm for each following agent is only dependent on the information of its neighbor agents. Finally, the satisfactory performance of the proposed method is illustrated by simulation examples.
Autors: Cheng, L.;Hou, Z.-G.;Tan, M.;Lin, Y.;Zhang, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 21, issue:8, pages: 1351 - 1358
Publisher: IEEE
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» Neuroadaptive output feedback control for nonlinear nonnegative dynamical systems with actuator amplitude and integral constraints
Abstract:
A neuroadaptive output feedback control architecture for nonlinear nonnegative dynamical systems with input amplitude and integral constraints is developed. Specifically, the neuroadaptive controller guarantees that the control amplitude as well as the integral of the control input over a given time interval are constrained, and the physical system states remain in the nonnegative orthant of the state space. The proposed approach is used to control the infusion of the anesthetic drug propofol for maintaining a desired constant level of depth of anesthesia for noncardiac surgery in the face of infusion rate constraints and an integral drug dosing constraint over a specified time period. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autors: Kostyantyn Y. Volyanskyy, Wassim M. Haddad, James M. Bailey
Appeared in: International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
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» New algorithm for fast direction-of-arrival estimation using the shrinking signal subspace and the noise pseudo-eigenvector
Abstract:
This study presents a new direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation technique with application to the uniform linear sensor array for rapidly varying signals in the uncorrelated or coherent case. Unlike the conventional subspace-based algorithms, it need not form the covariance matrix using a block of the array data, a complicated computational burden and a prior knowledge of the number of incoming signals. This approach is based on the technologies of the shrinking signal subspace and the noise pseudo-eigenvector. In contrast with Kim's method, our purposed algorithm can improve its performance of resolution capabilities but requires less computational complexity. Computer simulation results that demonstrate the resolution performance of the proposed algorithm are included. Since the algorithm is simple and can maintain resolution capabilities as compared to Kim's method, it may be used on its own to provide a wider application prospect in real-time DOA estimation or be used as good initialisation for more complex and more high-resolution DOA algorithms.
Autors: Hung, C.J.;Chen, C.H.;
Appeared in: IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 4, issue:4, pages: 604 - 610
Publisher: IEEE
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» New aspects in characterization of adhesion of moulding compounds on different surfaces by using a simple button-shear-test method for lifetime prediction of power devices
Abstract:
The knowledge of moulding compound adhesion on different surfaces inside a semiconductor package is fundamental to ensure high reliability of the devices. The most susceptible interfaces are the boundary surfaces between moulding compound/chip and moulding compound/lead frame. The adhesion properties of these interfaces are influenced by various material and process parameters for chip surface and bond pad conditioning.The knowledge of the zero hour adhesion state and the possible degradations during reliability stress tests like e.g. high temperature storage (HTS) or temperature cycling (TC) is the base to perform a trusty lifetime prediction.This paper shows the principle of button-shear-test method offering...
Autors: Michael, Goroll , Reinhard, Pufall
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» New Construction of -Ary Sequence Families With Low Correlation From the Structure of Sidelnikov Sequences
Abstract:
For prime and a positive integer , it is shown that -ary Sidelnikov sequences of period , if , can be equivalently generated by the operation of elements in a finite field , including a -ary -sequence. From the array structure of the sequences, it is then found that a half of the column sequences and their constant multiples have low correlation enough to construct new -ary sequence families of period . In particular, new -ary sequence families of period are constructed- - from the combination of the column sequence families and known Sidelnikov-based sequence families, where the new families have larger family sizes than the known ones with the same maximum correlation magnitudes. Finally, it is shown that the new -ary sequence family of period and the maximum correlation magnitude asymptotically achieves times the equality of the Sidelnikov's lower bound when for odd prime .
Autors: Yu, N. Y.;Gong, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 56, issue:8, pages: 4061 - 4070
Publisher: IEEE
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» New Evaluation Method for Cross-Contamination of Ion Implantation by Using Grazing Angle Incidence PIXE in Photo-Resist
Abstract:
Two orders of magnitude improvement have been accomplished in detection limit of areal density of impurity atoms introduced into semiconductor devices during ion implantation, for the evaluation of the crossing contamination.Impurity atom concentrations as low as can be successfully detected using these new methods. The first point is the use of grazing incidence of 87 of the probe beam for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, which lowers the detection limit to for arsenic contaminants. The second point is the use of photo-resist covered Si wafers, which allows detection of As cross contamination at normal PIXE beam incidence to the order of through the reduction of Si bremsstrahlung background in the X-ray spectra. The combination of both procedures lowers the detected As level to .
Autors: Shibata, S.;Kamiyanagi, H.;Okano, T.;Kitamura, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 423 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
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» New Generation of Self Ionized Plasma Copper Seedfor Sub 40nm Nodes
Abstract:
Two seed deposition hardware are compared in this paper: a standard Self Ionized Plasma (SIP) standard chamber and a new generation chamber allowing Cu deposition and re-sputtering simultaneously. TEM characterizations exhibits better features coverage for new seed generation thank to process fine tuning. It induces defectivity improvement and void density is reduced with new hardware. Furthermore, reliability performances are improved without degrading parametrical results.
Autors: J., Guillan , K., Haxaire , S., Chhun , E., Richard , M.C., Luche , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» New Nonpolarizing Resonant Beam Splitters
Abstract:
We present wideband nonpolarizing beam splitters (NPBSs) for the telecommunication C-band. We show that silicon-on-insulator subwavelength periodic elements operating near leaky-mode resonance provide useful spectral expressions enabling effective beam division. Particle swarm optimization is the design method of choice. Periodic single-layer and multilevel NPBSs are provided exhibiting 50/50 beam ratio under oblique and normal incidence. We compare the spectral performance of the beam splitters with that of their thin-film effective-medium counterparts, thereby verifying the resonance-mediated origin of the spectra sought. The beam splitters are found to be reasonably tolerant to deviations in angle of incidence and structural parameters.
Autors: Shokooh-Saremi, M.;Magnusson, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 2, issue:4, pages: 670 - 676
Publisher: IEEE
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» New Opportunities for SiGe and Ge Channel p-FETs
Abstract:
A thin body (fully depleted) strained SGOI device structure (FDSGOI), and a strained SiGe channel layer on SOI, were fabricated using scaled high-? gate dielectrics and metal gate technology. The uniaxial strain effect and corresponding drive current enhancement reported by Irisawa et al. [1] for narrow width devices was investigated on these structures. Although the strained FDSGOI device structure exhibited reduced off state leakage compared to thicker body devices, and long-channel drive current enhancement under uniaxial strain, the loss of drive current enhancement at short channel length led to uncompetitive ION-IOFF characteristics. The SiGe on SOI structure showed the highest...
Autors: S.W., Bedell , N., Daval , A., Khakifirooz , P., Kulkarni , K., Fogel , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» New Process Development for Planar-Type CIC Tunneling Diodes
Abstract:
A planar-type conductor–insulator–conductor tunneling diode is developed using a boiling water process for surface oxidation. First, microsized bow-tie patterns are transferred on a doped polysilicon layer using e-beam lithography. After reactive ion etching, the polysilicon bow-tie pattern has a very narrow knot between two triangles. Using a buffered oxide etchant (BOE) solution, hydrogen silsesquioxane patterns and native oxide layer are etched. The knot is oxidized by a boiling water oxidation process. By repeating the BOE etch and oxidation, the bow-tie patterns are transformed into tunneling diodes with a very thin oxide barrier separating two polysilicon conductors. We show that the resulting structures follow the Simmons tunneling current–voltage relationship after boiling. Moreover, a high sensitivity of 31 is achieved at a bias voltage of 80 mV.
Autors: Choi, K.;Yesilkoy, F.;Chryssis, A.;Dagenais, M.;Peckerar, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 31, issue:8, pages: 809 - 811
Publisher: IEEE
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» New products
Abstract:
Autors: Goldberg, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 13, issue:4, pages: 48 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
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» News Briefs
Abstract:
News in security, policy, and privacy.
Autors: Paulson, Linda Dailey;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 8, issue:4, pages: 12 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
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» News from Japan
Abstract:
It is well known that a high inrush current will be induced if a voltage is input to a transformer at random phase angle. Such current could lead to a reduction in power quality experienced as voltage fluctuations and would be particularly harmful to a small grid or a weakly interconnected power network. To reduce the inrush current, the voltage phase at which the transformer is energized must be controlled. Phase-controlled switching methods were originally developed in the mid-1980s and have been applied to transformers, transmission lines, reactor coils, and shunt capacitor banks.
Autors: Ohki, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 26, issue:4, pages: 52 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nexialism and the Law of Unintended Consequences
Abstract:
What do broken windows, merit systems, and cattle prods have to do with new processes and compliance rules? Can the laws of unintended consequences be used as an advantage? Find out as this nexialist explores the interconnectedness of things.
Autors: Laplante, Phil;
Appeared in: IT Professional
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 12, issue:4, pages: 58 - 61
Publisher: IEEE
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» Next generation of Deep Trench Isolation for Smart Power technologies with 120V high-voltage devices
Abstract:
A new Deep Trench Isolation (DTI) structure with high-voltage capability (BV>150V) and latch-up suppression (log(Ic/Ie)<-2 in adjacent pockets) is experimentally demonstrated in this work. The new DTI is implemented in a Nepi/BLN/N-/P+ Silicon stack by using a 0.18?m CMOS-based platform. Moreover the advantages and design limitations of the new DTI are investigated by TCAD simulations and analytical models, being compared to its DTI predecessor in a Nepi/BLN/P-/P+ stack.
Autors: R., Charavel , J., Roig , S., Mouhoubi , P., Gassot , F., Bauwens , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Next-generation broadband optical access network technologies [Guest editorial]
Abstract:
Broadband access networking is an important form of basic infrastructure that supports competitive social and economic development. Emerging broadband applications such as IPTV, real-time network gaming, backhauling of broadband wireless connection data etc., demand new technological innovations to meet their ever-increasing performance-to-cost requirements. Optical fiber has been established as a future-proof medium capable of facilitating the next-generation network applications. For instance, in Feb. 2010 Google just announced the plans to build an experimental gigabit-per-second fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network to households in North America for testing out new concepts in technologies and applications. Worldwide, FTTH deployment had surpassed thirty million users in 2009 and is still continuing to grow at a rapid pace.
Autors: Yuang, M.C.;Lam, C.;Kuwahara, H.;Willner, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 28, issue:6, pages: 769 - 772
Publisher: IEEE
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» Next-generation OFDMA-based passive optical network architecture supporting radio-over-fiber
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel architecture for next-generation orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based passive optical networks (PON's), referred to as ROFPON. Besides carrying local broadband OFDMA data, ROFPON seamlessly supports radio-over-fiber (RoF) transports between the central office and multiple remote antennas at end users without using costly WDM lasers. We analytically and experimentally study the receiver sensitivity to OFDMA signals and the radio frequency (RF) signal's performance. By corroborating simulation results with experimental results, we discuss the determination of crucial system parameters, such as the optimal broadband-to-radio power ratio, and the exploitation of a notch filter for removing RF interference. Experimental results show that the integrated 10 Gb/s OFDMA and three 20 MHz RF signals are successfully transported both downstream and upstream over a 20 km single-mode-fiber PON. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that QPSK-encoded WiMAXformat RF signals are transmitted/relayed upstream with E-O-E conversion at each optical network unit (ONU), and received error-free at the optical line terminal after cascading 32 ONU's.
Autors: Yu-Min Lin;Po-Lung Tien;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 28, issue:6, pages: 791 - 799
Publisher: IEEE
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» Next-generation telco IT architectures and transformation to support service production and operation in all-IP (NGN) networks [Guest Editorial]
Abstract:
Recent years have witnessed the convergence of the traditional telco world to the IT and media worlds. With the migration to all-IP NGN networks to deliver next-generation telecommunication services, the service production infrastructure will undergo fundamental changes. Today¿s communication service provider (CSP) architectures are based on separate stovepipes for fixed, mobile, and data services. In the pre-NGN era the business logic was mainly integrated in the software controlled digital switches.
Autors: Kocsis, F.;Kurokawa, A.;Reilly, J.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 48, issue:8, pages: 94 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
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» Niching Evolution Strategies for Simultaneously Finding Global and Pareto Optimal Solutions
Abstract:
Many real world optimization problems turn out to be multi-objective optimization problems revealing a remarkable number of locally optimal solutions corresponding to the chosen objective function. Therefore, it seems desirable to detect as many of those solutions with as few objective function calls as possible. A Niching Higher Order Evolution Strategy (NES) can successfully be applied to locate a large number of these local solutions during a single optimization run. Additionally, it turns out that all of these solutions can be found next to the front of non-dominated solutions. Therefore, evaluating more than one objective function (in parallel or in series) yields a good approximation of the Pareto-optimal front. The proposed method will be tested against several test functions and then applied to the solution of a magnetic shunting problem.
Autors: Magele, C.;Kostinger, A.;Jaindl, M.;Renhart, W.;Cranganu-Cretu, B.;Smajic, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 2743 - 2746
Publisher: IEEE
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» Node-Depth Encoding and Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm Applied to Large-Scale Distribution System Reconfiguration
Abstract:
The power loss reduction in distribution systems (DSs) is a nonlinear and multiobjective problem. Service restoration in DSs is even computationally hard since it additionally requires a solution in real-time. Both DS problems are computationally complex. For large-scale networks, the usual problem formulation has thousands of constraint equations. The node-depth encoding (NDE) enables a modeling of DSs problems that eliminates several constraint equations from the usual formulation, making the problem solution simpler. On the other hand, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (EA) based on subpopulation tables adequately models several objectives and constraints, enabling a better exploration of the search space. The combination of the multiobjective EA with NDE (MEAN) results in the proposed approach for solving DSs problems for large-scale networks. Simulation results have shown the MEAN is able to find adequate restoration plans for a real DS with 3860 buses and 632 switches in a running time of 0.68 s. Moreover, the MEAN has shown a sublinear running time in function of the system size. Tests with networks ranging from 632 to 5166 switches indicate that the MEAN can find network configurations corresponding to a power loss reduction of 27.64% for very large networks requiring relatively low running time.
Autors: Santos, A. C.;Delbem, A. C. B.;London, Jr., J. B. A.;Bretas, N. G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1254 - 1265
Publisher: IEEE
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» Noise Coupling Mitigation in PWR/GND Plane Pair by Means of Photonic Crystal Fence: Sensitivity Analysis and Design Parameters Extraction
Abstract:
A photonic crystal fence is proposed for simultaneous switching noise mitigation in power/ground plane pairs with minimum use of the high dielectric constant for the rods. In particular a 45 degree rotated square lattice consisting in three rows of periodic rows is used for the fence. Broadband and high efficient noise suppression can be still achieved while minimizing the cost of the structure. A sensitivity analysis investigating the impact of 1) the normalized rods radius, 2) the number of rods rows, and 3) the value of the dielectric rods is performed and design parameters for the calculation of the stop bands are extracted. The normalized radius is not sufficient to correctly predict the stop band of the fence; instead multiple design parameters are necessary. It is found that an extra row of high dielectric constant material introduces an attenuation for the noise coefficient of around 8–10 dB per row and multiple stop bands are predicted while increasing the relative dielectric constant of the rods from 50 to 300. A one-dimensional circuit model is finally developed for a quick and efficient prediction of the stop band performances of these structures.
Autors: Ciccomancini Scogna, A.;Wu, T.-L.;Orlandi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 33, issue:3, pages: 574 - 581
Publisher: IEEE
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» Noise Enhanced Hypothesis-Testing in the Restricted Bayesian Framework
Abstract:
Performance of some suboptimal detectors can be enhanced by adding independent noise to their observations. In this paper, the effects of additive noise are investigated according to the restricted Bayes criterion, which provides a generalization of the Bayes and minimax criteria. Based on a generic -ary composite hypothesis-testing formulation, the optimal probability distribution of additive noise is investigated. Also, sufficient conditions under which the performance of a detector can or cannot be improved via additive noise are derived. In addition, simple hypothesis-testing problems are studied in more detail, and additional improvability conditions that are specific to simple hypotheses are obtained. Furthermore, the optimal probability distribution of the additive noise is shown to include at most mass points in a simple -ary hypothesis-testing problem under certain conditions. Then, global optimization, analytical and convex relaxation approaches are considered to obtain the optimal noise distribution. Finally, detection examples are presented to investigate the theoretical results.
Autors: Bayram, S.;Gezici, S.;Poor, H. V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 58, issue:8, pages: 3972 - 3989
Publisher: IEEE
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» Noise Reduction of cDNA Microarray Images Using Complex Wavelets
Abstract:
Noise reduction is an essential step of cDNA microarray image analysis for obtaining better-quality gene expression measurements. Wavelet-based denoising methods have shown significant success in traditional image processing. The complex wavelet transform (CWT) is preferred to the classical discrete wavelet transform for denoising of microarray images due to its improved directional selectivity for better representation of the circular edges of spots and near shift-invariance property. Existing CWT-based denoising methods are not efficient for microarray image processing because they fail to take into account the signal as well as noise correlations that exist between red and green channel images. In this paper, two bivariate estimators are developed for the CWT-based denoising of microarray images using the standard maximum a posteriori and linear minimum mean squared error estimation criteria. The proposed denoising methods are capable of taking into account both the interchannel signal and noise correlations. Significance of the proposed denoising methods is assessed by examining the effect of noise reduction on the estimation of the log-intensity ratio. Extensive experimentations are carried out to show that the proposed methods provide better noise reduction of microarray images leading to more accurate estimation of the log-intensity ratios as compared to the other CWT-based denoising methods.
Autors: Howlader, T.;Chaubey, Y. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 19, issue:8, pages: 1953 - 1967
Publisher: IEEE
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» Non-linear thermal modeling of DMOS transistor and validation using electrical measurements and FEM simulations
Abstract:
The relevance of thermally non-linear silicon material models for transient thermal FEM simulations of smart power switches (SPS) is proved by a power silicon test device consisting of two power transistors and eleven integrated temperature sensors distributed over the silicon die. The test device is heated up by turning on an integrated power transistor in short-circuit for several milliseconds at two different initial temperatures. These thermal events correspond to a real situation that can occur in the application. The power dissipation in the power transistor is calculated from the measured source current and drain-source voltage, and subsequently used as an...
Autors: Vladimír, Ko?el , Robert, Illing , Michael, Glavanovics , Alexander, ?atka
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Non-parametric Bayesian super-resolution
Abstract:
Super-resolution of signals and images can improve the automatic detection and recognition of objects of interest. However, the uncertainty associated with this process is not often taken into consideration. This is important because the processing of noisy signals can result in spurious estimates of the scene content. This study reviews a variety of super-resolution techniques and presents two non-parametric Bayesian superresolution algorithms that not only take uncertainty into account, but also retain knowledge about the output uncertainty in the form of a full probability distribution. One of the two Bayesian techniques is based on an analytical calculation re-interpreted as super-resolution, and the other is a novel numerical algorithm. Although the algorithms are presented as stand-alone techniques for image analysis, such Bayesian superresolution algorithms can increase automatic target recognition performance over standard super-resolution.
Autors: Lane, R.O.;
Appeared in: IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 4, issue:4, pages: 639 - 648
Publisher: IEEE
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» Non-TMR SEU-Hardening Techniques for SiGe HBT Shift Registers and Clock Buffers
Abstract:
We report new results from both broad-beam, heavy-ion and proton experiments for circuit-level RHBD techniques in SiGe digital logic. Redundant circuit elements within the latches are used to significantly reduce single-event upset rates in shift registers and clock paths, without resorting to TMR techniques.
Autors: Wilcox, E. P.;Phillips, S. D.;Cressler, J. D.;Marshall, P. W.;Carts, M. A.;Pellish, J. A.;Richmond, L.;Mathes, W.;Randall, B.;Post, D.;Gilbert, B.;Daniel, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 2119 - 2123
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nondestructive Assessment of Early Tooth Demineralization Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography
Abstract:
New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anticaries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10 m, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper, a review of the use of polarization-sensitive-OCT for the measurement of tooth demineralization is provided along with some recent results regarding improved methods for the detection of caries lesions in the earliest stages of development. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the depth and severity of demineralized bovine enamel produced using simulated caries models that emulate demineralization in the mouth. Significant differences in the depth and integrated reflectivity from the lesions were detected after only a few hours of demineralization. These results demonstrate that cross-polarization-OCT is ideally suited for the nondestructive assessment of early demineralization.
Autors: Kang, H.;Jiao, J. J.;Lee, C. J.;Le, M. H.;Darling, C. L.;Fried, D. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 870 - 876
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonlinear acoustics in higher-order approximation: Comment
Abstract:
Some useful expressions for the second- and third-order equations for harmonic generation of infinite plane acoustic waves in a nonlinear non-viscous fluid are corrected. The concern addressed in the present comment is to point out some typographical errors in the first-order velocity and pressure expressions intervening in the calculation of the secondorder nonlinear equations, as well as a miscalculation of the axial component of the third-order Lighthill tensor term and the resulting third-order velocity and pressure equations presented in that paper.
Autors: Mitri, F.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1715 - 1716
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonlinear Eddy Current Analysis by BEM Minimum Order Formulation
Abstract:
The eddy current induced in nonlinear material such as steel is formulated with the help of the boundary integral equations of the minimum order for the calculation of 3-D eddy current problems. The integral equations for the nonlinear analysis are derived by considering nonlinear terms as fictitious sources. Since the periodic electromagnetic fields in the steel are distorted, these fields are expressed with the help of Fourier series, whose fundamental and harmonic fields are determined by solving the corresponding integral equations with the surface magnetic fields given as the boundary values. The internal and surface electromagnetic fields are obtained numerically one after the other until convergence.
Autors: Ishibashi, K.;Andjelic, Z.;Pusch, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3085 - 3088
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonlinear Features for Single-Channel Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing Diseases
Abstract:
Studies have shown that algorithms based on single-channel airflow records are effective in screening for sleep-disordered breathing diseases (SDB). In this study, we investigate the diagnostic effectiveness of a classifier trained on a set of features derived from single-channel airflow measurements. The features considered are based on recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) of the measurement time series and are optionally augmented with single measurements of neck circumference and body mass index. The airflow measurement utilized is the nasal pressure (NP). The study used an overnight recording from each of 77 patients undergoing PSG testing. Mixture discriminant analysis was used to obtain a classifier, which predicts whether or not a measurement segment contains an SDB event. Patients were diagnosed as having SDB disease if the recording contained measurement segments predicted to include an SDB event at a rate exceeding a threshold value. A patient can be diagnosed as having SDB disease if the rate of SDB events per hour of sleep, the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), is 15 or sometimes 5. Here we trained and evaluated the classifier under each assumption, obtaining areas under receiver operating curves using fivefold cross-validation of 0.96 and 0.93, respectively. We used a two-layer structure to select the optimal operating point and assess the resulting classifier to avoid unbiased estimates. The resulting estimates for diagnostic sensitivity/specificity were 71.5%/89.5% for disease classification when RDI 15 and 63.3%/100% for RDI 5. These results were found assuming that the costs of misclassifying healthy and diseased subjects are equal, but we provide a framewo- - rk to vary these costs. The results suggest that a classifier based on RQA features derived from NP measurements could be used in an automated SDB screening device.
Autors: Rathnayake, S. I.;Wood, I. A.;Abeyratne, U. R.;Hukins, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1973 - 1981
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonlinear Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy Employing Octave Spanning Pulses
Abstract:
This paper reviews and discusses the concept of nonlinear optical spectroscopy (NLOS) and microscopy employing ultra-broadband laser pulses. A spectral phase modulation technique of the ultra-broadband pulses, which allows the control of nonlinear optical processes, enables multimodal imaging in nonlinear optical microscopy. This technique uses the difference of the excitation spectra of molecules of interest. A spectroscopic technique combining NLOS with a Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy provides a broadband excitation spectrum with the bandwidth of the ultra-broadband pulse and a high spectral resolution in a single measurement. FT-NLOS can also be applied directly to multispectral microspectroscopy.
Autors: Isobe, K.;Suda, A.;Tanaka, M.;Hashimoto, H.;Kannari, F.;Kawano, H.;Mizuno, H.;Miyawaki, A.;Midorikawa, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 767 - 780
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonlinear System Identification Using Exponential Swept-Sine Signal
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a method for nonlinear system (NLS) identification using a swept-sine input signal and based on nonlinear convolution. The method uses a nonlinear model, namely, the nonparametric generalized polynomial Hammerstein model made of power series associated with linear filters. Simulation results show that the method identifies the nonlinear model of the system under test and estimates the linear filters of the unknown NLS. The method has also been tested on a real-world system: an audio limiter. Once the nonlinear model of the limiter is identified, a test signal can be regenerated to compare the outputs of both the real-world system and its nonlinear model. The results show good agreement between both model-based and real-world system outputs.
Autors: Novak, A.;Simon, L.;Kadlec, F.;Lotton, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 59, issue:8, pages: 2220 - 2229
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonuniform Linear Regression With Block-Wise Sample-Minimum Preprocessing
Abstract:
We analyze the statistical properties of slope estimates obtained from linear regression with sample-minimum Erlang variates. The sample-minimum of sequential blocks has the effect of introducing nonuniform time samples. We show that this nonuniformity has negligible effect on the slope estimate variance, but introduces a spurious low-frequency component in the power spectrum, which can be detrimental for low-bandwidth tracking applications. The analysis shows that this effect can be moderated by choosing a sufficiently large number of sample-minimum output samples in the linear regression. These results are useful, for example, in clock synchronization over packet networks, where the random variates model packet arrival times.
Autors: Morgan, D. R.;Hadzic, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 58, issue:8, pages: 4040 - 4049
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonvolatile Crossbar Switch Using Solid Electrolyte
Abstract:
A nonvolatile crossbar switch using a dual-layered solid electrolyte, “NanoBridge,” has been developed. NanoBridge is scalable to 50 nm and programmed at low voltage while keeping a low on -resistance. The high compatibility with a back-end-of-line processing for CMOS integrated circuits is achieved by using the dual-layered solid electrolyte, in which a barrier (Ti) is inserted on Cu and changes to an oxide during the subsequent process step. has the double role of preventing Cu oxidation during deposition and acting as a solid electrolyte itself. A resistive-change characteristic is investigated in terms of the inserted barrier dependence. At an optimal barrier insertion, the integrated switch shows bipolar switching characteristics with a high off-/on-resistance ratio of . The developed device is applied to a 4 4 crossbar switch integrated with the CMOS circuit. The crossbar switch is configured without select transistors and transfers signals properly.
Autors: Tada, M.;Sakamoto, T.;Banno, N.;Aono, M.;Hada, H.;Kasai, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1987 - 1995
Publisher: IEEE
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» Nonvolatile memory transistors using solution-processed zinc-tin oxide and ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)
Abstract:
The nonvolatile memory thin-film transistor (MTFT) using a solution-processed zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) semiconducting channel and a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric gate insulator was proposed. The crystalline phases of spin-coated ZTO films were essentially amorphous even when the films were annealed at 500°C and the surface morphology was very smooth and uniform. Although the memory behaviors based on the ferroelectric field-effect were confirmed for all the fabricated MTFTs, the field-effect mobility, memory window, and the on/off ratio were markedly varied with the changes in annealing temperature and film composition of the ZTO channel. The origins for these differences were examined from the...
Autors: Sung-Min, Yoon , Soon-Won, Jung , Shin-Hyuk, Yang , Chun-Won, Byun , Chi-Sun, Hwang , ...
Appeared in: Organic Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Nonvolatile Schottky Barrier Multibit Cell With Source-Side Injected Programming and Reverse Drain-Side Hole Erasing
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel Schottky barrier multibit cell with source-side injected programming and reverse drain-side hole erasing. Based on the unique ambipolar conduction of Schottky barrier devices, the source Schottky barrier promotes the amounts of hot electrons at a positive gate voltage to perform source-side injected programming, whereas the drain Schottky barrier enhances the generations of hot holes at a negative gate voltage to carry out reverse drain-side erasing. The proposed Schottky barrier charge-trapping cells are numerically demonstrated to exhibit low-voltage and high-efficiency programming/erasing without the presence of any gate versus source/drain bias tradeoff. The tight and matched distributions of injected carriers make this Schottky barrier cell excellent in future multibit-cell applications.
Autors: Shih, C.-H.;Liang, J.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1774 - 1780
Publisher: IEEE
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» Normalized Movement Quality Measures for Therapeutic Robots Strongly Correlate With Clinical Motor Impairment Measures
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze the correlations between four clinical measures (Fugl–Meyer upper extremity scale, Motor Activity Log, Action Research Arm Test, and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test) and four robotic measures (smoothness of movement, trajectory error, average number of target hits per minute, and mean tangential speed), used to assess motor recovery. Data were gathered as part of a hybrid robotic and traditional upper extremity rehabilitation program for nine stroke patients. Smoothness of movement and trajectory error, temporally and spatially normalized measures of movement quality defined for point-to-point movements, were found to have significant moderate to strong correlations with all four of the clinical measures. The strong correlations suggest that smoothness of movement and trajectory error may be used to compare outcomes of different rehabilitation protocols and devices effectively, provide improved resolution for tracking patient progress compared to only pre- and post-treatment measurements, enable accurate adaptation of therapy based on patient progress, and deliver immediate and useful feedback to the patient and therapist.
Autors: Celik, O.;O'Malley, M. K.;Boake, C.;Levin, H. S.;Yozbatiran, N.;Reistetter, T. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 433 - 444
Publisher: IEEE
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» Novel accelerated testing method for III-V concentrator solar cells
Abstract:
Accelerated testing is a necessary tool in order to demonstrate the reliability of concentration photovoltaic solar cells, devices which is expected to be working not less than 25years. Many problems arise when implementing high temperature accelerated testing in this kind of solar cells, because the high light irradiation level, at which they work, is very difficult to achieve inside a climatic chamber. This paper presents a novel accelerated testing method for concentrator solar cells, under simulated electrical working conditions (i.e. forward biasing the solar cells at the equivalent current they would handle at 700 suns), that overcomes some of the...
Autors: N., Núñez , M., Vázquez , J.R., González , C., Algora , P., Espinet
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Novel Applications of Inductive Method for Measuring Critical Current Density
Abstract:
The inductive method for measuring the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sample has been investigated numerically. In the method, the magnetic field is generated by a small coil placed just above an HTS sample. While applying an ac current in the coil, the third-harmonic voltage induced in the coil is measured. For the purpose of numerically reproducing the inductive method, a numerical code has been developed on the basis of the finite element method and the backward Euler method. By means of the code, curves are determined for an HTS bulk or for double-sided HTS films on a substrate. The results of computations show that, for an HTS bulk, the accuracy of the inductive method is drastically affected by the coil position, the coil radius and the frequency. In addition, it is also found that, for double-sided films, the accuracy is significantly influenced by a substrate thickness.
Autors: Kamitani, A.;Takayama, T.;Ikuno, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3073 - 3076
Publisher: IEEE
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» Novel Direct Torque Control Based on Space Vector Modulation With Adaptive Stator Flux Observer for Induction Motors
Abstract:
This paper describes a combination of direct torque control (DTC) and space vector modulation (SVM) for an adjustable speed sensorless induction motor (IM) drive. The motor drive is supplied by a two-level SVPWM inverter. The inverter reference voltage is obtained based on input-output feedback linearization control, using the IM model in the stator axes reference frame with stator current and flux vectors components as state variables. Moreover, a robust full-order adaptive stator flux observer is designed for a speed sensorless DTC-SVM system and a new speed-adaptive law is given. By designing the observer gain matrix based on state feedback control theory, the stability and robustness of the observer systems is ensured. Finally, the effectiveness and validity of the proposed control approach is verified by simulation results.
Autors: Zhang, Z.;Tang, R.;Bai, B.;Xie, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3133 - 3136
Publisher: IEEE
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» Novel Dynamic Representation and Control of Power Systems With FACTS Devices
Abstract:
FACTS devices have been shown to be useful in damping power system oscillations. However, in large power systems, the FACTS control design is complex due to the combination of differential and algebraic equations required to model the power system. In this paper, a new method to generate a nonlinear dynamic representation of the power network is introduced to enable more sophisticated control design. Once the new representation is obtained, a back stepping methodology for the UPFC is utilized to mitigate the generator oscillations. Finally, the neural network approximation property is utilized to relax the need for knowledge of the power system topology and to approximate the nonlinear uncertainties. The net result is a power system representation that can be used for the design of an enhanced FACTS control scheme. Simulation results are given to validate the theoretical conjectures.
Autors: Mehraeen, S.;Jagannathan, S.;Crow, M. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1542 - 1554
Publisher: IEEE
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» Novel Hydrogel-Based Preparation-Free EEG Electrode
Abstract:
The largest obstacles to signal transduction for electroencephalography (EEG) recording are the hair and the epidermal stratum corneum of the skin. In typical clinical situations, hair is parted or removed, and the stratum corneum is either abraded or punctured using invasive penetration devices. These steps increase preparation time, discomfort, and the risk of infection. Cross-linked sodium polyacrylate gel swelled with electrolyte was explored as a possible skin contact element for a prototype preparation-free EEG electrode. As a superabsorbent hydrogel, polyacrylate can swell with electrolyte solution to a degree far beyond typical contemporary electrode materials, delivering a strong hydrating effect to the skin surface. This hydrating power allows the material to increase the effective skin contact surface area through wetting, and noninvasively decrease or bypass the highly resistive barrier of the stratum corneum, allowing for reduced impedance and improved electrode performance. For the purposes of the tests performed in this study, the polyacrylate was prepared both as a solid elastic gel and as a flowable paste designed to penetrate dense scalp hair. The gel can hold 99.2% DI water or 91% electrolyte solution, and the water content remains high after 29 h of air exposure. The electrical impedance of the gel electrode on unprepared human forearm is significantly lower than a number of commercial ECG and EEG electrodes. This low impedance was maintained for at least 8 h (the longest time period measured). When a paste form of the electrode was applied directly onto scalp hair, the impedance was found to be lower than that measured with commercially available EEG paste applied in the same manner. Time-frequency transformation analysis of frontal lobe EEG recordings indicated comparable frequency response between the polyacrylate-based electrode on unprepared skin and the commercial EEG electrode on abraded skin. Evoked potential recordings demonstrated signa- - l-to-noise ratios of the experimental and commercial electrodes to be effectively equivalent. These results suggest that the polyacrylate-based electrode offers a powerful option for EEG recording without scalp preparation.
Autors: Alba, N. A.;Sclabassi, R. J.;Sun, M.;Cui, X. T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 415 - 423
Publisher: IEEE
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» Novel Right-Handed Metamaterial Based on the Concept of “Autonomous Control System of Living Cells” and Its Absorber Applications
Abstract:
A novel right-handed metamaterial similar to an “autonomous control system of a living cell” and capable of responding to electromagnetic waves is proposed with its fundamental configurations. Using microwave absorbers as an example, the possibility of equivalently controlling their material constants are investigated both theoretically and empirically. These absorbers are composed of unit cells based on the concept of an autonomous controllable metamaterial (ACMM). The theoretical approaches used to obtain ACMM-based absorber design data are revealed. In order to improve the absorber matching characteristics, the principle of obtaining the broadband matching characteristics with an absorption band of 1.3 GHz at 4.25 GHz is clarified. In addition, the methods for improving the matching degradation of the oblique incidence of a TM wave are investigated. For the TM wave oblique incidence, a new ACMM-based absorber configuration comprising unit cells with inductive fins is proposed. At an incident angle of 45 , a matching characteristic of 30 dB is achieved in the case of the TM wave. These ACMMs are controlled by using only two bias feeder wirings for PIN diodes.
Autors: Kotsuka, Y.;Murano, K.;Amano, M.;Sugiyama, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 52, issue:3, pages: 556 - 565
Publisher: IEEE
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» Novel self-directed dual surface metallisation via UV-curing technique for flexible polymeric capacitors
Abstract:
Polymer composites with metal nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention over the past years due to numerous solid state potential applications in organic electronics and microelectronic devices. Here we report the first example of a novel, rapid and convenient self-directed dual surface nano-silvering of a polymer film by a simple single-stage process of free-radical photo-polymerisation (UV-curing). The major component of the composite is bisphenol A ethoxylate dimethacrylate (BEMA) which can be photo-polymerised by a photo-reactive initiator (Darocur 1173) under UV light. Under the same conditions of UV irradiation, silver nitrate decomposes and the silver ion is deposited as metal while the...
Autors: Jijeesh R., Nair , Vijaykumar S., Ijeri , C., Gerbaldi , S., Bodoardo , R., Bongiovanni , ...
Appeared in: Organic Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Novel Technique for Determination of Actual Pixel Size in Dense Arrays of Infrared Detectors
Abstract:
A novel technique is proposed for determining the actual pixel size in dense arrays of infrared detectors. The technique is based on probing individual pixels in an array and analyzing the parasitic bipolar transistor formed between them to determine the lateral diffusion width and, hence, the actual pixel diameter. The actual pixel diameter can then be used to separate the area-dependent dark current from the periphery-dependent dark current. The result shows that, in the present arrays, the dark current is dominated by the periphery current, unless the pixels are so close to each other that their depletion regions overlap.
Autors: Ding, G.;Chen, C.;Halder, S.;Hwang, J. C. M.;Kim, J.;Yuan, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 31, issue:8, pages: 839 - 841
Publisher: IEEE
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» Numerical analysis of J-V characteristics of a polymer solar cell
Abstract:
A numerical method to determine the cell parameters from the analysis of the J-V characteristics of a polymer solar cell is proposed. This method uses the equations given by the diode model, experimental data from the literature, and an adequate fitting procedure with seven fit parameters. Different aspects of the obtained results are discussed. Information concerning cell design optimization is also obtained. The method is of general application in the field of polymer solar cells, as well as to any kind of diode-like cell. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autors: Mihai Razvan Mitroi, Vladimir Iancu, Laurentiu Fara, Magdalena Lidia Ciurea
Appeared in: Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
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» Numerical Model for Estimating RF-Induced Heating on a Pacemaker Implant During MRI: Experimental Validation
Abstract:
MRI may cause tissue heating in patients implanted with pacemakers (PMs) or cardioverters/defibrillators. As a consequence, these patients are often preventatively excluded from MRI investigations. The issue has been studied for several years now, in order to identify the mechanisms involved in heat generation, and define safety conditions by which MRI may be extended to patients with active implants. In this sense, numerical studies not only widen the range of experimental measurements, but also model a realistic patient's anatomy on which it is possible to study individually the impact of the many parameters involved. In order to obtain reliable results, however, each and every numerical analysis needs to be validated by experimental evidence. Aim of this paper was to design and validate through experimental measurements, an accurate numerical model, which was able to reproduce the thermal effects induced by a birdcage coil on human tissues containing a metal implant, specifically, a PM. The model was then used to compare the right versus left pectoral implantation of a PM, in terms of power deposited at the lead tip. This numerical model may also be used as reference for validating simpler models in terms of computational effort.
Autors: Mattei, E.;Calcagnini, G.;Censi, F.;Triventi, M.;Bartolini, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 2045 - 2052
Publisher: IEEE
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» Numerical Model of Current–Voltage Curve for the Wire-Cylinder Electrostatic Precipitators in Negative Voltage in the Presence of Nonpolar Gases
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to develop a numerical model that takes into account the share of the electric current produced by free electrons when an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with a wire-cylinder geometry is supplied with a negative voltage and the carrier gas is nonpolar. This model improves the understanding of ESPs and highlights the parameters that affect the process behavior and the generation of free electrons. It takes into account the current stemming from the presence of free electrons. For this reason, a coefficient was developed and was expressed as a function of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the carrier gas. Experimental results obtained by other authors and laboratory measurements were compared with the model. The set of results showed that the numerical model developed in this paper is valid only in the presence of nonpolar gases.
Autors: Villot, A.;Gonthier, Y. F. J.;Gonze, E.;Bernis, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 38, issue:8, pages: 2031 - 2040
Publisher: IEEE
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» Numerical Modeling of Superconducting Filaments for Coupled Problem
Abstract:
This paper deals with two-dimensional modeling of a multifilamentary wire composed of two superconducting filaments in a conducting matrix. In order to avoid three-dimensional problem solving, a novel technique is proposed to solve the coupled problem in two dimensions. For that, it is enough to divide the filaments in several sections in the direction of the length of the wire and to impose a relation between the currents crossing the matrix and the electric fields in the different sections of the filaments. The numerical simulation results show the distributions of the current density in the modeled domain. The influence of the wire length on the total magnetization is also considered.
Autors: Satiramatekul, T.;Bouillault, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3229 - 3232
Publisher: IEEE
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» Numerical simulation of isothermal flow in axisymmetric turbulent opposed jets
Abstract:
A numerical simulation has been carried out to study the steady and unsteady flow in axi-symmetric turbulent opposed jets. The study is based on the solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence models using a finite volume technique. The tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) is used to solve the discretization equations. The pressure - velocity coupling is achieved using the SIMPLE method. Simulation is carried out for a range of Reynolds number 5000?Re?11700, the ratio of the distance between the exits of two nozzles to the exit nozzle diameter 0.4 ?H/d?1.0 and the flow time. The results show that the...
Autors: A., Abdel-Fattah
Appeared in: Aerospace Science and Technology
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Observation and mechanism explanation of the parasitic charge pumping current
Abstract:
A parasitic charge pumping current (IPCP) is observed and extracted properly. While charge pumping current after correction (ICOCP) contributes to threshold voltage shift, this transient IPCP does not contribute and should be extracted from CP current (ICP). This IPCP is shown to be unable to be extracted by conventional low-high multi-frequency CP method (LHMF). It could only be extracted effectively enough by a high-high multi-frequency charge pumping (CP) method (HHMF). In HHMF, a high frequency is employed to measure IPCP; while in LHMF, a low frequency is used to measure the current out of ICOCP. Without eliminating IPCP, large noise...
Autors: Mingzhi, Dai , Kinleong, Yap
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Observer forms for perspective systems?
Abstract:
The estimation of three-dimensional position information from two-dimensional images in computer vision systems can be formulated as a state estimation problem for a nonlinear perspective dynamic system. The multi-output state estimation problem has been treated by several authors using methods for nonlinear observer design. This paper shows that a perspective system can be transformed to two observer forms, and provides constructive methods for arriving at the transformations. These observer forms lead to straightforward observer designs. First, it is shown that, using an output transformation, the system admits an observer form which leads to an observer with linear error dynamics. A...
Autors: Ola, Dahl , Yebin, Wang , Alan F., Lynch , Anders, Heyden
Appeared in: Automatica
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Obtaining Accurate Ocean Surface Winds in Hurricane Conditions: A Dual-Frequency Scatterometry Approach
Abstract:
We describe a method for retrieving winds from colocated Ku- and C-band ocean wind scatterometers. The method utilizes an artificial neural network technique to optimize the weighting of the information from the two frequencies and to use the extra degrees of freedom to account for rain contamination in the measurements. A high-fidelity scatterometer simulation is used to evaluate the efficacy of the technique for retrieving hurricane force winds in the presence of heavy precipitation. Realistic hurricane wind and precipitation fields were simulated for three Atlantic hurricanes, Katrina and Rita in 2005 and Helene in 2006, using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. These fields were then input into a radar simulation previously used to evaluate the Extreme Ocean Vector Wind Mission dual-frequency scatterometer mission concept. The simulation produced high-resolution dual-frequency normalized radar cross-section (NRCS) measurements. The simulated NRCS measurements were binned into 5 5 km wind cells. Wind speeds in each cell were estimated using an artificial neural network technique. The method was shown to retrieve accurate winds up to 50 m/s even in intense rain.
Autors: Stiles, B. W.;Hristova-Veleva, S. M.;Dunbar, R. S.;Chan, S.;Durden, S. L.;Esteban-Fernandez, D.;Rodriguez, E.;Poulsen, W. L.;Gaston, R. W.;Callahan, P. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 48, issue:8, pages: 3101 - 3113
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 


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