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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2010 sorted by title, page: 10
» Efficient Estimation and Collision-Group-Based Anticollision Algorithms for Dynamic Frame-Slotted ALOHA in RFID Networks
Abstract:
There are two challenges for the frame-slotted ALOHA algorithms in radio-frequency identification (RFID). The first challenge is estimating unknown tag-set size accurately; the second challenge is improving the efficiency of the arbitration process so that it uses less time slots to read all tags. This study proposes estimation algorithm based on the Poisson distribution theory and identifies the overestimation phenomenon in full collision. Our novel anticollision algorithm alternates two distinct reading cycles for dividing and solving tags in collision groups. This makes it more efficient for a reader to identify all tags within a small number of time slots.
Autors: Lin, C.-F.;Lin, F. Y.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 840 - 848
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Efficient Excess Intensity Noise Suppression of 100-GHz Spectrum-Sliced WDM-PON With a Narrow-Bandwidth Seed Light Source
Abstract:
In spectrum-sliced wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) passive optical networks (PONs) based on injection-seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers, the inevitable spectral filtering by multiplexer/demultiplexer leads to an increase in excess intensity noise (EIN). The increased EIN degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of the modulated optical signal. To reduce the EIN, we utilized flat-top passband arrayed waveguide gratings and a narrow-bandwidth seed light source in a WDM-PON. The feasibility of a 32 1.25-Gb/s WDM-PON with 100-GHz channel spacing over a 20-km single-mode fiber was successfully demonstrated with a negligible power penalty.
Autors: Lee, H. H.;Cho, S.-H.;Lee, S. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 22, issue:20, pages: 1542 - 1544
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Efficient extraction of singlet-triplet excitons for high-efficient white organic light-emitting diode with a multilayer emission region
Abstract:
image

Autors:

Graphical abstract

†Graphical abstract:††Research highlights:†? Here we reported an alternative way of fabricating a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED, which is the most complex OLED yet) that eliminates the need for co-evaporation of
Appeared in: Organic Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Efficient Fourier-Wavelet Super-Resolution
Abstract:
Super-resolution (SR) is the process of combining multiple aliased low-quality images to produce a high-resolution high-quality image. Aside from registration and fusion of low-resolution images, a key process in SR is the restoration and denoising of the fused images. We present a novel extension of the combined Fourier-wavelet deconvolution and denoising algorithm ForWarD to the multiframe SR application. Our method first uses a fast Fourier-base multiframe image restoration to produce a sharp, yet noisy estimate of the high-resolution image. Our method then applies a space-variant nonlinear wavelet thresholding that addresses the nonstationarity inherent in resolution-enhanced fused images. We describe a computationally efficient method for implementing this space-variant processing that leverages the efficiency of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to minimize complexity. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm for regular imagery as well as in digital mammography.Preliminary results of this work were presented at ICIP, October 2008 .
Autors: Robinson, M. D.;Toth, C. A.;Lo, J. Y.;Farsiu, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2669 - 2681
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Efficient Relay Beamforming Design With SIC Detection for Dual-Hop MIMO Relay Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a dual-hop multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) relay wireless network, in which a source–destination pair, which are both equipped with multiple antennas, communicates through a large number of half-duplex amplify-and-forward (AF) relay terminals. Two novel linear beamforming schemes based on the matched filter and regularized zero-forcing precoding techniques are proposed for the MIMO relay system. We focus on the linear process at the relay nodes and design the new relay beamformers by utilizing the channel-state information (CSI) of both backward and forward channels. The proposed beamforming designs are based on the QR decomposition filter at the destination node, which performs successive interference cancellation to achieve the maximum spatial-multiplexing gain. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed beamformers that fulfil both the intranode array gain and distributed array gain outperform other relaying schemes under different system parameters in terms of the ergodic capacity.
Autors: Zhang, Y.;Luo, H.;Chen, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 59, issue:8, pages: 4192 - 4197
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Efficient Simulation Method for General Assembly Systems With Material Handling Based on Aggregated Event-Scheduling
Abstract:
Performance evaluation of complex manufacturing systems is challenging due to many factors such as system complexity, parameter uncertainties, problem size, just to name a few. In many cases when a system is too complex to model using mathematical formulas, simulation is used as an effective alternative to conduct system analysis. A manufacturing system is a good example of such cases where both system performance and system complexity are greatly impacted by material handling (MH) strategy, management, and operational control. In this paper, we study vehicle general assembly (GA) system with MH, and focus on developing an efficient simulation method for modeling and analysis where traditional simulation methods may suffer from computation intensity. Making use of the partial system decomposability, we introduce an aggregated event-scheduling simulation method with two-level framework. A dividing mechanism with boundary conditions is employed in top-level simulation to divide the global event list into small sizes. A timing-focuses strategy based on max-plus algebra is applied in bottom-level local simulation to further reduce local event lists. With this new method it is possible to mimic real production systems fast and accurately within a reasonable computational time frame. The effectiveness and efficiency of the new simulation method are validated through experimental results.
Autors: Zhao, Y.;Yan, C.-B.;Zhao, Q.;Huang, N.;Li, J.;Guan, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 762 - 775
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Efficient Simulation of Power Grids
Abstract:
Modern deep sub-micron ultra-large scale integration designs with hundreds of millions of devices require huge grids for power distribution. Such grids, operating with decreasing power supply voltages, are a design limiting factor and accurate analysis of their behavior is of paramount importance as any voltage drops can seriously impact performance or functionality. As power grid models have millions of unknowns, highly optimized special-purpose simulation tools are required to handle the time and memory complexity of solving for their dynamic behavior. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical matrix representation of the power grid model that is both space and time efficient. With this representation, reduced storage matrix factors are efficiently computed and applied in the analysis at every time-step of the simulation. Results show an almost linear complexity growth, namely , for some small constant , in both space and time, when using this matrix representation. Comparisons of our academic implementation with production-quality code prove this method to be very efficient when dealing with the simulation of large power grid models.
Autors: Silva, J. M. S.;Phillips, J. R.;Silveira, L. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 1523 - 1532
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Eigen-Based Transceivers for the MIMO Broadcast Channel With Semi-Orthogonal User Selection
Abstract:
This paper studies the sum rate performance of two low complexity eigenmode-based transmission techniques for the MIMO broadcast channel, employing greedy semi-orthogonal user selection (SUS). The first approach, termed ZFDPC-SUS, is based on zero-forcing dirty paper coding; the second approach, termed ZFBF-SUS, is based on zero-forcing beamforming. We first employ new analytical methods to prove that as the number of users grows large, the ZFDPC-SUS approach can achieve the optimal sum rate scaling of the MIMO broadcast channel. We also prove that the average sum rates of both techniques converge to the average sum capacity of the MIMO broadcast channel for large . In addition to the asymptotic analysis, we investigate the sum rates achieved by ZFDPC-SUS and ZFBF-SUS for finite , and show that ZFDPC-SUS has significant performance advantages. Our results also provide key insights into the benefit of multiple receive antennas, and the effect of the SUS algorithm. In particular, we show that whilst multiple receive antennas only improves the asymptotic sum rate scaling via the second-order behavior of the multi-user diversity gain; for finite , the benefit can be very significant. We also show the interesting result that the semi-orthogonality constraint imposed by SUS, whilst facilitating a very low complexity user selection procedure, asymptotically does not reduce the multi-user diversity gain in either first or second-order terms.
Autors: Sun, L.;McKay, M. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 5246 - 5261
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» EIT-Inspired Microfluidic Cytometer for Single-Cell Dielectric Spectroscopy
Abstract:
A new microfluidic cytometer for single-cell dielectric spectroscopy is proposed in this paper and analyzed in silico by means of a finite-element model. The device, inspired by electrical impedance tomography, includes two circumferential arrays of electrodes instead of just two pairs of coplanar or parallel-facing electrodes, thus allowing a great versatility in stimulation and measurement patterns. In particular, using stimulation patterns with different spatial orientation provides information on cell morphology, besides quantitative cell-volume estimation. Moreover, the performance limitation at low frequency due to electrode polarization is overcome, owing to a peculiar recording scheme: Current is injected between an electrode pair, and the resulting voltages are measured at remaining electrodes using high-inputimpedance differential amplifiers. These features significantly enhance the cytometer discrimination capabilities. [2010-0078]
Autors: Caselli, F.;Bisegna, P.;Maceri, F.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1029 - 1040
Publisher: IEEE
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» Elastic moduli of Pu and Ga stabilized δ-Pu: Experimental data and phenomenological behavior at high temperature
Abstract:
To contribute to the equation of state and constitutive relations of pure plutonium (Tm=913 K) and Ga stabilized δ-plutonium (Pu–2.3 at. %Ga; Tm=928 K), we have determined the elastic moduli (Young modulus E; adiabatic bulk modulus B, and shear modulus G) versus temperature T in the temperature range T∈[300;750] K or T/Tm∈[0.3;0.85]. Using an ultrasonic method as a robust concept despite the radiation damage to transducers, the elastic-waves velocities are described as decreasing for each crystallographic phase. Experimental results are compared to literature.
Autors: Nadal, Marie-Helene;Bourgeois, Ludivine;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 108, issue:7, pages: 073532 - 073532-6
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Electrical and photovoltaic properties of an organic-inorganic heterojunction based on a BODIPY dye
Abstract:
An organic-inorganic heterojunction based on a BODIPY dyes has been produced by forming dye thin film on n-Si. The electrical parameters of the structure have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The ideality factor, the barrier height and the series resistance values of the diode have been calculated as 2.43, 0.84 eV and 1.3 k?, respectively. The diode behaves as a non-ideal diode because of the series resistance and interface layer. The barrier height value obtained from I-V measurement has been compared with one from C-V measurement. Moreover, it has been seen that the diode is highly...
Autors: Tahsin, K?l?Áo?lu , Yusuf Selim, Ocak
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles
Abstract:
The comparative studies of electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs) were investigated. Various NCPs in HfLaON gate dielectrics were adjusted by Hf2La2O7 target sputtered in an ambient of modulated nitrogen flow. The related degradation mechanisms of various NCPs in HfLaON dielectrics have been investigated under various post-deposition annealing (PDA). The results indicate that by developing full nitrogen profile (FNP) incorporated into HfLaON dielectric enhances electrical characteristics;including oxide trap charge;interface trap density;and trap energy level. Detailed understand of current mechanisms of various NCPs incorporated into HfLaON dielectrics using current-voltage characteristics under various...
Autors: Chin-Lung, Cheng , Jeng-Haur, Horng , Hung-Yang, Tsai
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Electrical Characteristics of the Concentric-Shape Carbon Nanotube Network Device in pH Buffer Solution
Abstract:
A carbon nanotube network device having concentric-shaped electrodes (source and drain) is analyzed to examine the “self-gating” effect of various pH buffer solutions on its electrical properties. Using the 2-D homogeneous percolation theory, current–voltage characteristics of the devices are described as the classical MOSFET formula, in which the device is modeled as the p-type transistor with positive threshold voltage and the gate is tied with the drain (at positive bias) or source (at negative bias). To determine the apparent threshold voltage change due to the corresponding pH value, the ( : drain voltage; : drain current) curve is extracted from the measured current–voltage characteristics to find . A threshold voltage shift according to the pH value is observed without an external gate electrode, showing the possibility of relaxing the requirement of the external gate electrode. By grafting protonation/deprotonation which occurs in the carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes, the decaying current as pH increases is explained. Better sensitivity according to the operation regime is examined by the device modeling.
Autors: Cheon, J. H.;Lim, J.;Seo, S. M.;Woo, J.-M.;Kim, S. H.;Kwon, Y.;Ko, J. W.;Kang, T. J.;Kim, Y. H.;Park, Y. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:10, pages: 2684 - 2689
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electrical Characterization of Etch Rate for Micro- and Nano-Scale Gap Formation
Abstract:
The capability to accurately characterize lateral etch rate is needed for the manufacture of micro/nano-electro-mechanical devices which incorporate air-gaps. Optical microscopy can be used to monitor the etch-front and to detect whether a structure has been completely undercut (“released”), but not if the gap thickness is too small, e.g., less than 10 nm. In this paper, an electrical method of lateral-etch end-point detection is presented. By electrically testing cantilever beams of differing widths, the lateral etch rate can be determined. The accuracy of this method is verified via correlation with optical interferometry for gap thicknesses down to 70 nm. This new electrical characterization method is shown to be applicable to gap thicknesses as small as 4 nm. [2009-0265]
Autors: Lee, D.;Tran, H.;Ho, B.;Liu, T-J. K.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1260 - 1263
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electrical characterization of MS and MIS structures on AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures
Abstract:
The forward and reverse bias I-V, C-V, and G/?-V characteristics of (Ni/Au) Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the Al0.22Ga0.78N/AlN/GaN high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMTs) without and with SiNx insulator layer were measured at room temperature in order to investigate the effects of the insulator layer (SiNx) on the main electrical parameters such as the ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (?B0), series resistance (Rs), interface-state density (Nss). The energy density distribution profiles of the Nss were obtained from the forward bias I-V characteristics by taking into account the voltage dependence of the effective barrier height (?e) and ideality factor (nV) of devices. In...
Autors: Engin, Arslan , Serkan, BŁtŁn , Yasemin, ?afak , Habibe, Uslu , ?lke, Ta?Á?o?lu , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Electrical charging of Au nanoparticles embedded by streptavidin-biotin biomolecular binding in organic memory device
Abstract:
In this study, electrical charging phenomena in an organic memory structure using Au nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with a specific binding mechanism were demonstrated. Monolayer of streptavidin-passivated Au NPs was incorporated on biotin-coated SiO2 in structure of metal-pentacene-insulator-silicon (MPIS) device. Clockwise and counter-clockwise capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis loops were measured depending on the oxide thickness. For 30 nm, a clockwise C-V hysteresis having memory window of 0.68 V was obtained under (+/-)12 V sweep range, while a counter-clockwise C-V hysteresis having memory window of 6.47 V was obtained under (+/-)7 V sweep range for 10 nm thick oxide.
Autors: Jung, Sung Mok;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Kim, Bong-Jin;Kim, Yong-Sang;Yoon, Tae-Sik;Lee, Hyun Ho;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 153302 - 153302-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electrical properties and stability of p-type ZnO film enhanced by alloying with S and heavy doping of Cu
Abstract:
Single wurtzite p-type Zn1-yCuyO1-xSx alloy films with 0.081≤x≤0.186 and 0.09≤y≤0.159 were grown on quartz reproducibly by magnetron sputtering. The alloys show very stable p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of 4.31–5.78×1019 cm-3, a resistivity of 0.29–0.34 Ω cm and a mobility of 0.32–0.49 cm2V-1s-1. The p-type conductivity is attributed to substitution of Cu+1 for the Zn site, and the ionization energy of the Cu+1 acceptor is measured to be 53 meV, much less than that of Cu-doped ZnO reported previously. The small ionization energy is due to Cu heavy doping and increase in valence band maximum of ZnO induced by alloying with S.
Autors: Pan, H. L.;Yao, B.;Yang, T.;Xu, Y.;Zhang, B. Y.;Liu, W. W.;Shen, D. Z.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:14, pages: 142101 - 142101-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electrical Stimulation of the Rectus Femoris During Pre-swing Diminishes Hip and Knee Flexion During the Swing Phase of Normal Gait
Abstract:
Individuals who have suffered cerebral insults often exhibit stiff-knee gait, a condition characterized by reduced knee flexion during swing. We investigated the effect that an increment in normal rectus femoris (RF) activity can have on hip and knee joint angles during swing, as a first step to determining this muscle's involvement in stiff-knee gait. For this, we developed a protocol that electrically stimulated the RF during pre-swing or after toe-off in randomly selected strides of treadmill walking, consistent with the timing of RF activity during normal gait. Seven healthy young adults participated in the study. Pre-swing stimulation induced a significant reduction in peak knee flexion (avg 7.5 ) in all subjects, with an accompanying decrease in hip flexion in four of the subjects. RF stimulation after toe-off diminished peak knee flexion in three subjects and reduced hip flexion in four subjects. When compared to muscle-actuated gait simulations that were similarly perturbed, the induced motion measures were generally consistent in direction but exhibited greater variability across strides and subjects. We conclude that excess RF activity during pre-swing has the potential to contribute to stiff-knee gait, and that clinical treatment should consider the “counter-intuitive” function that the RF has in extending the hip.
Autors: Hernandez, N.;Lenz, A. L.;Thelen, D. G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 523 - 530
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electrical TCAD Simulations of a Germanium pMOSFET Technology
Abstract:
A commercial technology computer-aided design device simulator was extended to allow electrical simulations of sub-100-nm germanium pMOSFETs. Parameters for generation/recombination mechanisms (Shockley–Read–Hall, trap-assisted tunneling, and band-to-band tunneling) and mobility models (impurity scattering and mobility reduction at high lateral and transversal field) are provided. The simulations were found to correspond well with the experimental data on our Ge transistors at gate lengths down to 70 nm and various bias conditions. The effect of changes in halo dose and extension energies is discussed, illustrating that the set of models presented in this paper can prove useful to optimize and predict the performance of new Ge-based devices.
Autors: Hellings, G.;Eneman, G.;Krom, R.;De Jaeger, B.;Mitard, J.;De Keersgieter, A.;Hoffmann, T.;Meuris, M.;De Meyer, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:10, pages: 2539 - 2546
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Electrochemical Investigations for Copper Electrodeposition of Through-Silicon Via
Abstract:
This study uses electrochemical techniques with a rotating disk electrode (RDE) to investigate the effects of Cu2+ concentration and additives on electrodeposition of through-silicon vias (TSV). The plating bath with both PEG and SPS has an obvious suppression effect on Cu-RDE with a thin boundary layer from -350 to -634 mV (vs. Hg/Hg2SO4) and a wide potential range for the via-filling operation. The impedance and potentiodynamic scans show the adsorption of small molecule SPS is more stable than PEG, and the effect of PEG or SPS depends on the thickness of boundary layer obviously only in Tafel region. This study...
Autors: Tzu-Hsuan, Tsai , Jui-Hsiung, Huang
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Full litterature document
 
» Electron cyclotron-electron Bernstein wave emission diagnostics for the COMPASS tokamak
Abstract:
The COMPASS tokamak recently started operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague. A new 16-channel radiometer, operating alternatively in three frequency bands, has been designed and constructed. The system is prepared for detection of normal electron cyclotron emission (O1 or X2) or oblique electron Bernstein wave emission. The end-to-end calibration method includes all components that influence the antenna radiation pattern. A steady recalibration is possible using a noise generator connected to the radiometer input through a fast waveguide PIN-switch. Measurements of the antenna radiation characteristics (2D electric field) were performed in free space as well as in the tokamak chamber, showing the degradation effect of structures on the Gaussian beam shape. First plasma radiation temperature measurements from low-field circular plasmas are available.
Autors: Zajac, J.;Preinhaelter, J.;Urban, J.;Zacek, F.;Sestak, D.;Nanobashvili, S.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 81, issue:10, pages: 10D911 - 10D911-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electron Trap Profiling Near /Gate Interface in TANOS Stack Using Gate-Side Trap Spectroscopy by Charge Injection and Sensing
Abstract:
The goal of this letter is to investigate and characterize the defects at the /gate interface in TANOS memory stacks. To this purpose, gate-side trap spectroscopy by charge injection and sensing is applied on devices featuring different metal gates and different postdeposition anneals. The results show that a high concentration of defect is present in crystalline samples with a TaN or TiN gate.
Autors: Zahid, M. B.;Arreghini, A.;Degraeve, R.;Govoreanu, B.;Suhane, A.;Van Houdt, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 31, issue:10, pages: 1158 - 1160
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electronic Polarization Control Algorithms for Coherent Optical Transmission
Abstract:
In this paper, we review the nondata-aided constant-modulus algorithm (CMA) and a data-aided decision-directed algorithm (DDA) for polarization control and propose different extensions to both algorithms to improve their performance. The first extension to the CMA enables a common carrier recovery (CCR) through differential phase compensation (DPC-CMA). The second extension adapts the CMA for quadrature amplitude modulation signals (CMA-QAM). Both extensions can be combined to form a DPC-CMA for QAM signals (DPC-CMA-QAM). A new, modified DDA (MDDA) considerably increases polarization tracking speeds compared to the original DDA (ODDA). It is also usable for QAM signals. The algorithms are compared in simulations of QPSK and 16-QAM transmission systems. The results show that the DPC extension for the CMA in combination with CCR doubles laser linewidth tolerance and also the CMA-QAM triples polarization control speed compared to the standard CMA for QAM signals. The MDDA is 1.6–4 times faster than the CMA variants and is, at least when QAM signals are transmitted, more hardware-efficient.
Autors: Noé, R.;Pfau, T.;El-Darawy, M.;Hoffmann, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1193 - 1200
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Electronic structures of AlB2-type superconducting YbGa1+xSi1-x alloys probed by NMR and Seebeck coefficient
Abstract:
We report the electronic properties of the AlB2-type compounds YbGa1+xSi1-x (x=0, 0.15, and 0.3) studied by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and the Seebeck coefficient measurements. These materials are of current interest due to the presence of superconductivity with Yb element. From the analysis of 69Ga NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates, we deduce the Ga 4s partial Fermi level density of states Ns(EF) for these compounds. The result indicates a gradual increase in Ns(EF) with increasing x in YbGa1+xSi1-x. In addition, the evolution of the Seebeck coefficient feature can be understood well within the band-filling scenario. From the Seebeck coefficient analysis, we find that the variation in the total Fermi level density of states N(EF) is not consistent with the trend of superconducting temperature Tc which shows a gradual decrease with Ga content. These observations support the hypothesis that the electronic Fermi level density of states is not the key factor in determining the superconducting transition temperature of YbGa1+xSi1-x.
Autors: Fang, C. P.;Lue, C. S.;Hsu, Y. D.;Kuo, Y. K.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 108, issue:7, pages: 073911 - 073911-4
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Electronic transitions and hybrid resonance in InAsSb films by reflectance spectra
Abstract:
Electronic properties of InAs1-xSbx films with x up to 0.09 have been investigated by reflectance spectra in 1.5–5 eV energy range at room temperature. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function were derived by Kramers–Kronig analysis on the reflectance spectra, which show satisfactory agreement with the spectroscopic ellipsometry data. The E1 and E11 peaks are attributed to electronic interband transitions at the E1 and E11 critical points, respectively. The prominent E2 peaks, which exhibit high reflectivity and large blueshift, are found to be contributed by hybrid resonance due to the cooperative behavior of both E2-state electrons and plasmons.
Autors: Deng, H. Y.;Wang, Q. W.;He, J. Y.;Sun, C. H.;Hu, S. H.;Chen, X.;Dai, N.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 151910 - 151910-3
Publisher: IEEE
Full litterature document
 
» Electronic Transport in Laterally Asymmetric Channel MOSFET for RF Analog Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, an ensemble Monte Carlo investigation of the static and dynamic performances in the high-frequency domain of laterally asymmetric channel (LAC) bulk metal–oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is presented. A detailed comparison with a homogeneously doped bulk device is also included. The results presented show that the use of an asymmetric doping within the channel enhances nonequilibrium features as velocity overshoot, thus significantly improving the transconductance of the device. The gradual variation of doping is also responsible for a modification of the electrostatic conditions and the inversion charge profiles, provoking the reduction of the gate-to-source capacitance, a minor influence of surface scattering, reduced transit times, and higher mean free paths. A noticeable enhancement (as compared to a conventional device) in the RF and microwave frequency range of the dynamic performance of the transistors is also evidenced. This is mainly due to a better transconductance-to-current ratio, Early voltage, and open-loop gain, which are the results of the improvement of the charge transport conditions in the device at a microscopic level. Therefore, LAC MOSFETs can be a viable option to enhance the figures of merit of bulk silicon technology for high-frequency analog applications.
Autors: Rengel, R.;Martin, M. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:10, pages: 2448 - 2454
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electronic transport of the silane chain doped with phosphorus and boron atoms
Abstract:
Based on the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with the density functional theory, the properties of a silane chain doped with phosphorus and boron atoms connected to two Au electrodes are investigated. It has been found that a barrier similar to the p-n junction is formed in the molecule because of the different electronegativities of phosphorus and boron atoms. The electronic transport properties of two parallel silanes are also investigated when they are positioned between two identical electrodes. The results show that direct interactions between chains may strengthen the rectifying effect when their separation is set suitably. The rectifying effect may disappear when their separation is altered to other values due to the splitting of the frontier molecular orbitals, which contributes to the formation of new transport channels.
Autors: Deng, Xiaoqing;Zhang, Zhenhua;Zhou, Jicheng;Qiu, Ming;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:14, pages: 143103 - 143103-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Electroosmotic pump performance is affected by concentration polarizations of both electrodes and pump
Abstract:
Current methods of optimizing electroosmotic (EO) pump performance include reducing pore diameter and reducing ionic strength of the pumped electrolyte. However, these approaches each increase the fraction of total ionic current carried by diffuse electric double layer (EDL) counterions. When this fraction becomes significant, concentration polarization (CP) effects become important, and traditional EO pump models are no longer valid. We here report on the first simultaneous concentration field measurements, pH visualizations, flow rate, and voltage measurements on such systems. Together, these measurements elucidate key parameters affecting EO pump performance in the CP dominated regime. Concentration field visualizations show propagating CP...
Autors: Matthew E., Suss , Ali, Mani , Thomas A., Zangle , Juan G., Santiago
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Electroviscous effects in purely pressure driven flow and stationary plane analysis in electroosmotic flow of power-law fluids in a slit microchannel
Abstract:
This paper is a comprehensive work on flow of power-law fluids in a slit microchannel. The first part of the paper deals with study of electrokinetic effects in steady, fully developed, laminar pressure driven flow of power-law fluids. The second part of the work provides analysis of stationary plane that is formed during electroosmotic flow (EOF) of power-law fluids inside a closed slit microchannel. In the entire analysis, the flow of power-law fluid is characterized by the modified Navier-Stokes equation incorporating the electric body force term. The electric double layer (EDL) potential is described by the Poisson-Boltzmann distribution under Debye...
Autors: Nadapana, Vasu , Sirshendu, De
Appeared in: International Journal of Engineering Science
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Elevation Plane Beam Scanning of a Novel Parasitic Array Radiator Antenna for 1900 MHz Mobile Handheld Terminals
Abstract:
A novel internal antenna system is introduced for the GSM 1900 MHz frequency band which utilizes the electrically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) concept to steer the elevation plane beam in specific angular directions. The proposed antenna consists of a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) as the driven element and two inverted L antennas (ILAs) as parasitic elements. The ILAs are terminated with capacitive impedances at their bases. Full-wave analysis shows that the radiation beam can be scanned in space when the antenna is in free space as well as next to human head and hand phantoms. Measured results using varactor diodes controlling the base reactances show good return loss bandwidth.
Autors: Islam, M. R.;Ali, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 3344 - 3352
Publisher: IEEE
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» Eliminating the Low-Frequency Breakdown Problem in 3-D Full-Wave Finite-Element-Based Analysis of Integrated Circuits
Abstract:
An effective method is developed in this work to extend the validity of a full-wave finite-element-based solution down to dc for general 3-D problems. In this method, we accurately decompose the Maxwell's system at low frequencies into two subsystems in the framework of a full-wave-based solution. One has an analytical frequency dependence, whereas the other can be solved at frequencies as low as dc. Thus, we bypass the numerical difficulty of solving a highly ill-conditioned and even singular system at low frequencies. In addition, we provide a theoretical analysis on the conditioning of the matrices of the original coupled Maxwell's system and the decomposed system. We show that the decomposed system is well conditioned, and also positive definite at dc. The validity and accuracy of the proposed method have been demonstrated by extraction of state-of-the-art on-chip integrated circuits at frequencies as low as dc.
Autors: Zhu, J.;Jiao, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 2633 - 2645
Publisher: IEEE
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» Embedded Microstructure Fabrication Using Developer-Permeability of Semi-Cross-Linked Negative Resist
Abstract:
This paper reports on a novel and simple 3-D fabrication technique of microstructures embedded in a single-layer negative resist. The proposed technique allows one the fabrication of an embedded microstructure with a single exposure and the subsequent development process. The unique feature of the proposed fabrication technique is the development method which enables the rapid fabrication of polymer-based microfluidic systems with relatively large areas but with micrometer-sized features. For example, features of microchannels, on the order of 100 in width and 50 mm in length, sufficient for microfluidic systems, were successfully fabricated with a relatively short ( 20 min) development time. These features are realized by the interesting physical response of the top-membrane to the developer; the developer permeates through the top-membrane region made of semi-cross-linked photoresist, and the permeated developer dissolves the uncross-linked photoresist at the same time. As a step toward the practical use of the proposed development method, process parameter sets (exposure dose, postexposure bake (PEB) time, and temperature) related to the cross-linking reaction of the top-membrane region were investigated by employing the cross-linking reaction model describing the chemical reaction during the UV exposure and the PEB. Through a series of experiments, 1) a criterion of process parameter sets for the fabrication of centimeter-long embedded microchannels was obtained, and 2) the applicability to polymer-based microfluidic systems was successfully demonstrated. [2010-0029]
Autors: Hirai, Y.;Sugano, K.;Tsuchiya, T.;Tabata, O.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1058 - 1069
Publisher: IEEE
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» Embedded Software Assurance for Configuring Secure Hardware
Abstract:
The recent development of high-security processors and hardware is substantially changing embedded software tools, shedding light on security in the embedded development environment. The process of developing, certifying, and implementing a secure processor has several challenges that can be compared to providing deadbolts for residential properties. The deadbolt itself, no matter how well designed and tested, offers little security if it isn't installed correctly. Even more significantly, the deadbolt is useless if the owner doesn't lock it at night. These problems are similar for secure hardware—if system developers implement them incorrectly and end users don't employ security configurations, the processor's security properties are of no value in the end system. Instituting security policy in the hardware has all of the hallmarks of traditional security software: user authentication (security engineer only), preventing the impact of users or operating code on security settings, command integrity and verification, and keeping security policy audit log settings. In this article, the authors define the embedded end markets affected by embedded software assurance issues, then examine ways in which security and assurance capabilities are partitioned in hardware and software. They then examine the problems inherent to configuring secure hardware and offers a list of considerations and testing issues for providers interested in improving their embedded security environments to support secure hardware and processors.
Autors: Kenny, J. Ryan;Robinson, Craig;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 20 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
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» Emerging N-Face GaN HEMT Technology: A Cellular Monte Carlo Study
Abstract:
This paper aims to investigate the potential of the emerging N-face technology with respect to both the direct current and radio frequency performance of GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices. High-frequency high-power state-of-the-art HEMTs were investigated with our full-band cellular Monte Carlo simulator, which includes the full details of the band structure and the phonon spectra. A complete characterization of these devices was performed using experimental data to calibrate the few adjustable parameters of the simulator. The effect of scaling the device dimensions, such as the gate length and the access region lengths, on the device performance was analyzed. In addition, the enhancement-mode configuration of the N-face structure was investigated. Our simulations showed that N-face devices represent an important step in engineering HEMT devices for delivering high power density and efficiency at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies.
Autors: Marino, F. A.;Saraniti, M.;Faralli, N.;Ferry, D. K.;Goodnick, S. M.;Guerra, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:10, pages: 2579 - 2586
Publisher: IEEE
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» Emotion Recognition in Text for 3-D Facial Expression Rendering
Abstract:
Emotions are a key semantic component of human communication. This study focuses on automatic emotion detection in descriptive sentences and how this can be used to tune facial expression parameters for 3-D character generation. A comparison of manual and automatic word feature selection approaches is performed to determine the influence of word features on classification accuracy using support vector machines (SVM). The automatic emotion feature selection algorithm presented here builds on the framework used by mutual information for feature selection. Results of the study indicate that the set of automatically selected features was as good as the set of manually selected features. The proposed automatic feature selection algorithm implemented in this study helped to detect new words from the training corpus which were relevant to the classification task but were not considered by the researchers. An example of potential outcomes from facial expression tuning is also presented. The analysis includes initial results for dealing with the class imbalance challenge present in the data.
Autors: Calix, R. A.;Mallepudi, S. A.;Chen, B.;Knapp, G. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 12, issue:6, pages: 544 - 551
Publisher: IEEE
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» Employing Toroidal Harmonics for Computing the Magnetic Field From Axially Magnetized Multipole Cylinders
Abstract:
We employ a toroidal harmonic expansion in order to develop a three-dimensional solution for the magnetic field due to a permanent-magnet multipole cylinder. The equations derived in this paper can be used for the optimization and design of various devices that employ cylindrical multipole magnets. The analytical equations employ hypergeometric functions derived from the analytical integration of zeroth-order toroidal functions. Hypergeometric functions are quite general and are very useful for parametric studies.
Autors: Selvaggi, J. P.;Salon, S. J.;Chari, M. V. K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 46, issue:10, pages: 3715 - 3723
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enabling Autonomous Exploration via the Solar System Internet
Abstract:
A summary of recent networking and autonomy technology developments within NASA that can enable new types of space exploration and more effective interaction with space assets.
Autors: Wyatt, Jay;Barkley, Erik;Burleigh, Scott;Estlin, Tara;Jones, Ross;Schoolcraft, Josh;Nichols, Kelvin;L. Pitts, Robert;Schlesinger, Adam;W. Fink, Patrick;L. Grobe, Gary;
Appeared in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 9 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enabling Technologies for Future Scalable and Flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON Systems
Abstract:
Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies are expected to play a key role in realizing the next generation scalable and flexible passive optical networks (PONs). One candidate is WDM-PON, in which each optical network unit (ONU) uses a different wavelength, i.e., a unique wavelength, in each direction to communicate with the optical line terminal. Another candidate is WDM/time-division multiplexing (TDM)-PON; it combines WDM with TDM technology. This paper reviews recent state-of-the-art research on the enabling technologies needed to realize future WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems, and discusses future directions toward practical PON systems.
Autors: Kani, J.-i.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1290 - 1297
Publisher: IEEE
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» Ending Piracy of Integrated Circuits
Abstract:
An effective technique to combat IC piracy is to render infringement impractical by making physical tampering unprofitable and attacks computationally infeasible. EPIC accomplishes this using a novel low-overhead combinational chip-locking system and a chip-activation protocol based on public-key cryptography.
Autors: Roy, Jarrod A.;Koushanfar, Farinaz;Markov, Igor L.;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 43, issue:10, pages: 30 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
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» Endless Optical Polarization Control at 56 krad/s, Over 50 Gigaradian, and Demultiplex of 112-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK Signals at 3.5 krad/s
Abstract:
In this paper, we present an field-programmable gate array-based automatic endless optical polarization control system, which drives a commercial LiNbO polarization transformer. It is capable of tracking endless polarization changes of up to 56 krad/s with mean and maximum polarization errors of 0.077 and 0.197 rad, respectively. While tracking up to 50 krad/s, the system was likewise tested over >2 weeks with maximum polarization error of 0.195 rad during which time it tracked polarization changes of 50 Gigaradian. 112-Gb/s polarization-division multiplexed return to zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying transmission with direct detection and polarization scrambling up to 3.5 krad/s is also demonstrated.
Autors: Koch , B.;Mirvoda, V.;Grießer, H.;Wernz, H.;Sandel, D.;Noé, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1158 - 1163
Publisher: IEEE
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» Energy Provisioning in Solar-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks
Abstract:
Solar-powered wireless mesh nodes must be provisioned with a solar panel and battery combination that is sufficient to prevent node outage. This is normally done using historical solar insolation data for the desired deployment location and based on a temporal bandwidth usage profile (BUP) for each deployed node. Unfortunately, conventional methodologies do not take into account the use of energy-aware routing, and therefore, the deployed system may be overprovisioned and unnecessarily expensive. In this paper, we consider this resource assignment problem with the objective of minimizing the network deployment cost for a given energy source assignment. We first propose a resource-provisioning algorithm based on the use of temporal shortest-path routing and taking into account the node energy flow for the target deployment time period. We then introduce a methodology that incorporates energy-aware routing into the resource-assignment procedure. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed for this purpose. Our results show the large cost savings that an energy-aware resource assignment can achieve when compared with that done using the conventional methodology. To evaluate the quality of the resource assignments, we also develop a linear programming formulation that gives a lower bound on the total network resource assignment. Our results show that significant resource savings are possible using the proposed algorithms and the potential resource assignment benefits of energy-aware routing.
Autors: Badawy, G. H.;Sayegh, A. A.;Todd, T. D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 59, issue:8, pages: 3859 - 3871
Publisher: IEEE
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» Energy-proportion based scheme for audio watermarking
Abstract:
This study presents a audio watermarking that embeds information by energy-proportion scheme. By using normalised energy instead of probability, this study rewrites the entropy in information theory as an energyproportion function. In order to guarantee the robustness of watermarks, low-frequency coefficients of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are mapped into the domain of this function. Then, the characteristic curve of energyproportion function (CCEP) is obtained. Moreover, some characteristics and properties of this function are analysed and proved. Based on CCEP and the properties of energy-proportion function, this study proposes a novel audio watermarking scheme. In addition, the proposed energy-proportion scheme can extract the watermark without original audio signal. Finally, performance of the proposed scheme is assessed by signalto- noise ratio (SNR), mean opinion score, embedding capacity and BER. Experimental results demonstrate that the embedded data are robust against most signal processing and attacks, such as re-sampling, MP3 compression, low-pass filtering and amplitude scaling.
Autors: Chen, S.-T.;Huang, H.-N.;Chen, C.-J.;W, G.-D.;
Appeared in: IET Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 4, issue:5, pages: 576 - 587
Publisher: IEEE
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» Energy-Recycling (ER) Technique for a Direct-Lit Intelligent Power Management Backlight Unit (BLU)
Abstract:
A field-sequential-color (FSC) liquid crystal display (LCD) technique with a direct-lit red, green, and blue LED backlight driver is proposed to achieve low weight, thin, perfect image quality, and low-power consumption of LCD television. The FSC technique performs a pseudorandom color sequence in the spatial and temporal domains to reduce color-breakup and motion-blur effects. The direct-lit RGB-LED backlight driver increases brightness, contrast, and uniformity due to the removal of a color filter. In this paper, the proposed FCS-LCD controller uses a single LED driver to switch the driving voltage alternatively between 36 V for driving 12-series G- or B-LEDs and 24 V for 12-series R-LEDs. The proposed energy-recycling technique can harvest the extra energy when the driving voltage switches from 36 to 24 V. Experimental results show that energy saving is higher than 17% of the conventional driving method.
Autors: Huang, M.-H.;Tsai, Y.-C.;Chen, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2588 - 2598
Publisher: IEEE
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» Engineering and manufacturing of ITER first mirror mock-ups
Abstract:
Most of the ITER optical diagnostics aiming at viewing and monitoring plasma facing components will use in-vessel metallic mirrors. These mirrors will be exposed to a severe plasma environment and lead to an important tradeoff on their design and manufacturing. As a consequence, investigations are carried out on diagnostic mirrors toward the development of optimal and reliable solutions. The goals are to assess the manufacturing feasibility of the mirror coatings, evaluate the manufacturing capability and associated performances for the mirrors cooling and polishing, and finally determine the costs and delivery time of the first prototypes with a diameter of 200 and 500 mm. Three kinds of ITER candidate mock-ups are being designed and manufactured: rhodium films on stainless steel substrate, molybdenum on TZM substrate, and silver films on stainless steel substrate. The status of the project is presented in this paper.
Autors: Joanny, M.;Travere, J. M.;Salasca, S.;Corre, Y.;Marot, L.;Thellier, C.;Gallay, G.;Cammarata, C.;Passier, B.;Ferme, J. J.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 81, issue:10, pages: 10E108 - 10E108-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Engineering Wireless Mesh Networks: Joint Scheduling, Routing, Power Control, and Rate Adaptation
Abstract:
We present a number of significant engineering insights on what makes a good configuration for medium- to large-size wireless mesh networks (WMNs) when the objective function is to maximize the minimum throughput among all flows. For this, we first develop efficient and exact computational tools using column generation with greedy pricing that allow us to compute exact solutions for networks significantly larger than what has been possible so far. We also develop very fast approximations that compute nearly optimal solutions for even larger cases. Finally, we adapt our tools to the case of proportional fairness and show that the engineering insights are very similar.
Autors: Luo, J.;Rosenberg, C.;Girard, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1387 - 1400
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhanced A-EFIE With Perturbation Method
Abstract:
The recently developed augmented electric field integral equation (A-EFIE) remedies the well-known low-frequency breakdown. However, it loses accuracy of current when applied to certain low-frequency applications like plane wave scattering. This paper addresses the low-frequency inaccuracy problem, and proposes a perturbation method as a remedy. A-EFIE with perturbation solves the same A-EFIE matrix system with updated right hand side vectors repeatedly to obtain the current and charge on different frequency orders as a perturbation series. This method does not require a search for the loop and tree basis, but the loop and tree currents can also be recovered. Numerical experiments validate the novel method.
Autors: Qian, Z.-G.;Chew, W. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 3256 - 3264
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhanced conductivity in pulsed laser deposited Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ/SrTiO3 heterostructures
Abstract:
Significant enhancement in the electrical conductivity of Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (CGO) thin films (250 and 500 nm) deposited on MgO(001) substrate is observed by introducing ∼50 nm thin SrTiO3 buffer layer film. Introduction of the buffer layer is found to form epitaxial films, leading to minimal grain boundary network that results in a free conduction path with near-zero blocking effects perpendicular to current flow. The in-plane conductivity measurements confirm increase in conductivity with increase in compressive strain on CGO films.
Autors: Kant, K. Mohan;Esposito, V.;Pryds, N.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:14, pages: 143110 - 143110-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhanced numerical analysis of current-voltage characteristics of long wavelength infrared n-on-p HgCdTe photodiodes
Abstract:
An enhanced original computer program is applied to explain in detail the current-voltage characteristics of n-on-p long wavelength infrared HgCdTe photodiodes. The computer program solves the system of nonlinear continuity equations for carriers and Poisson equations. In the model ideal diode diffusion, generation-recombination, band-to-band tunneling, trap-assisted tunneling, and impact ionization are included as potential limiting mechanisms in the photodiodes. It is a clearly explained influence of Hg-vacancy doping and extrinsic doping of an active device region on dark current-voltage characteristics and an R0A product of HgCdTe photodiodes in a wide region of temperature and wavelengths. Special attention is directed to the dependence of tunneling probability on the shape of potential barrier with in an depletion region. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data of high quantity photodiodes published in the available literature.
Autors: Jozwikowski, K.;Kopytko, M.;Rogalski, A.;Jozwikowska, A.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 108, issue:7, pages: 074519 - 074519-11
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers with a thin seed layer
Abstract:
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is induced in Co/Ni multilayers when they are grown on a (111) textured Au seed layer, provided it is at least 2 nm thick. The anisotropy increases with increasing Au thickness due to improved crystallinity. Postannealing treatments of as-grown [Co(0.3)/Ni(0.6)]5 (thicknesses in nanometer) multilayers enhance the coercivity and PMA up to an annealing temperature of 250 °C, but higher temperatures lead to intermixing of Co and Ni which diminishes PMA. The easy axis becomes in-plane for samples annealed at 400 °C. The improvement in PMA in Co/Ni layers due to annealing is limited by the Au seed layer thickness. Annealing also reduces the saturation magnetization by ∼15% due to the formation of superparamagnetic islands. Our results show that the PMA in Co/Ni multilayers can be improved by annealing up to 350 °C, which is required for the thermal stability of spin transfer torque memories.
Autors: Kurt, H.;Venkatesan, M.;Coey, J. M. D.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 108, issue:7, pages: 073916 - 073916-4
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhanced Total-Field/Scattered-Field Technique for Isotropic-Dispersion FDTD Scheme
Abstract:
A new total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) technique is proposed for the isotropic-dispersion finite difference time domain (ID-FDTD) scheme. The proposed technique does not calculate incident fields on the TF/SF boundary by using a one-dimensional (1D) FDTD scheme as is used in the conventional technique or by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm such as is used in the analytic field propagation (AFP) method, but proceeds instead by using an analytic expression of the incident field. Hence, the proposed technique does not require the interpolation procedure that must be used to simulate an oblique incident wave in the conventional technique. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, the quality of the plane waves excited by the proposed and conventional techniques are compared and discussed. Also, the accuracy of the proposed method is numerically shown in a scattering problem.
Autors: Kim, H.;Koh, I.-S.;Yook, J.-G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 3407 - 3411
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhancement of anisotropic conductivity, elastic, and dielectric constants in a liquid crystal-gold nanorod system
Abstract:
We report electrical conductivity (σ), dielectric constant (ε) and the elastic constant measurements in a nematic liquid crystal (LC) doped with small concentrations of gold nanorods. This LC-nanoparticle complex, shows not only orders of magnitude higher σ, but also stabilizes its anisotropy. The ε data suggests an increased ordering in the nematic phase, and an improved antiparallel correlation of the molecules in the isotropic phase. Surprisingly, an anisotropic enhancement of the Frank elasticity is also seen. We suggest a possible electro/magnetomechanical conductivity switch and also provide explanations based on the aspect ratio of the nanoparticles vis-à-vis the LC molecules.
Autors: Sridevi, S.;Prasad, S. Krishna;Nair, Geetha G.;DBritto, Virginia;Prasad, B. L. V.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 151913 - 151913-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhancement of resolution of optical spectrum analysers with thermally tuned sampled fibre Bragg grating
Abstract:
A method for at least a tenfold enhancement of the resolution of optical spectrum analysers (OSAs) is proposed and numerically demonstrated. The light to be measured is reflected from a sampled fibre Bragg grating (SFBG) consisting of N apodised equally spaced gratings. Recording 2N + 1 reflected spectra by an OSA for different temperatures of the SFBG and performing simple processing, the spectrum with improved resolution is obtained.
Autors: Berger, N.K.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 46, issue:21, pages: 1457 - 1458
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency in type-VIII clathrate Ba8Ga16Sn30 by Al substitution for Ga
Abstract:
Single-crystalline samples of type-VIII clathrate Ba8Ga16-xAlxSn30 (0≤x≤12) were grown from Sn flux to characterize the structural and thermoelectric properties from 300 to 600 K. The lattice parameter increases by 0.5% as x is increased to 10.5 whose value is the solubility limit of Al. The Seebeck coefficients of all samples are largely negative and the absolute values increase to approximately 300 μV/K on heating to 600 K. This large thermopower coexists with the metallic behavior in the electrical resistivity. The values of resistivity for 1≤x≤6 at 300 K are in the range 3.3–3.8 mΩ cm which is 70% of that for x=0. As a result, the power factor for x=4 and 6 has a rather large maximum of 1.83×10-3 W/mK2 at 480 K. The thermal conductivity stays at a low level of 0.72 W/mK up to 480 K, and the sample with x=6 reaches a ZT value of 1.2 at 500 K.
Autors: Deng, Shukang;Saiga, Yuta;Suekuni, Koichiro;Takabatake, Toshiro;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 108, issue:7, pages: 073705 - 073705-4
Publisher: IEEE
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» Enhancement-Mode AlN/GaN/AlGaN DHFET With 700-mS/mm and 112-GHz
Abstract:
An enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlN/GaN/AlGaN double-heterojunction field-effect transistor (DHFET) with record high-frequency performance is reported. E-mode operation was achieved through vertical scaling of the AlN barrier layer. Parasitic resistances were reduced through ohmic contact recess etching followed by regrowth of GaN by molecular-beam epitaxy and SiN deposition to increase the sheet charge density in the access regions of the device, resulting in an extremely low on-resistance of 1.06 . A DHFET with an 80-nm gate length had a threshold voltage of 0.21 V, an extrinsic transconductance of 0.70 S/mm, a current-gain cutoff frequency of 112 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency of 215 GHz. To our knowledge, these are the highest , , and values reported to date for an E-mode GaN HFET.
Autors: Corrion, A. L.;Shinohara, K.;Regan, D.;Milosavljevic, I.;Hashimoto, P.;Willadsen, P. J.;Schmitz, A.;Wheeler, D. C.;Butler, C. M.;Brown, D.;Burnham, S. D.;Micovic, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 31, issue:10, pages: 1116 - 1118
Publisher: IEEE
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» Ensuring Availability of a Large Adjustable-Speed Drive for Process Gas Compressor Application Rated 11 kV 15.5 MW (20 778 hp)
Abstract:
Voltage-source inverter (VSI) technology, suitable for synchronous-motor applications, now exists with high power ratings producing high output voltage ( 11 kV) with significant benefits over the widely used load-commutated-inverter drives. This paper covers an existing VSI technology applied for the first time at a higher operating voltage. This 15.5-MW 11-kV VSI adjustable-speed drive (ASD) installation is used to soft start three synchronous motors and speed control one of these for a process gas compressor application. Challenges faced during commissioning are described, and associated solutions are presented. A failure analysis of the ASD during commissioning is presented. An ASD design review was undertaken, which has resulted in an improved alternative to the conventional high-voltage busbar design. A protection-coordination study incorporating incoming switchgear and internal drive protection functions is presented. Improved protection schemes and settings are described to obtain faster coordinated fault clearance and improved ASD availability. This paper provides operating experience since the modified ASD has been placed in service in January 2006. Key recommendations are made to enhance the reliability, availability, and performance of medium-voltage drive systems. Also, suggestions are made for additions to the 2006 IEEE 1566 medium-voltage ASD standard.
Autors: Endrejat, F.;Hanna, R. A.;Shultz, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 46, issue:5, pages: 1843 - 1849
Publisher: IEEE
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» Environmental Awareness
Abstract:
IEEE Pervasive Computing editor in chief Nigel Davies discusses the latest issue on pervasive computing in hostile environments, and new directions the magazine hopes to take.
Autors: Davies, Nigel;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 2 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
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» Environmental Monitoring and Task-Driven Computing
Abstract:
Two monitoring projects relate to this issue's theme, "Hostile Environments": "Landslide Monitoring in the Emilia Romagna Apennines" and "Air Quality Monitoring for Pervasive Health." In addition, "Task-Driven Framework for Pervasive Computing" reports on TaskOS, a project to develop task-driven recommendation systems for pervasive computing environments.
Autors: Rosi, Alberto;Bicocchi, Nicola;Castelli, Gabriella;Corsini, Alessandro;Mamei, Marco;Zambonelli, Franco;Berti, Matteo;Angove, Philip;O'Flynn, Brendan;Hayes, Jer;Diamond, Dermot;O'Grady, Michael J.;O'Hare, Gregory M.P.;Vo, Chuong C.;Torabi, Torab;Loke,
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 48 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
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» Environmental Monitoring for Safeguards Using -standardized Neutron Activation Analysis
Abstract:
Multi-elemental analysis of samples containing uranium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been generally known as a problematic task due to the numerous radioisotopes produced from the uranium fission when the sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons. In -standardized NAA ( -NAA), it is possible to correct for this effect through the introduction of -fission factors. In this work, the aim was to determine the feasibility of -NAA as a screening technique for accurate and isotopic ratio determination (we further refer to the technique as -UNAA) and where -UNAA could be positioned versus the other screening techniques. In -UNAA, we use an adapted formalism to determine the -ratio. Several swipe samples spiked with different isotopic ratios were analyzed and demonstrate the feasibility of -UNAA as a accurate and reliable screening method for the quantification of environmental samples up to several tens of ng. At these levels the uranium conce- - ntration can be quantified with a reasonable uncertainty and reliable isotopic ratio analysis could also be performed.
Autors: Vermaercke, P.;Arbocco, F. F.;Sneyers, L.;Leal, A. S.;Bruggeman, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 2773 - 2776
Publisher: IEEE
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» Environmental Security of the Adriatic Coastal Sea Floor
Abstract:
The coastal sea floor is littered with many man-made objects and materials including a variety of ammunition. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors, and marinas have increased concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in antifouling paints. This report presents locations within the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean as a whole, which are found to be contaminated by different ammunition. In order to be able to establish if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron sensor installed within an unmanned underwater vessel has been developed and tested. When positioned above an object, such a system can inspect the object for the presence of a threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from a sealed tube neutron generator. The same system can also be used to inspect ship hulls, either to detect potential anomalies attached to the hull or to determine the nature of materials within the hull, especially of sunken ships.
Autors: Valkovic, V.;Matika, D.;Kollar, R.;Obhodas, J.;Sudac, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 2724 - 2731
Publisher: IEEE
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» Equalizer Design and Complexity for Digital Coherent Receivers
Abstract:
Digital signal processing has completely changed the way optical communication systems work during recent years. In combination with coherent demodulation, it enables compensation of optical distortions that seemed impossible only a few years ago. However, at high bit rates, this comes at the price of complex processing circuits and high power consumption. In order to translate theoretic concepts into economically viable products, careful design of the digital signal processing algorithms is needed. In this paper, we give an overview of digital equalization algorithms for coherent receivers and derive expressions for their complexity. We compare single-carrier and multicarrier approaches, and investigate blind equalizer adaptation as well as training-symbol-based algorithms. We examine tradeoffs between parameters like sampling rate and tracking speed that are important for algorithm design and practical implementation.
Autors: Spinnler, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1180 - 1192
Publisher: IEEE
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» Equipment PHM using non-stationary segmental hidden semi-Markov model
Abstract:
Health monitoring and prognostics of equipment is a basic requirement for condition-based maintenance (CBM) in many application domains where safety, reliability, and availability of the systems are considered mission critical. As a key complement to CBM, prognostics and health management (PHM) is an approach to system life-cycle support that seeks to reduce/eliminate inspections and time-based maintenance through accurate monitoring, incipient faults. Conducting successful prognosis, however, is more difficult than conducting fault diagnosis. A much broader range of asset health related data, especially those related to the failures, shall be collected. The asset health progression can then be possibly extracted from...
Autors: Ming, Dong , Ying, Peng
Appeared in: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Equivalence of Influence of Pollution Simulating Methods on DC Flashover Stress of Ice-Covered Insulators
Abstract:
The solid-layer method (SLM) and the icing-water- conductivity method (IWCM) are widely used in the insulator icing tests, but little research has been dedicated to the equivalence of these two methods. Based on the research on dc flashover performance of ice-covered insulators in the artificial climate chamber, this paper studied the equivalent relation between SLM and IWCM according to the equivalent principle of the flashover stress of ice-covered insulators. The results show that the influence of these two methods on flashover stress of iced insulator is equivalent, and this equivalence is determined by the configuration of insulator as well as the icing degree, but the icing flashover stress of the same type of insulators which are on the same pollution level simulated by the two different methods is consistent.
Autors: Jiang, X.;Chen, L.;Zhang, Z.;Sun, C.;Hu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 2113 - 2120
Publisher: IEEE
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» Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide
Abstract:
Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick’s second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3±0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.
Autors: Lu, Ying-Wei;Julsgaard, B.;Petersen, M. Christian;Jensen, R. V. Skougaard;Pedersen, T. Garm;Pedersen, K.;Larsen, A. Nylandsted;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:14, pages: 141903 - 141903-3
Publisher: IEEE
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» EREC-Based Length Coding of Variable-Length Data Blocks
Abstract:
This paper investigates error-resilient transmission of variable-length-coding bitstream. We propose a method for coding the lengths of variable-length data blocks based on the error-resilient entropy coding (EREC). The idea is converting the problem of coding VLB lengths into the problem of coding the number of blank bits in fixed-length EREC slots. We give the upper bound of side information (SI) cost. To combat error propagation in SI bits, we rearrange SI bits into EREC structure. Detailed decoder design is given, which reveals that the proposed algorithm simplifies EREC decoder design by decomposing the decoder into three serially concatenated components. Experimental results show that the proposed method is economical and robust.
Autors: Fang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 20, issue:10, pages: 1358 - 1366
Publisher: IEEE
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» Erratum: “Gate controlled magnetoresistance in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 082106 (2010)]
Abstract:
Autors: Ciccarelli, C.;Park, B. G.;Ogawa, S.;Ferguson, A. J.;Wunderlich, J.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 159902 - 159902-1
Publisher: IEEE
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» Erratum: “Photovoltaic effect and charge storage in single ZnO nanowires” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023111 (2008)]
Abstract:
Autors: Liao, Zhi-Min;Xu, Jun;Zhang, Jing-Min;Yu, Da-Peng;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 159901 - 159901-1
Publisher: IEEE
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» Erratum: “Tuning carrier type and density in Bi2Se3 by Ca-doping” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 042112 (2010)]
Abstract:
Autors: Wang, Zhiyong;Lin, Tao;Wei, Peng;Liu, Xinfei;Dumas, Randy;Liu, Kai;Shi, Jing;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 159903 - 159903-1
Publisher: IEEE
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» Error Performance Analysis of BPSK Modulation in Physical-Layer Network-Coded Bidirectional Relay Networks
Abstract:
We analyze the error performance of the physical-layer network coding (PNC) protocol without channel coding in bidirectional relay networks for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) over Rayleigh fading channels. It is assumed that a bidirectional relay network consists of two sources and a relay, where each node has a single antenna and operates in a half-duplex mode, and the PNC over finite GF(2) is employed. In this system, since the maximum-likelihood (ML) detection metric of the multiple access channel (MAC) at the relay is given by the sum of two exponential functions, it is not possible to utilize the classical Euclidean distance rule. To make the performance analysis tractable, we approximate the ML detection metric by adopting the max-log approximation. Then we derive tight upper and lower bounds in closed form for the average symbol error probability of the MAC at the relay. Finally, we obtain tight upper and lower bounds in closed form for the end-to-end average bit-error rate (BER).
Autors: Ju, MinChul;Kim, Il-Min;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 2770 - 2775
Publisher: IEEE
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» Essential Statistics and Tools for Complex Random Variables
Abstract:
Complex random signals play an increasingly important role in array, communications, and biomedical signal processing and related fields. However, the fundamental properties of complex-valued signals and mathematical tools needed to process them are scattered in literature. We provide a concise, unified, and rigorous treatment of essential properties and tools of complex random variables, and apply these fundamentals to derive complex extensions of Leibniz rule, Faá di Bruno's formula, and Taylor's series. The extensions allow establishing relationships among complex moments and cumulants, and characterizing the circularity property. We propose measures for testing and quantifying circularity, and observe that non-circularity may be more common in practical applications than previously thought. All results are rigorously proved and supplemented with clarifying examples.
Autors: Eriksson, J.;Ollila, E.;Koivunen, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 5400 - 5408
Publisher: IEEE
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» Establishing Trust in Cloud Computing
Abstract:
How can cloud providers earn their customers' trust when a third party is processing sensitive data in a remote machine located in various countries? Emerging technologies can help address the challenges of trust in cloud computing.
Autors: Khan, Khaled M.;Malluhi, Qutaibah;
Appeared in: IT Professional
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 12, issue:5, pages: 20 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
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» Estimating Cohesion in Small Groups Using Audio-Visual Nonverbal Behavior
Abstract:
Cohesiveness in teams is an essential part of ensuring the smooth running of task-oriented groups. Research in social psychology and management has shown that good cohesion in groups can be correlated with team effectiveness or productivity, so automatically estimating group cohesion for team training can be a useful tool. This paper addresses the problem of analyzing group behavior within the context of cohesion. Four hours of audio-visual group meeting data were used for collecting annotations on the cohesiveness of four-participant teams. We propose a series of audio and video features, which are inspired by findings in the social sciences literature. Our study is validated on a set of 61 2-min meeting segments which showed high agreement amongst human annotators when asked to identify meetings that have high or low cohesion.
Autors: Hung, H.;Gatica-Perez, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 12, issue:6, pages: 563 - 575
Publisher: IEEE
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» Estimating Multiple Frequency-Hopping Signal Parameters via Sparse Linear Regression
Abstract:
Frequency hopping (FH) signals have well-documented merits for commercial and military applications due to their near-far resistance and robustness to jamming. Estimating FH signal parameters (e.g., hopping instants, carriers, and amplitudes) is an important and challenging task, but optimum estimation incurs an unrealistic computational burden. The spectrogram has long been the starting non-parametric estimator in this context, followed by line spectra refinements. The problem is that hop timing estimates derived from the spectrogram are coarse and unreliable, thus severely limiting performance. A novel approach is developed in this paper, based on sparse linear regression (SLR). Using a dense frequency grid, the problem is formulated as one of under-determined linear regression with a dual sparsity penalty, and its exact solution is obtained using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMoM). The SLR-based approach is further broadened to encompass polynomial-phase hopping (PPH) signals, encountered in chirp spread spectrum modulation. Simulations demonstrate that the developed estimator outperforms spectrogram-based alternatives, especially with regard to hop timing estimation, which is the crux of the problem.
Autors: Angelosante, D.;Giannakis, G. B.;Sidiropoulos, N. D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 5044 - 5056
Publisher: IEEE
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» Estimating Relative Camera Motion from the Antipodal-Epipolar Constraint
Abstract:
This paper introduces a novel antipodal-epipolar constraint on relative camera motion. By using antipodal points, which are available in large Field-of-View cameras, the translational and rotational motions of a camera are geometrically decoupled, allowing them to be separately estimated as two problems in smaller dimensions. We present a new formulation based on discrete camera motions, which works over a larger range of motions compared to previous differential techniques using antipodal points. The use of our constraints is demonstrated with two robust and practical algorithms, one based on RANSAC and the other based on Hough-like voting. As an application of the motion decoupling property, we also present a new structure-from-motion algorithm that does not require explicitly estimating rotation (it uses only the translation found with our methods). Finally, experiments involving simulations and real image sequences will demonstrate that our algorithms perform accurately and robustly, with some advantages over the state-of-the-art.
Autors: Lim, J.;Barnes, N.;Hongdong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 32, issue:10, pages: 1907 - 1914
Publisher: IEEE
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» Estimating Surface Water Speeds With a Single-Phase Center SAR Versus an Along-Track Interferometric SAR
Abstract:
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) single-aperture systems are designed to image fixed scenes. Dual-antenna along-track interferometric (ATI) SAR systems are designed to detect moving targets and estimate their motion parameters. Although SAR systems are not designed to characterize moving targets, for localized targets, such as vehicles or ships, this problem has been addressed in the literature with some success. Distributed moving targets are hard to characterize, even for ATI systems. Estimating surface water speeds is an ideal example of this since the water returns are generated from weak returns randomly distributed in both time and space. The question asked here is can one measure surface water speeds with a single-phase center SAR system? The answer presented is a qualified yes, with the aid of an upper bound on the water speed, but not with the same accuracy as an ATI system. This upper bound and the collection geometry provide design criteria for the filtering of the phase information. Time–frequency (TF) methods provide another speed estimate as well as a rough profile of the speed across the water channel. A robust nonparametric TF method was developed and applied to estimate the speed. Comparisons between the ATI estimate and single-phase estimates are made using data from an X-band ATI-SAR system.
Autors: Kersten, P. R.;Toporkov, J. V.;Ainsworth, T. L.;Sletten, M. A.;Jansen, R. W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 48, issue:10, pages: 3638 - 3646
Publisher: IEEE
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» Estimation of Engine Rotational Dynamics Using Kalman Filter Based on a Kinematic Model
Abstract:
For a conventional scooter engine with a four-plus-one-tooth crankshaft wheel, not only is the crankshaft position estimation insufficient due to poor angle resolution, but the speed measurement might also be easily contaminated by the sensor noise. We proposed a Kalman filter with stroke identification to estimate the engine rotational dynamics. The design of the Kalman filter is based on a kinematic model that requires no engine parameters. A nonlinear engine model is used to evaluate the estimation performance of the conventional algorithm using a low-pass filter and the proposed algorithm at various operating conditions. Preliminary simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can mitigate the noise impact and result in estimations closer to the actual engine responses.
Autors: Chen, B.-C.;Wu, Y.-Y.;Hsieh, F.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 59, issue:8, pages: 3728 - 3735
Publisher: IEEE
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» Estimation of proton distribution by means of three-dimensional reconstruction of prompt gamma rays
Abstract:
In proton therapy, the dose distribution of proton beams in the human body needs to be measured accurately. The distribution of prompt gamma rays emitted from patients during irradiation is strongly associated with the dose distribution of the proton beam. The (three-dimensional) 3D distribution of the prompt gamma rays detected by a single photon emission computed tomography was simulated using a Monte Carlo method. The 3D distribution of the prompt gamma rays was well matched with the dose distribution of the proton beam and was superior to the (two-dimensional) distribution of the prompt gamma rays detected using a conventional gamma camera.
Autors: Park, Min-Seok;Lee, Wonho;Kim, Jung-Min;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 97, issue:15, pages: 153705 - 153705-2
Publisher: IEEE
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» Ethics and the Cloud
Abstract:
Cloud computing is an idea that's rapidly evolving. Still, the amount of money and attention devoted to this topic makes it seems sensible to discuss how ethicists view the kinds of changes in computing that are being called "the cloud." This department is part of a special issue on cloud computing.
Autors: Miller, Keith W.;Voas, Jeffrey;
Appeared in: IT Professional
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 12, issue:5, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation analysis of thermal ageing in insulation systems of electrical machines - a historical review -
Abstract:
The concept of the evaluation of the thermal ageing behaviour of machine winding insulations goes back to the work done by Arrhenius, Montsinger, Bussing and Dakin. Its basic principles are found in the chemical reaction kinetics but it also takes decades of experiences into account, which were made in order to make sure, that insulation systems for rotating electric machines are both: economic and reliable. Today there is a set of IEC and IEEE standards available, which define the procedures needed for the qualification of winding insulation systems. They always use the approach of comparative functional evaluation, which compares the behaviour of an unknown candidate system with a service proven reference system. As these standards are reviewed and revised, they will be even more practicable in the future.
Autors: Kielmann, F.;Kaufhold, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 17, issue:5, pages: 1373 - 1377
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation of an Alternate Soft-Charge Circuit for Diode Front-End Variable-Frequency Drives
Abstract:
Variable-frequency drives (VFDs) with diode front-end rectifiers are typically equipped with a resistor–contactor arrangement to limit the inrush current into the dc-bus capacitors, thereby providing a means for soft charging the dc-bus capacitors. Because of the mechanical nature of the magnetic contactor typically used in VFDs, there exists a concern for fatigue. In addition, during a brownout condition, typically, the contactor remains closed, and when the voltage recovers, the ensuing transient is often large enough to possibly cause unfavorable influence to surrounding components in the VFD. Many researchers and application engineers have thought about this issue, and many are actively seeking nonmechanical solutions in a cost-effective manner. In this paper, a new topology to soft charge the dc-bus capacitor is proposed. Other techniques that have been evaluated are also introduced. The relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Experimental tests to show the feasibility of the proposed idea are also provided.
Autors: Swamy, M. M.;Kume, T.;Takada, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 46, issue:5, pages: 1999 - 2007
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation of In-Pile Neutron Signals During the Start-Up Phase of the FRM II Compact Core Reactor
Abstract:
Wide range detector signals accompanied all steps of the start-up of FRM II. The work analyzes quantitatively the absolute detector signal strengths at the different nuclear start up steps. A further interest was to assess on the reactivity of the core as early as possible.
Autors: Rohrmoser, A.;Munchen, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 2647 - 2652
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation of Sustained and Momentary Interruption Impacts in Reliability-Based Distribution System Design
Abstract:
The reliability and power-quality (PQ) expectations of the power distribution system are steadily increasing. Performance-based rates and/or incentives are being put into place in order to ensure that reliability standards are being met. The distribution system planners, designers, and operators are given the task of developing system upgrades that will successfully meet these new performance goals. This is not always an easy or straightforward task, particularly in cases where a system upgrade can impact the various reliability and PQ indices in different directions. This paper develops an incremental cost-based approach to providing linkage between the sustained and momentary interruption indices. This new approach is readily implementable, and also readily adjusted to meet local performance goals. This paper also presents a case study involving a distribution feeder, and assesses the use of the method in evaluating fuse saving/fuse melting and sectionalizing switch automation upgrades on the line.
Autors: Ortmeyer, T. H.;Reeves, J. A.;Hou, D.;McGrath, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 3133 - 3138
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation of the 'replace constructors with creation methods' refactoring in Java systems
Abstract:
Class constructors play an indispensable role in the Java language as a mechanism for object creation. However, little empirical evidence exists on constructors, trends in their composition and how a class with too many constructors might influence its understandability by developers. Herein, the authors investigate the applicability of the `replace constructors with creation methods¬Ņ (RCwCM) refactoring of Kerievsky in five Java systems. The RCwCM was manually applied to a set of classes from each of the five systems in classes containing three or more constructors. The benefits of this refactoring include improved code readability and encapsulation, program understanding and to a lesser extent possible elimination of code duplication. Within each of the five systems, evidence of scope for applying the RCwCM refactoring based on the number of classes with multiple constructors was found. However, problems were encountered that limited its application. These are the nature of inheritance and the different styles of accessing class constructors. In the former, account has to be taken of multiple dependencies if the class is not a leaf class; in the latter, the `super¬Ņ construct requires careful handling. When considered against the benefits that the RCwCM provides, care needs to be exercised. As with any refactoring effort, the short and long-term benefits need to be compared with the expense outlay (developer time and effort) as well as the opportunity cost.
Autors: Counsell, S.;Loizou, G.;Najjar, R.;
Appeared in: IET Software
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 4, issue:5, pages: 318 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Environment Around Underground HVDC Lines
Abstract:
This paper analyses the magnetic-field emissions of a high-voltage dc transmission line constituted by two couples of underground cables laid along a highway. The transmission system, including all its components (transformers, converters filters, and line), is modeled through a circuital approach, which provides the distribution of the current harmonics along the line length. The magnetic field produced in the environment is then estimated by a hybrid finite element/boundary element method. The electromagnetic interferences with existing appliances and the human exposure to magnetic fields are investigated considering different laying configurations, conductor dispositions, and supply conditions. Compliance with regulations limiting human exposure and technical standards ensuring electromagnetic compatibility of appliances and devices are assessed.
Autors: Zilberti, L.;Pons, E.;Bottauscio, O.;Chiampi, M.;Pastorelli, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 3085 - 3094
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evaluation of Transient Behavior of Polysilicon-Bound Diode for Fast ESD Applications
Abstract:
Transient behaviors of poly-bound diodes subject to pulses generated by the very fast transmission line pulsing (VFTLP) tester are characterized for fast ESD events such as the charged device model. The effects of changing a diode's dimension parameters on the transient behaviors and on the overshoot voltage and turn-on time are studied. The correlation between the diode failure and polygate configuration under the VFTLP stress is also investigated.
Autors: Li, Y.;Liou, J. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 57, issue:10, pages: 2736 - 2743
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evanescent-wave interferometric nanoscale photolithography using guided-mode resonant gratings
Abstract:
Generation of interference patterns of the evanescent electromagnetic waves with significantly subwavelength period using guided-mode resonant gratings is studied. The potential application field is the near-field interference lithography aimed at fabrication of periodic structures with nanoscale features. Calculations, based on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of Maxwell's equations, demonstrate the possibility of obtaining high-quality interference patterns by means of evanescent diffraction orders enhancement at the resonance conditions. The interference pattern feature size is up to 8 times smaller than the incident wavelength and the intensity at the interference maxima exceeds the incident wave intensity by an order-of-magnitude. The possibility of generating...
Autors: E.A., Bezus , L.L., Doskolovich , N.L., Kazanskiy
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Events Calendar
Abstract:
[No author name available]
Autors: Source: Biometric Technology Today, Volume 2010, Issue 9, October 2010, Page 3
Appeared in: Biometric Technology Today
Publication date: Oct 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
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» Evolution of Internet Address Space Deaggregation: Myths and Reality
Abstract:
Internet routing table size growth and BGP update churn are two prominent Internet scaling issues. There is widespread belief in a high and fast growing number of ASs that deaggregate prefixes, e.g., due to multi-homing and for the purpose of traffic engineering. Moreover, researchers often blame specific classes of ASs for generating a disproportionate amount of BGP updates. Our primary objective is to challenge such widespread assumptions ("myths") and not solely to confirm previous findings. Surprisingly, we find severe discrepancies between existing myths and reality. According to our results, there is no trend towards more aggressive prefix deaggregation or traffic engineering over time. With respect to update dynamics, we observe that deaggregated prefixes generally do not generate a disproportionate number of BGP updates, with respect to their share of the BGP routing table. On the other side, we observe much more widespread traffic engineering in the form of AS path prepending and scoped advertisements compared to previous studies. Overall, our work gives a far more positive picture compared to the alarming discourses typically heard: The impact of "bad guys" on routing table size growth and BGP churn has not changed for the worse in recent years. Rather, it increases at the same pace as the Internet itself.
Autors: Cittadini, Luca;Muhlbauer, Wolfgang;Uhlig, Steve;Bush, Randy;Francois, Pierre;Maennel, Olaf;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 28, issue:8, pages: 1238 - 1249
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evolution of Noise [From the Guest Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
One of the technical committees in the Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) is MTT-14, the low-noise committee. Each committee has a goal of spreading knowledge about their subject by sponsoring workshops and panel sessions at the yearly symposium, providing lectures, and furthering knowledge to the microwave community. This special issue contains four articles contributed by the low-noise committee, which cover a wide range of topics. While they certainly do not cover all aspects of noise, we hope these articles will answer some questions and inspire some interest among readers in this large and fascinating subject.
Autors: Riddle, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 11, issue:6, pages: 6 - 127
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evolution Towards Global Routing Scalability
Abstract:
Internet routing tables have been growing rapidly due to factors such as edge-site multihoming, traffic engineering, and disjoint address allocations. To address the routing scalability problems caused by this rapid growth, we propose an evolutionary approach that is incrementally deployable and provides immediate benefits to any adopting ASes. The basic premise of the approach is that route aggregation removes from routing tables the unnecessary topological details about remote portions of the Internet. We demonstrate that aggregation can be applied incrementally starting from local scopes within individual routers and individual ASes, and gradually expanded to the global Internet scope. The evaluation studies show that route aggregation is effective in addressing FIB scalability problems within a router and within a network.
Autors: Khare, Varun;Jen, Dan;Zhao, Xin;Liu, Yaoqing;Massey, Dan;Wang, Lan;Zhang, Beichuan;Zhang, Lixia;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 28, issue:8, pages: 1363 - 1375
Publisher: IEEE
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» Evolving the Internet Architecture Through Naming
Abstract:
Challenges face the Internet Architecture in order to scale to a greater number of users while providing a suite of increasingly essential functionality, such as multi-homing, traffic engineering, mobility, localised addressing and end-to-end packet-level security. Such functions have been designed and implemented mainly in isolation and retrofitted to the original Internet architecture. The resulting engineering complexity has caused some to think of 'clean slate' designs for the long-term future. Meanwhile, we take the position that an evolutionary approach is possible for a practical and scaleable interim solution, giving much of the functionality required, being backwards compatible with the currently deployed architecture, with incremental deployment capability, and which can reduce the current routing state overhead for the core network. By enhancing the way we use naming in the Internet Architecture, it is possible to provide a harmonised approach to multi-homing, traffic engineering, mobility, localised addressing and end-to-end packet-level security, including specific improvement to the scalability of inter-domain routing, and have these functions co-exist harmoniously with reduced engineering complexity. A set of proposed enhancements to the current Internet Architecture, based on naming, are described and analysed, both in terms of architectural changes and engineering practicalities.
Autors: Atkinson, Randall;Bhatti, Saleem;Hailes, Stephen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 28, issue:8, pages: 1319 - 1325
Publisher: IEEE
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» Exact Evaluation of Ergodic Capacity for Multihop Variable-Gain Relay Networks: A Unified Framework for Generalized Fading Channels
Abstract:
The closed-form expressions of the probability density function (pdf) and the moment-generating function for the exact end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of variable-gain relay networks are unknown for generalized fading models; thus, the exact evaluation for the ergodic capacity of these systems is cumbersome. In this paper, we develop a new unified framework for the exact ergodic capacity of multihop networks equipped with variable-gain relays, assuming that channel-state information (CSI) is available only at the receiving terminals. The resulting expression (which is based on the exact end-to-end SNR) is in the form of a single truncated infinite series and is valid for an arbitrary number of hops and for various fading models that are typically encountered in realistic scenarios. Furthermore, we show that the exact ergodic capacity of dual-hop variable-gain relay networks can be written in terms of the ergodic capacities of two equivalent single-input–single-output (SISO) channels and one single-input–multiple-output channel (SIMO), the closed-form expressions of which are already available for many commonly used fading/shadowing models. Finally, we show that there is an exact match between the Monte Carlo simulation and theoretical results over a whole range of per-hop average SNR.
Autors: Waqar, O.;McLernon, D. C.;Ghogho, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 59, issue:8, pages: 4181 - 4187
Publisher: IEEE
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» Exact Performance Analysis of the -NLMS Algorithm for Colored Circular Gaussian Inputs
Abstract:
This paper presents exact mean-square analysis of the -NLMS algorithm for circular complex correlated Gaussian input. The analysis is based on the derivation of a closed form expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of random variables of the form and using that to derive the first and second moments of such variables. These moments in turn completely characterize the mean square (MS) behavior of the -NLMS in explicit closed form expressions. Both transient and steady-state behavior are analyzed. Consequently, new explicit closed-form expressions for the mean-square-error (MSE) behavior are derived. Our simulations of the transient and steady-state behavior of the filter match the expressions obtained theoretically for various degrees of input correlation and for various values of .
Autors: Al-Naffouri, T. Y.;Moinuddin, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2010, volume: 58, issue:10, pages: 5080 - 5090
Publisher: IEEE
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