Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 0

» $P^4QS$: A Peer-to-Peer Privacy Preserving Query Service for Location-Based Mobile Applications
Abstract:
The location-based services provide an interesting combination of cyber and physical worlds. However, they can also threaten the users’ privacy. Existing privacy preserving protocols require trusted nodes, with serious security and computational bottlenecks. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed anonymizing protocol based on peer-to-peer architecture. Each mobile node is responsible for anonymizing a specific zone. The mobile nodes collaborate in anonymizing their queries, without the need of getting access to any information about each other. In the proposed protocol, each request will be sent with a randomly chosen ticket. The encrypted response produced by the server is sent to a particular mobile node (called broker node) over the network, based on the hash value of this ticket. The user will query the broker to get the response. All parts of the messages are encrypted except the fields required for the anonymizer and the broker. This will secure the packet exchange over the P2P network. The proposed protocol was implemented and tested successfully, and the experimental results showed that it could be deployed efficiently to achieve user privacy in location-based services.
Autors: Meysam Ghaffari;Nasser Ghadiri;Mohammad Hossein Manshaei;Mehran Sadeghi Lahijani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9458 - 9469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» $\gamma $ -Ray Detection Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf CMOS and CCD Image Sensors
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the results of research on the response of four types of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), CMOS, and charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors to photons. The aim of this paper was to study the potential use of CCD and CMOS COTS image sensors as -ray detectors. A 60Co source was used to study the response behavior of the sensors to the irradiant photons. The results show that the CMOS image sensors have much less background noise before irradiation and have better radiation resistance below 51.24 Gy. The background noise of CCD sensors obviously increases with a larger total ionizing dose. The linearity of the dose-rate response of CCD COTS sensors is better than that of CMOS COTS sensors. Both mean pixel value and cumulative pixel value may be used to obtain the photon dose rate. The sensor technology structure difference leads to the different shapes of events. The Compton scattering of 60Co photons in silicon caused the recorded patterns to show not only dots but also small streaks or traces. The peak value provides the photon energy, while the peak shape and radius can be used to classify the particle. CMOS COTS sensors are suitable for the particle classification, while CCD COTS sensors are better for energy resolution.
Autors: Xu Shoulong;Zou Shuliang;Huang Youjun;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6599 - 6604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ${k}$ -Sparse Autoencoder-Based Automatic Modulation Classification With Low Complexity
Abstract:
How to reduce complexity of the practical automatic modulation classification systems is a very active research area. Moreover, keeping the classification accuracy to a near optimal level is an added challenge. Recently, three new classifiers have been proposed with reduced complexity, mainly: linear support vector machine classifier, approximate maximum likelihood classifier, and backpropogation neural networks classifier. However, these methods include the sorting process of the features to form an ordered vector employing log comparison operations. Here, we propose a -sparse autoencoder-based classifer, with unsorted input data features and called it unsorted deep neural network (UDNN). Thus, we strive to omit the log comparison operations. The results obtained using the UDNN classifier show improved performance when compared with the above three methods. Moreover, using highest hidden units to reconstruct input data further reduces the overall complexity of the AMC system.
Autors: Afan Ali;Fan Yangyu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2162 - 2165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “Open-Loop” Tracking Interferometer Measurement Using Rotary Axes of a Five-Axis Machine Tool
Abstract:
The tracking interferometer, or the laser tracker, is a laser interferometer with a steering mechanism to change the laser beam direction to automatically follow a retroreflector. Many researchers have studied its application to the multilateration to measure the retroreflector's three-dimensional position. This paper shows that the multilateration measurement can be done by regulating the laser beam toward the command retroreflector position, assuming that the machine tool's positioning error is reasonably small. The machine's rotary axes are used to regulate the laser beam direction. The proposed scheme enables a user to perform the multilateration measurement by using a laser interferometer and the machine's rotary axes only, without requiring any specialized tracking mechanism. An experiment is presented to investigate its measurement performance. The paper's emphasis is on the assessment of its measurement uncertainty, introduced by the elimination of automated tracking mechanism.
Autors: Soichi Ibaraki;Keisuke Tsuboi;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2342 - 2350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Δ-Source Impedance Network
Abstract:
Impedance networks have been already investigated in various literature with the main goals of increasing the attainable voltage gain and reducing the components number. Recently, coupled inductors found popularity because they let converters with lower weight and cost. It seems that coupled inductances are a proper answer to the increasing voltage gain while keeping down the components number. This paper proposes a novel impedance network circuit based on three coupled inductors with a Δ connection. The proposed Δ-source converter offers smaller magnetizing current and winding losses compared to the successful Y-source circuit. Moreover, with the Δ-connected three coupled inductors, the adverse effect of leakage inductance on the converter performance is significantly reduced. The effectiveness of the proposed structure is analytically proved. The theoretical achievements over the conventional Y-source structure are confirmed through extensive simulations and experiments.
Autors: Amir Hakemi;Majid Sanatkar-Chayjani;Mohammad Monfared;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7842 - 7851
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1- $\mu \text{m}$ Short-Channel Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With Triangular Gate Spacer
Abstract:
In this letter, high-performance back-channel etch type oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with very narrow channel length, , are presented. To cover the steep slope at the dry-etched gate pattern edge with a thin gate insulator, a triangular-shaped gate spacer was introduced. A 1- short-channel oxide TFT is particularly adaptable to next-generation display applications requiring very high resolution. The field-effect mobility (, subthreshold slope, turn-on voltage (, and the on/off ratio were 55.2 cm2/Vs, 0.11 V/decade, 0.13 V, and , respectively.
Autors: Ji Hun Choi;Jong-Heon Yang;Jae-Eun Pi;Chi-Young Hwang;Kyunghee Choi;Hee-Ok Kim;Oh-Sang Kwon;Chi-Sun Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1398 - 1400
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 11th?IEEE UAE Student Day Hosted by Al Ain University [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 11th IEEE UAE Student Day.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 137 - 138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 16th IEEE International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory Held in Lviv, Ukraine [Meeting Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 16th IEEE International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory.
Autors: Stephen P. Shipman;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 18 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 16th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium Hosted by Al Ain University [Conference Report]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 16th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 132 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Magnetic Properties Measurement System for Electrical Steel Sheets Considering Laminated Direction Mechanical Stress
Abstract:
The 2-D rotating magnetic field is demonstrated in electrical steel sheets, which are widely used in iron cores of motors, etc. In addition, the magnetic properties of a motor iron core are strongly affected by the compressive stress in the laminated direction induced by welding, bolt bundles, etc. In order to investigate the rotating magnetic properties of the material under laminated direction stress, a novel magnetic properties measurement system is developed in this paper. The compressive stress is loaded on cubic specimen in the laminated direction. A novel sensing structure with combined magnetic flux density and magnetic field strength sensing coils is developed with an assistance of a four-layer printed circuit board. Such structure yields more accurate and measurement. The accuracy of magnetic properties measurement of the apparatus is validated by finite-element analysis. Except for investigating the correlation between the compressive stress and its magnetic properties of the electrical steel sheets, the coupling relationship between the magnetic property in -axis direction and the counterpart in -axis direction is found in 2-D rotational magnetization. Furthermore, the impact of the compressive stress on the coupling relationship is explored. The experimental results are reported, and the mechanism analysis is employed to discuss the results.
Autors: Xiaofeng Ding;Suping Ren;Yanwen Xiong;Feida Chen;Jinquan Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2.4-GHz Absorptive MMIC Switch for Switched Beamformer Application
Abstract:
In this paper, a GaAs absorptive single-pole double-throw (SPDT) RF switch and its application to a 2.4-GHz switched beamformer module are presented. The proposed absorptive SPDT RF switch features low-power consumption and low insertion loss with good output matching both in the on and off states. Specifically, the measured insertion loss in the on state is less than 1 dB, and the measured input and output return losses are both better than 11.2 dB from 1.9 to 2.6 GHz. The measured output return loss in the off state is better than 15 dB, and the measured isolation is better than 24.7 dB in the same frequency range. Two proposed absorptive SPDT switches are then employed to form an absorptive single-pole four-throw RF switch, and it is integrated with a miniaturized Butler matrix using the integrated passive device (IPD) technology to achieve a compact 2.4-GHz switched beamformer module with a very low profile. Specifically, the module size is 4.9 mm mm with a thickness of only 0.4 mm. The IPD beamformer module is then used to realize a low-profile 2-D scanning antenna array, and 16 different beams in azimuth and elevation dimensions are successfully generated.
Autors: Wei-Ting Fang;Chia-Hao Chen;Yo-Shen Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3950 - 3961
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20 GHz Mode-Locked Laser Diodes With Integrated Optical Feedback Cavities in a Generic Monolithic InP Photonics Platform
Abstract:
We investigate integrated mode-locked laser diodes with distributed Bragg reflectors fabricated in the JePPIX-Oclaro indium phosphide photonics platform. The optical and radio-frequency (RF) characteristics of passively mode-locked lasers with and without monolithically integrated feedback cavities were measured and compared. The RF linewidth of the mode-locked laser could be reduced by integrating an optical feedback cavity of a particular length and a tunable magnitude of feedback. A maximum linewidth reduction factor of 1.9 was observed near the onset of mode locking, but increasing the laser optical power tended to lead to unstable operation. Increasing the drive current of the design without feedback also reduced the RF linewidth. A reduction factor of 7.6 was observed.
Autors: Torrey Thiessen;Joyce K. S. Poon;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium Student Design Contest [Education Corner]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2017 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Symposium Student Design Contest.
Autors: Sean Victor Hum;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 147 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology in Athens [Meeting Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on 2017 IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology.
Autors: Stavros Koulouridis;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 21 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D In Vitro Acoustic Super-Resolution and Super-Resolved Velocity Mapping Using Microbubbles
Abstract:
Standard clinical ultrasound (US) imaging frequencies are unable to resolve microvascular structures due to the fundamental diffraction limit of US waves. Recent demonstrations of 2-D super-resolution both in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that fine vascular structures can be visualized using acoustic single bubble localization. Visualization of more complex and disordered 3-D vasculature, such as that of a tumor, requires an acquisition strategy which can additionally localize bubbles in the elevational plane with high precision in order to generate super-resolution in all three dimensions. Furthermore, a particular challenge lies in the need to provide this level of visualization with minimal acquisition time. In this paper, we develop a fast, coherent US imaging tool for microbubble localization in 3-D using a pair of US transducers positioned at 90°. This allowed detection of point scatterer signals in 3-D with average precisions equal to in axial and elevational planes, and in the lateral plane, compared to the diffraction limited point spread function full-widths at half-maximum of 488, 1188, and of the original imaging system with a single transducer. Visualization and velocity mapping of 3-D in vitro structures was demonstrated far beyond the diffraction limit. The capability to measure the complete flow pattern of blood vessels associated with disease at depth would ultimately enable analysis of in vivo microvascular morphology, blood flow dynamics, and occlusions resulting from disease states.
Autors: Kirsten Christensen-Jeffries;Jemma Brown;Paul Aljabar;Mengxing Tang;Christopher Dunsby;Robert J. Eckersley;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1478 - 1486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Domain Decomposition Based Hybrid Finite-Difference Time-Domain/Finite-Element Time-Domain Method With Nonconformal Meshes
Abstract:
A new 3-D domain decomposition based hybrid finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/finite-element time-domain (FETD) method is introduced to facilitate electromagnetic modeling by exploiting both the computational efficiency of FDTD and the meshing flexibility of FETD. The proposed hybrid method allows the FETD mesh and the FDTD grid to be nonconformal based on domain decomposition technique. It implements the hybridization with a buffer zone, which functions as a transition region between FDTD and FETD. The buffer zone helps the proposed hybrid method obviate the interpolation approach for field coupling of the nonconformal mesh and hence overcome the late-time instability issue. The discontinuous Galerkin method is utilized to couple different regions, thus improving the coupling accuracy compared with that using the Dirichlet boundary condition. Moreover, the hybrid method allows further division of the FETD region into multiple subdomains when the degrees of freedom in this region are large. For temporal discretization, a global leapfrog time integration scheme is implemented to sequentially update the fields in the FDTD, buffer, and FETD regions. The numerical results are shown to demonstrate the meshing flexibility and computational efficiency of the proposed hybrid method inherited from FETD and FDTD methods.
Autors: Qingtao Sun;Qiang Ren;Qiwei Zhan;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3682 - 3688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-inch GaN-on-Diamond HEMTs With Device-First Transfer Technology
Abstract:
Based on a device-first transfer process, a 3-inch polycrystalline diamond substrate is bonded within of the junction in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) to enhance heat removal of the high-power RF devices. Highly preserved electrical performance is demonstrated by comparison exactly on the same HEMT device prior and after substrate transfer. The residual compressive strain relaxation of the whole GaN epilayer does not reduce the 2-D electron gas sheet density. The dc characteristics show weakened self-heating in the GaN-on-diamond HEMT with maximum current density increasing from 968 to 1005 mA/mm. The power density increases from 4.8 to 5.5 W/mm with the PAE slightly reducing from 50.9% to 50.5%. On-wafer infrared measurement is performed on a 1.25-mm GaN HEMT at power dissipation of 10 W/mm, and the peak juncture temperature of the device decreases from 241 °C to 191 °C after transferring to the diamond substrate.
Autors: Tingting Liu;Yuechan Kong;Lishu Wu;Huaixin Guo;Jianjun Zhou;Cen Kong;Tangsheng Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1417 - 1420
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Virtual Simulation approach in Brazilian Vocational Education for Computers Network Adapted to Student Knowledge
Abstract:
This paper presents an experiment with real users in a realistic three-dimensional simulation tool manufacture and installation of computer networks. The study highlights the use of virtual simulators for vocational education applied technology courses, with the main focus on the upper reaches of Technology Analysis and Systems Development. The tests were performed microarray in vitro to determine the usability and functionality of the system, and behavioral tests to determine which system use ratio and the effectiveness of learning. The results showed that the use of simulators is relevant to the determination of the content and can reduce deployment costs and maintenance of a physical laboratory without prejudice to the teaching practice. An evaluation was carried out with students in class paired (with and without simulation). It follows that is propaedeutic use a simulation tool for the professional education of a higher level, virtual laboratories can provide a balanced sense of knowledge and low operating cost practice in addition to increasing the motivation of students
Autors: Eduardo Filgueiras Damasceno;Paulo Augusto Nardi;Adriane Karla Anastacio Silva;Jose Barbosa Dias Junior;Alexandre Cardoso;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 1917 - 1925
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4 $\times $ 10-Gb/s MIMO-Free Polarization and Mode Group Multiplexing for Data Center Applications
Abstract:
The -Gb/s polarization- and mode group-multiplexed transmission without multiple-input–multiple-output equalization for data center applications is experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, over a 127-m panda-type polarization-maintaining few-mode fiber. A polarization crosstalk of less than −22.0 dB and a bending loss of <0.08 dB for one loop with a 5-mm radius were achieved.
Autors: Wei Wang;Jian Zhao;Lin Zhang;Qi Mo;Zhiqun Yang;Chao Li;Zhen Wang;Zhenzhen Zhang;Christian Carboni;Guifang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:20, pages: 1711 - 1714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4H–SiC Avalanche Photodiode Linear Array Operating in Geiger Mode
Abstract:
In this study, a 50-pixel linear array of 4H–SiC ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes operating in Geiger mode is reported for the first time. The 50 pixels within the linear array are all capable of detecting single photons but with a small number of them suffering from extra leakage current near avalanche breakdown. The enhanced leakage is likely correlated with structural defects existing within the epitaxial structure, which would lead to higher dark count rate (DCR) at the same single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) in Geiger mode. For a low-leakage avalanche photodiode device within the linear array, a room temperature SPDE of 15.4% at 280 nm is obtained with a corresponding DCR of 2.5 Hz/μm2.
Autors: Lianghui Li;Dong Zhou;Hai Lu;Wenkai Liu;Xiaofan Mo;Fangfang Ren;Dunjun Chen;Ruiqi Wang;Guanglei Li;Rong Zhang;Youdou Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4H-SiC MOSFETs With Borosilicate Glass Gate Dielectric and Antimony Counter-Doping
Abstract:
In this letter, it is demonstrated that 4H-SiC MOSFETs with borosilicate glass (BSG) as the gate dielectric result in significantly higher channel mobility than standard nitride oxide annealed devices, due to lower density of near-interfacial traps at the BSG/SiC interface. Using a thin Antimony-doped surface layer in conjunction with the BSG dielectric results in higher channel mobility at room temperature. The field-effect channel mobility of such devices is found to be 180 at low transverse electric fields (close to threshold) and 94 at high fields (~2 MV/cm), which is about a factor of five higher than the state-of-the-art. This, along with a tunable threshold voltage, could make this approach very attractive for power MOSFET applications. However, the poor bias temperature instability of BSG is a big challenge for utilization of this dielectric.
Autors: Yongju Zheng;T. Isaacs-Smith;A. C. Ahyi;S. Dhar;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1433 - 1436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5 kW Near-Diffraction-Limited and 8 kW High-Brightness Monolithic Continuous Wave Fiber Lasers Directly Pumped by Laser Diodes
Abstract:
Tandem pumping technique are traditionally adopted to develop >3-kW continuous-wave (cw) Yb3+-doped fiber lasers, which are usually pumped by other fiber lasers at shorter wavelengths (1018 nm e.g.,). Fiber lasers directly pumped by laser diodes have higher wall-plug efficiency and are more compact. Here we report two high brightness monolithic cw fiber laser sources at 1080 nm. Both lasers consist of a cw fiber laser oscillator and one laser-diode pumped double cladding fiber amplifier in the master oscillator-power amplifier configuration. One laser, using 30-μm-core Yb3+-doped fiber as the gain medium, can produce >5-kW average laser power with near diffraction-limited beam quality (M2<1.8). The slope efficiency of the fiber amplifier with respect to the launched pump power reached 86.5%. The other laser utilized 50-μm-core Yb3+-doped fiber as the gain medium and produced >8-kW average laser power with high beam quality (M2: ∼ 4). The slope efficiency of the fiber amplifier with respect to the launched pump power reach 83%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report for >5-kW near-diffraction-limited and >8-kW high-brightness monolithic fiber lasers directly pumped by laser diodes.
Autors: Qiang Fang;Jinhui Li;Wei Shi;Yuguo Qin;Yang Xu;Xiangjie Meng;Robert A. Norwood;Nasser Peyghambarian;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 500 °C High Current 4H-SiC Lateral BJTs for High-Temperature Integrated Circuits
Abstract:
High-current 4H-SiC lateral BJTs for high-temperature monolithic integrated circuits are fabricated. The BJTs have three different sizes and the designs are optimized in terms of emitter finger width and length and the device layout to have higher current density (JC), lower on-resistance (RON), and more uniform current distribution. A maximum current gain () of >53 at significantly high current density was achieved for different sizes of SiC BJTs. The BJTs are measured from room temperature to 500 °C. An open-base breakdown voltage (VCEO) of >50 V is measured for the devices.
Autors: Hossein Elahipanah;Saleh Kargarrazi;Arash Salemi;Mikael Östling;Carl-Mikael Zetterling;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1429 - 1432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 500 years of humanoid robots automata have been around longer than you think [Resources_Review]
Abstract:
When science fiction critics Eric S. Rabkin and Robert E. Scholes argued in the 1970s that "no one would go through the trouble of building and maintaining a robot to hand wash clothes or pick up the telephone receiver," they were apparently unaware that Japanese researchers had already made a long-term commitment to develop humanoid robots that could do exactly that. The goal was to care for the elderly in the 21st century. To this end, throughout the 1980s and 1990s, industrial giants Honda, Mitsubishi, and Toyota, as well as university research labs around the world, began demonstrating humanoid prototypes. More recently, the desire to operate in disaster sites like Fukushima has motivated even more researchers to explore humanoid designs.
Autors: Lisa Nocks;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 54, issue:10, pages: 18 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Mobile Cellular Networks: Enabling Distributed State Estimation for Smart Grids
Abstract:
With the transition toward 5G, mobile cellular networks are evolving into a powerful platform for ubiquitous large-scale information acquisition, communication, storage, and processing. 5G will provide suitable services for mission-critical and real-time applications such as the ones envisioned in future smart grids. In this work, we show how the emerging 5G mobile cellular network, with its evolution of machine-type communications and the concept of mobile edge computing, provides an adequate environment for distributed monitoring and control tasks in smart grids. In particular, we present in detail how smart grids could benefit from advanced distributed state estimation methods placed within the 5G environment. We present an overview of emerging distributed state estimation solutions, focusing on those based on distributed optimization and probabilistic graphical models, and investigate their integration as part of the future 5G smart grid services.
Autors: Mirsad Cosovic;Achilleas Tsitsimelis;Dejan Vukobratovic;Javier Matamoros;Carles Anton-Haro;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 62 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60-dB SNDR 100-MS/s SAR ADCs With Threshold Reconfigurable Reference Error Calibration
Abstract:
This paper presents a reference error calibration scheme for successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) verified with two prototypes. Such a reference error often occurs in high-speed SAR ADCs due to the signal dependent fast switching transient, and leads to a large differential nonlinearity and missing codes, eventually degrading conversion accuracy. The calibration concept aims to differentiate the error outputs and correct them by simply performing a subtraction in the digital domain. It runs in the background with a little hardware overhead, and does not depend on the type of the input signal or reduce the dynamic range. Two prototypes were measured which are made up of different reference generation circuits. Design #1 has the reference voltage from off-chip and a 3-pF decoupling capacitor on-chip, while design #2 includes an on-chip reference buffer. Both designs were fabricated in 65-nm CMOS and achieve at least 9-dB improvement on signal-to-(Noise + Distortion) ratio (SNDR) after calibration. The total core area is around 0.012 mm2 for both chips and the Nyquist SNDR of designs #1 and #2 is 59.03 and 57.93 dB, respectively.
Autors: Chi-Hang Chan;Yan Zhu;Cheng Li;Wai-Hong Zhang;Iok-Meng Ho;Lai Wei;Seng-Pan U;Rui Paulo Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2576 - 2588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 830-nm InGaAs Quantum Well Lasers With Very Low Beam Divergence
Abstract:
We report on our design and fabrication of 830-nm high-power semiconductor lasers with very low beam divergence. Here, we propose a novel approach in which by combining asymmetric waveguide and a feature called “pins” together, we were able to design an optimize epi structure, which not only produces a beam divergence of less than 16°, which is measured at the full width at the half maximum, but also has very good growth tolerance as well. Device test shows the beam divergence is as small as 13°, yet they still retain high slope efficiency of around 1.15 W/A and low threshold current of 400 mA for the devices with cavity length being 2 mm long, and ridge width being 40 μm wide.
Autors: Bocang Qiu;Hai Martin Hu;Weimin Wang;James Ho;Wenbin Liu;Langxing Kuang;Taishan Wang;Shujuan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chase: Taming Concurrent Broadcast for Flooding in Asynchronous Duty Cycle Networks
Abstract:
Asynchronous duty cycle is widely used for energy constraint wireless nodes to save energy. The basic flooding service in asynchronous duty cycle networks, however, is still far from efficient due to severe packet collisions and contentions. We present Chase, an efficient and fully distributed concurrent broadcast layer for flooding in asynchronous duty cycle networks. The main idea of Chase is to meet the strict signal time and strength requirements (e.g., Capture Effect) for concurrent broadcast while reducing contentions and collisions. We propose a distributed random inter-preamble packet interval adjustment approach to constructively satisfy the requirements. Even when requirements cannot be satisfied due to physical constraints (e.g., the difference of signal strength is less than a 3 dB), we propose a lightweight signal pattern recognition-based approach to identify such a circumstance and extend radio-on time for packet delivery. We implement Chase in TinyOS with TelosB nodes and extensively evaluate its performance. The implementation does not have any specific requirement on the hardware and can be easily extended to other platforms. The evaluation results also show that Chase can significantly improve flooding efficiency in asynchronous duty cycle networks.
Autors: Zhichao Cao;Daibo Liu;Jiliang Wang;Xiaolong Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 2872 - 2885
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DeAMON: A Decentralized Adaptive Multi-Hop Scheduling Protocol for 6TiSCH Wireless Networks
Abstract:
The IEEE 802.15.4-2015 standard provides a link-layer mechanism, based on time synchronized channel hopping (TSCH), to enable deterministic low-power wireless mesh networking. The emerging IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH (6TiSCH) working group aims at harmonizing an IP-enabled protocol stack with the IEEE 802.15.4e link layer. In 802.15.4-TSCH medium access control, nodes follow a communication schedule; however, the standard does not specify any scheduling policy. Therefore, a number of recent studies have investigated scheduling mechanisms for 6TiSCH wireless networks. This paper introduces DeAMON, which is decentralized adaptive multi-hop scheduling protocol for 6TiSCH wireless networks. The key features of DeAMON include traffic-awareness, sequential scheduling, parallel transmissions, robust over-provisioning, and adaptability to topology changes. Moreover, DeAMON incurs minimal signaling overhead. Performance evaluation demonstrates that DeAMON outperforms state-of-the-art distributed scheduling protocols in terms of reliability, latency, and resource utilization.
Autors: Adnan Aijaz;Usman Raza;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6825 - 6836
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Test of Thickness and Sheet Resistance of Conductive Nanomaterial Using Microwave Cavity
Abstract:
Both thickness and sheet resistance of conductive nanomaterial deposited on glass substrate have been simultaneously measured using the TE011 mode cavity method. Measurements have been performed in two cavities with resonant frequency of ~10.8 and ~17.7 GHz, respectively. Measurement errors of thickness and sheet resistance can reach below 10%. Compared to existing methods, the presented method does not require prior knowledge on either film thickness or conductivity; what is more, by using the film as one of the end plates of the cavity, this method is noncontact and has little requirements on sample shape. These advantages suggest that the presented method has potential to be used in situ of monitoring the metal film characteristics such as that in microelectronic fabrication industry.
Autors: Ming Ye;Lu Wang;Yongning He;Mojgan Daneshmand;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 942 - 944
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Manipulation of Single Biological Cells With an Optical Tweezers-Based Manipulator and a Disturbance Compensation Controller
Abstract:
In vivo manipulation of biological cells has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This process is particularly useful for precision medicine, such as cancer target therapy. Robotics technology is becoming necessary to stably and effectively manipulate and control single target cells in a complex in vivo environment. This paper presents a robot-aided optical tweezers-based manipulation technology that serves a function in the transport of single biological cells in vivo. An enhanced disturbance compensation controller is developed to minimize the effect of fluids (e.g., blood flow) on the cell. The method has exhibited advantages of flexibility in adjusting cell tracking trajectory online and the capability to minimize steady-state error and eliminate overshoot. Simulations and experiments of tracking single target cells in living zebrafish embryos have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a dynamic in vivo environment.
Autors: Xiaojian Li;Chichi Liu;Shuxun Chen;Yong Wang;Shuk Han Cheng;Dong Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1200 - 1212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.016 mm2 12 b $\Delta \Sigma $ SAR With 14 fJ/conv. for Ultra Low Power Biosensor Arrays
Abstract:
The instrumentation systems for implantable brain–machine interfaces represent one of the most demanding applications for ultra low-power analogue-to-digital-converters (ADC) to date. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a SAR topology for very large sensor arrays that allows an exceptional reduction in silicon footprint by using a continuous time 0–2MASH topology. This configuration uses a specialized FIR window to decimate the modulator output and reject mismatch errors from the SAR quantizer, which mitigates the overhead from dynamic element matching techniques commonly used to achieve high precision. A fully differential prototype was fabricated using m CMOS to demonstrate 10.8 ENOB precision with a 0.016 mm2 silicon footprint. Moreover, a 14fJ/conv figure-of-merit can be achieved, while resolving signals with the maximum input amplitude of ±1.2 Vpp sampled at 200 kS/s. The ADC topology exhibits a number of promising characteristics for both high speed and ultra low-power systems due to the reduced complexity, switching noise, sampling load, and oversampling ratio, which are critical parameters for many sensor applications.
Autors: Lieuwe B. Leene;Timothy G. Constandinou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2655 - 2665
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.1-mW Ground Effect-Resilient Body-Coupled Communication Transceiver With Pseudo OFDM for Head and Body Area Network
Abstract:
This paper presents a body-coupled communication (BCC) transceiver (TRX) that mitigates all the practical impairments of the body channel at once. The proposed pseudo orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (P-OFDM) TRX combines baseband BPSK–OFDM with frequency-shift keying (FSK) to alleviate the impacts of variable ground effect and variable skin-electrode contact impedance, which have been the two major issues on the BCC. It can tolerate up to 20 dB of channel gain variation with measured bit error rate improvement of >70% compared to FSK modulation alone. The RC relaxed contact impedance monitor continuously monitors and compensates the variable skin-electrode contact impedance at both transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). The proposed power-gated 8-point inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform with no floating-point multipliers (FPMs) reduces the gate count and power by 54% and 30% compared to conventional FPMs, respectively. Additionally, the simple floating-point adder (FPA) reduces the gate count and energy consumption by 34% and 20% compared to conventional FPAs, respectively. A high input impedance glitch-free FSK demodulation RX with variable threshold limiter and all digital cycle correction is also proposed to support a scalable data rate (200 Kbps–2 Mbps). The 0.54 mm2 TRX in 65-nm CMOS consumes 1.1 mW.
Autors: Wala Saadeh;Muhammad Awais Bin Altaf;Haneen Alsuradi;Jerald Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2690 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.62–5.4-Gb/s Receiver for DisplayPort Version 1.2a With Adaptive Equalization and Referenceless Frequency Acquisition Techniques
Abstract:
We present a 1.62–5.4-Gb/s receiver for DisplayPort version 1.2a and propose an adaptive equalizer (EQ) with a peak-level comparison technique for eye measurement. A single comparator and an up/down unmatched-current charge pump are used to realize a simpler EQ architecture with low power dissipation. A referenceless frequency acquisition technique is also proposed. A time-to-digital converter-based pulsewidth detector supports the referenceless frequency acquisition within the range of 1.62–5.4 Gb/s. An XOR-gate-embedded charge pump and a half-rate linear phase detector were used to improve the jitter tolerance (JTOL) performance. The measured eye opening of the proposed EQ at 5.4 Gb/s was 0.68 UI with a −20-dB loss channel. The proposed receiver passed all the JTOL tests of the DisplayPort compliance specification version 1.2b. The power consumption of the receiver was 36.8 mW at 5.4 Gb/s. The receiver occupied a core area of 0.265 mm2 using 65-nm CMOS process technology.
Autors: Sewook Hwang;Junyoung Song;Yeonho Lee;Chulwoo Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2691 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.9-mW 750-kb/s 2.4-GHz F-OOK Transmitter With Symmetric FM Template and High-Point Modulation PLL
Abstract:
This paper describes a frequency-domain on-off keying (F-OOK) modulation method which utilizes power detection of both a carrier and a sideband by modulating the carrier frequency with a pre-selected modulation template. Compared to on-off keying and binary frequency-shift keying modulations, more efficient bandwidth control is achieved for the same data rate with a symmetric FM template. Since the proposed modulation maintains the average center frequency of the carrier regardless of data pattern, the F-OOK signal can be generated by using only the high-pass modulation path of the conventional phase-locked loop-based two-point modulator, thus relaxing design complexity. A prototype transmitter implemented in 65-nm CMOS consumes 1.9 mW from a 0.8-V supply with a data rate of 750 kb/s, achieving an energy efficiency of 2.5 nJ/b.
Autors: Yining Zhang;Ranran Zhou;Woogeun Rhee;Zhihua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2627 - 2635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b 800-MS/s Time-Interleaved SAR ADC With Fast Variance-Based Timing-Skew Calibration
Abstract:
This paper presents a time-interleaved (TI) SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a fast variance-based timing-skew calibration technique. It uses a single-comparator-based window detector (WD) to calibrate the timing skew. The WD can suppress variance estimation errors and allow precise variance estimation from a significantly small number of samples. It has low-hardware cost and orders of magnitude faster convergence speed compared to prior variance-based timing-skew calibration technique. The proposed technique brings collateral benefit of offset mismatch calibration. After timing-skew calibration, a prototype 10-b 800-MS/s ADC in 40-nm CMOS achieves the Nyquist-rate SNDR of 48 dB and consumes 4.9 mW, leading to the Walden FoM of 29.8-fJ/conversion step.
Autors: Jeonggoo Song;Kareem Ragab;Xiyuan Tang;Nan Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2563 - 2575
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 120-kV, 5-kA Multipurpose Pulsed-Power Generator Using a Semiconductor Switch and Magnetic Pulse Compression
Abstract:
This paper describes a high-frequency pulsed-power generator for various industrial applications such as water treatment, food and medical apparatus for sterilization, or polluted gas treatment. The system is made of silicon-controlled rectifier as a main trigger switch, capacitors, two-stage magnetic pulse compression stages, and a linear transformer to generate a maximum of 120-kV, 5-kA pulse. The parameters obtained through the development are: output voltage: 120 kV (maximum), pulse repetition ration: 300 pulse per second, pulsewidth: , and mean power: 30 kW. The designed pulsed-power generator is confirmed to be used effectively for many high-voltage pulsed-power applications related to environmental industry by simulation and experiments.
Autors: Sung Roc Jang;Geun Hie Rim;Chan Gi Cho;Seung Ho Song;Su Mi Park;Hong Je Ryoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2678 - 2682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 17.4-b Delta-Sigma Capacitance-to-Digital Converter for One-Terminal Capacitive Sensors
Abstract:
In this brief, we present a capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) for one-terminal capacitive sensors. The designed CDC implements a digital correction technique to reduce nonidealities and noises, such as the offset, 1/f noise, and power supply noise. This correction technique can also minimize effectively the complexity of the analog front-end circuit. All sensor functions, including analog circuits (delta-sigma CDC, bandgap reference, and voltage regulator) and digital logics (microprocessor, memories, and interface logics), are integrated into a single chip and occupy approximately 90% of the area. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18- standard CMOS process, which does not have a deep n-well stage. The analog and digital circuits, including the digital input/output pads, must share the same substrate in this design. However, the measurement results demonstrate highly effective resolutions of 16 to 17.4 b, which are achieved with different conversion times.
Autors: Youngjae Jung;Quanzhen Duan;Jeongjin Roh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1122 - 1126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 17.5-fJ/bit Energy-Efficient Analog SRAM for Mixed-Signal Processing
Abstract:
An energy-efficient analog SRAM (A-SRAM) is proposed to eliminate redundant analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) conversion in mixed-signal systems, such as neuromorphic chips and neural networks. D/A conversion is integrated into the SRAM readout by charge sharing of the proposed split bitline (BL). Also, A/D conversion is integrated into the SRAM write operation with the successive approximation method in the proposed input–output block. Also, a configurable SRAM bitcell array is proposed to allocate the converted digital data without unfilled bitcells. The multirow access decoder selects multiple bitcells in a single column and configures the bitcell array by controlling the BL switches to split BLs. The proposed A-SRAM is implemented using the 65-nm CMOS technology. It achieves 17.5-fJ/bit energy-efficiency and 21-Gbit/s throughput for the analog readout, which are 64% and 1.3 times better than those of the conventional SRAM followed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Also, the area is reduced by 91% compared with the conventional SRAM with analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and DAC.
Autors: Jinsu Lee;Dongjoo Shin;Youchang Kim;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2714 - 2723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 170-GHz Fully Integrated Single-Chip FMCW Imaging Radar with 3-D Imaging Capability
Abstract:
A 170-GHz fully integrated single-chip heterodyne frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) imaging radar using a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology ( GHz) is reported. This system demonstrates a wide bandwidth of 27.5 GHz (16.3%) at a center frequency of 168 GHz. A design methodology to maximize the tuning range of the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is presented. A co-design of the VCO, coupler, and antenna is performed to minimize the chip area and the dc power consumption. The transmitter radiates a peak power of −1 dBm with a dc-to-RF efficiency of 1.42%. At the receiver side, a subharmonic mixer is used for signal down-conversion. The system achieves a measured sensitivity of 87 fW with a total dc power consumption of 67 mW. The prototype is capable of forming 2-D and 3-D images with a range resolution of 7 mm. To the best of our knowledge, this fully integrated imaging radar demonstrates the highest sensitivity and radiation efficiency among all imaging systems around 200 GHz. Moreover, the system is capable of practical 2-D and 3-D imaging with significantly lower dc power consumption compared to the state-of-the-art FMCW radars.
Autors: Ali Mostajeran;Andreia Cathelin;Ehsan Afshari;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2721 - 2734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-Gb/s/ch Data-Dependent Swing-Limited On-Chip Signaling for Single-Ended Global I/O in SDRAM
Abstract:
This brief proposes a data-dependent swing-limited on-chip signaling for single-ended global I/O in the SDRAM in a 0.13- CMOS technology. The SDRAM has multiple global I/O lines for sending and receiving data, which results in a large delay deviation owing to the multi-drop bus topology and a large RC load. Minimizing the delay and its deviation improves the speed of the SDRAM. With the proposed technique, the maximum speed is 2 Gb/s/ch, which is increased by more than 120% under the same channel condition. The power consumption is also reduced compared to that of the conventional scheme; the energy efficiency is 104 fJ/b/mm, respectively.
Autors: Jungtaek You;Junyoung Song;Chulwoo Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1207 - 1211
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-GS/s 8-bit Time-Interleaved SAR ADC for Millimeter-Wave Pulsed Radar Baseband SoC
Abstract:
This paper presents a 2-GS/s 8-bit 16 time-interleaved (TI) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for a millimeter-wave pulsed radar baseband system-on-chip (SoC). To suppress sampling timing errors among sub-ADCs, a foreground timing-skew calibration technique with small additional circuits is proposed. Measured spurious-free dynamic range and signal-to-noise distortion ratio at 1-GHz full Nyquist is, therefore, enhanced by 16 and 11 dB, respectively. Unlike conventional calibration techniques based on redundant ADCs or complicated digital calculations, additional circuit components are only several small resistors and a capacitor, resulting in only 0.4% area penalty. This area saving enables the compact integration of the radar baseband SoC with digital beamforming, where eight-channel TI-ADCs occupy the dominant chip area otherwise. Even though this is foreground, no system performance is sacrificed because the calibration sequence is closed loop and fast enough to be executed during an existing calibration interval in a periodic beam transmission sequence. The TI-ADCs are embedded on industrial SoC in a 40-nm CMOS process. The power consumption including the input buffer and the reference buffer is 54.2 mW from a 1.1-V supply, and figure of merit is 355 fJ/conversion step.
Autors: Takuji Miki;Toshiaki Ozeki;Jun-ichi Naka;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2712 - 2720
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Printed Ti-6Al-4V 3-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism for High Precision Manipulation
Abstract:
This paper presents the synthesis and evaluation of a 3-D printed three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) spatial-motion compliant parallel mechanism (CPM). The CPM was synthesized by the beam-based structural optimization method and a prototype was fabricated by the electron beam melting (EBM) technology with Ti6Al4V material. The mechanical characteristics of 3-D printed compliant mechanism for precision applications, i.e., stiffness property, dynamic response, and large elastic deformation, were experimentally evaluated. Most importantly, a coefficient factor of 1.27 was proposed to determine the effective thickness for 3-D printed compliant mechanisms with 0.5 mm thick flexures. Using the effective thickness, the characteristics of the 3-D printed CPM have shown to agree with the prediction, with a maximum deviation of 10.5%. The Ti6Al4V CPM is able to achieve the large work range up to 4 mm of linear displacement, 6 degrees of angular displacements, fast dynamic response of 119 Hz, good decoupled motions, and high non-actuating stiffness. A 3-DOF manipulator was built based on the 3-D printed CPM and actuated by three voice-coil motors. Experimental results have shown that the 3-DOF manipulator could achieve repeatable motions with resolution of 20 nm for the translation along the Z-axis, 0.14 arcsecond for the rotation about the X-axis, and 0.12 arcsecond for the rotation about the Y-axis. In conclusion, EBM technology is suitable for fabricating compliant mechanisms in precision manipulator systems; the mechanical characteristics of 3-D printed compliant mechanisms are predictable when an effective thickness is used.
Autors: Minh Tuan Pham;Tat Joo Teo;Song Huat Yeo;Pan Wang;Mui Ling Sharon Nai;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2359 - 2368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3.9-ps RMS Precision Time-to-Digital Converter Using Ones-Counter Encoding Scheme in a Kintex-7 FPGA
Abstract:
A 3.9-ps time-interval rms precision and 277-M events/second measurement throughput time-to-digital converter (TDC) is implemented in a Xilinx Kintex-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA). Unlike previous work, the TDC is achieved with a multichain tapped-delay line (TDL) followed by an ones-counter encoder. The four normal TDLs merged together make the TDC bins very small, so that the time precision can be significantly improved. The ones-counter encoder naturally applies global bubble error correction to the output of TDL, thus the TDC design is relatively simple even when using FPGAs made with current advanced process technology. The TDC implementation is a generally applicable method that can simultaneously achieve high time precision and high measurement throughput.
Autors: Yonggang Wang;Jie Kuang;Chong Liu;Qiang Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2713 - 2718
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 32.75-Gb/s Voltage-Mode Transmitter With Three-Tap FFE in 16-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper describes a 32.75-Gb/s voltage-mode transmitter (TX) with three-tap feed forward equalization that is fabricated in a 16-nm FinFET CMOS technology. The TX uses a dual regulator architecture to allow independent control of output swing, output common-mode, and equalization. A hybrid impedance control scheme is presented where the total number of driver slices is used for coarse impedance control, and analog loop-based voltage control is used for fine impedance control of the TX. A finite-impulse response compensation circuit to compensate for the data dependent current due to equalization is also presented. The TX consumes 120.8 mW with 0.9- and 1.2-V supplies, provides 0.25–0.9 Vpp output swing, and achieves total jitter of 6.49 ps–pp and random jitter of 220 fs–rms at 32.75 Gb/s with bit error rate of 1e-12.
Autors: Kok Lim Chan;Kee Hian Tan;Yohan Frans;Jay Im;Parag Upadhyaya;Siok Wei Lim;Arianne Roldan;Nakul Narang;Chin Yang Koay;Hongyuan Zhao;Ping-Chuan Chiang;Ken Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2663 - 2678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.2-mW 77.1-dB SNDR 5-MHz BW DT 2-1 MASH $Delta Sigma $ Modulator With Multirate Opamp Sharing
Abstract:
This paper presents a discrete time 2-1 MASH Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) modulator with multirate opamp sharing for analog-to-digital converters, targeting the optimization of power efficiency in active blocks, such as opamps and quantizers. Through the allocation of different settling times to the opamps and by adopting the multirate technique, the power of the shared opamps is utilized more efficiently, and the 4-b successive approximation register quantizer and the data weighted averaging block in the first stage enjoy additional operation time. Moreover, a detailed analysis and related simulations are presented to validate the enhanced opamp power efficiency in the proposed sharing scheme. The 65-nm CMOS experimental chip running at multirate 120/240 MHz achieves a mean signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 77.1 dB for a 5-MHz bandwidth, consuming 4.2 mW from a 1.2 V supply and occupying 0.066-mm2 core area. It exhibits a Walden figure of merit (FoM) of 69.7 fJ/conv-step and a Schreier FoM of 167.9 dB based on SNDR.
Autors: Liang Qi;Sai-Weng Sin;Seng-Pan U;Franco Maloberti;Rui Paulo Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2641 - 2654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.2-mW 77.1-dB SNDR 5-MHz BW DT 2-1 MASH $\Delta \Sigma $ Modulator With Multirate Opamp Sharing
Abstract:
This paper presents a discrete time 2-1 MASH Delta-Sigma ( modulator with multirate opamp sharing for analog-to-digital converters, targeting the optimization of power efficiency in active blocks, such as opamps and quantizers. Through the allocation of different settling times to the opamps and by adopting the multirate technique, the power of the shared opamps is utilized more efficiently, and the 4-b successive approximation register quantizer and the data weighted averaging block in the first stage enjoy additional operation time. Moreover, a detailed analysis and related simulations are presented to validate the enhanced opamp power efficiency in the proposed sharing scheme. The 65-nm CMOS experimental chip running at multirate 120/240 MHz achieves a mean signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) of 77.1 dB for a 5-MHz bandwidth, consuming 4.2 mW from a 1.2 V supply and occupying 0.066-mm2 core area. It exhibits a Walden figure of merit (FoM) of 69.7 fJ/conv-step and a Schreier FoM of 167.9 dB based on SNDR.
Autors: Liang Qi;Sai-Weng Sin;Seng-Pan U;Franco Maloberti;Rui Paulo Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2641 - 2654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 41.3/26.7 pJ per Neuron Weight RBM Processor Supporting On-Chip Learning/Inference for IoT Applications
Abstract:
An energy-efficient restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) processor (RBM-P) supporting on-chip learning and inference is proposed for machine learning and Internet of Things (IoT) applications in this paper. To train a neural network (NN) model, the RBM structure is applied to supervised and unsupervised learning, and a multi-layer NN can be constructed and initialized by stacking multiple RBMs. Featuring NN model reduction for external memory bandwidth saving, low power neuron binarizer (LPNB) with dynamic clock gating and area-efficient NN-like activation function calculators for power reduction, user-defined connection map (UDCM) for both computation time and bandwidth saving, and early stopping (ES) mechanism for learning process, the proposed system integrates 32 RBM cores with maximal 4k neurons per layer and 128 candidates per sample for machine learning applications. Implemented in 65nm CMOS technology, the proposed RBM-P chip costs 2.2 M gates and 128 kB SRAM with 8.8 mm2 area. Operated at 1.2 V and 210 MHz, this chip achieves 7.53G neuron weights (NWs) and 11.63G NWs per second with 41.3 and 26.7 pJ per NW for learning and inference, respectively.
Autors: Chang-Hung Tsai;Wan-Ju Yu;Wing Hung Wong;Chen-Yi Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2601 - 2612
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 48-MHz Differential Crystal Oscillator With 168-fs Jitter in 28-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A 168-fs rms jitter, 48-MHz differential crystal oscillator based on a new active inductor biasing circuit achieves differential operation with low noise, power, and area overhead. This architecture has two significant advantages compared to the single-ended crystal oscillators that are normally used: 1) this circuit rejects power supply noise and interference which leads to lower jitter and 2) the crystal oscillator-induced spurious tones are smaller and therefore less detrimental to sensitive blocks (e.g., LNA) in RF radios. This paper theoretically analyzes the differential crystal oscillator and provides detailed design considerations. A prototype requires half the power and 80% less area than previously reported differential crystal oscillators. Implemented in a 28-nm LP CMOS process, it draws 1.5 mA from a 1-V supply and occupies 0.013 mm2.
Autors: Yashar Rajavi;Mohammad Mahdi Ghahramani;Alireza Khalili;Amirpouya Kavousian;Beomsup Kim;Michael P. Flynn;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2735 - 2745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-GHz Subsampling PLL-Based Spread-Spectrum Clock Generator by Calibrating the Frequency Deviation
Abstract:
This brief presents a spread-spectrum clock generator (SSCG) based on a subsampling phase-locked loop (SSPLL) by calibrating the spreading ratio. The proposed SSCG has a low jitter performance owing to the low in-band phase noise performance of the SSPLL. To achieve a spread-spectrum clocking, the direct voltage-controlled oscillator modulation method is used owing to the absence of a frequency divider. However, the spreading ratio () can be varied by process, voltage, and temperature variations. Automatic calibration technique is proposed for a 5000-ppm spreading ratio at 5 GHz. The proposed SSCG achieves a 21-dB electromagnetic interference reduction, has a −104-dBc/Hz phase noise at 200-kHz offset, and consumes 7 mW and occupies a 0.39-mm2 area in a 65-nm CMOS process.
Autors: Sang-Geun Bae;Gyungmin Kim;Chulwoo Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1132 - 1136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz CMOS Broadband Receiver With Digital Calibration, 20-to-75-dB Gain, and 5-dB Noise Figure
Abstract:
We present a 60-GHz broadband heterodyne receiver with digital calibration. In the LNA, the low-coupling coefficient transformer-based matching network and the tail switch technique are used to achieve broadband operation and increase the gain tuning range with well-defined gain steps, respectively. In the down-conversion mixer, the inductive peaking technique is employed to extend its bandwidth. In the demodulator, inverter-based stages are used to improve its gain and linearity performance. The receiver gain tuning and the I/Q mismatch calibration are achieved by utilizing digital gain control and phase tuning schemes. The measurement shows that the receiver achieves a 20-to-75-dB conversion gain, a 5-dB noise figure (NF), and a good gain flatness performance within the complete 60-GHz band (i.e., 57–66 GHz). Measured with a 60-GHz transmitter, the error vector magnitude (EVM) is better than 10% (−20 dB) in each single channel. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS, the receiver occupies a silicon area of 1.9 mm 0.7 mm (including all pads) and consumes 102.4-mW dc power.
Autors: Yuan Chai;Xiaokang Niu;Long He;Lianming Li;Tie Jun Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3989 - 4001
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65-nm ReRAM-Enabled Nonvolatile Processor With Time-Space Domain Adaption and Self-Write-Termination Achieving $> 4\times $ Faster Clock Frequency and $> 6\times $ Higher Restore Speed
Abstract:
With an ever-increasing demand for energy efficiency, processors with instant-on and zero leakage features are highly appreciated in energy harvesting as well as “normally off” applications. Recently, zero-standby power and fast switching nonvolatile processors (NVPs) have been proposed based on emerging nonvolatile memories (NVMs), such as ferroelectric RAM or spin-transfer-torque magnetic RAM. However, previous NVPs store all data to NVM upon every power interruption, resulting in high-energy consumption and degraded NVM endurance. This paper presents a 65-nm fully CMOS-logic-compatible ReRAM-based NVP supporting time-space domain adaption. It incorporates adaptive nonvolatile controller, nonvolatile flip-flops, and nonvolatile static random access memory (nvSRAM) with self-write termination. Data redundancy in both time and space domain is fully exploited to reduce store/restore time/energy and boost clock frequency. The NVP operates at >100 MHz and achieves 20 ns/0.45 nJ restore time/energy, realizing >6 and >6000 higher speed and energy efficiency of restore and >4 faster operating frequency compared with that of state of the art.
Autors: Zhibo Wang;Yongpan Liu;Albert Lee;Fang Su;Chieh-Pu Lo;Zhe Yuan;Jinyang Li;Chien-Chen Lin;Wei-Hao Chen;Hsiao-Yun Chiu;Wei-En Lin;Ya-Chin King;Chrong-Jung Lin;Pedram Khalili Amiri;Kang-Lung Wang;Meng-Fan Chang;Huazhong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2769 - 2785
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 7.9-GHz Transformer-Feedback Quadrature Oscillator With a Noise-Shifting Coupling Network
Abstract:
A noise-shifting coupling network is proposed for nonlinear passively coupled quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators (QVCOs). Both detailed analysis and circuit implementation demonstrate that the noise contribution by the coupling network can be minimized by re-aligning the phases of the noise modulation function and the impulse sensitivity function with a reduced magnitude. In addition, the QVCO with the proposed coupling network also incorporates the transformer-feedback technique to improve its performance in terms of phase noise, quadrature phase error, and low supply voltage. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, the QVCO prototype operating at 7.9-GHz measures phase noise at 10-MHz offset frequency of −143 dBc/Hz and minimum quadrature phase error of 0.23° while consuming 27.2 mW with a 0.8-V supply voltage.
Autors: Bingwei Jiang;Howard C. Luong;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2636 - 2646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 79-GHz 2 $\times $ 2 MIMO PMCW Radar SoC in 28-nm CMOS
Abstract:
In this paper, the concept of phase modulated MIMO radars is explained and demonstrated with a 28-nm CMOS fully integrated 79-GHz radar SoC. It includes two transmitters, two receivers, and the mm-wave frequency generation. The receivers’ outputs are digitized by on-chip ADCs and processed by a custom designed digital core, which performs correlation and accumulation with a pseudorandom sequence used in transmission. The SoC consumes 1 W to achieve 7.5 cm range resolution. A module with antennas allows for 5° resolution over ±60° elevation and azimuth scan in 22 code domain MIMO operation. A 44 MIMO system is also demonstrated by means of two SoCs mounted on the same module.
Autors: Davide Guermandi;Qixian Shi;Andy Dewilde;Veerle Derudder;Ubaid Ahmad;Annachiara Spagnolo;Ilja Ocket;André Bourdoux;Piet Wambacq;Jan Craninckx;Wim Van Thillo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2613 - 2626
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Band-Weighted Support Vector Machine Method for Hyperspectral Imagery Classification
Abstract:
A band-weighted support vector machine (BWSVM) method is proposed to classify hyperspectral imagery (HSI). The BWSVM presents an L1 penalty term of band weight vector to regularize the regular SVM model. The L1 norm regularization term guarantees the sparsity of band weights and describes potentially divergent contributions from different bands in modeling the binary SVM model. The BWSVM adopts the KerNel iterative feature extraction algorithm to minimize the nonconvex program. It linearizes nonlinear kernels and iteratively optimizes two convex subproblems with respect to both sample coefficients and band weights. The class label is determined by picking the largest sample coefficients from all its binary models of BWSVM. Two popular HSI data sets are utilized to testify the classification performance of BWSVM. Experimental results show that the BWSVM outperforms three state-of-the-art classifiers including SVM, random forest, and k-nearest neighbor.
Autors: Weiwei Sun;Chun Liu;Yan Xu;Long Tian;Weiyue Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1710 - 1714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Benchmark Dataset for SSVEP-Based Brain–Computer Interfaces
Abstract:
This paper presents a benchmark steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) dataset acquired with a 40-target brain– computer interface (BCI) speller. The dataset consists of 64-channel Electroencephalogram (EEG) data from 35 healthy subjects (8 experienced and 27 naïve) while they performed a cue-guided target selecting task. The virtual keyboard of the speller was composed of 40 visual flickers, which were coded using a joint frequency and phase modulation (JFPM) approach. The stimulation frequencies ranged from 8 Hz to 15.8 Hz with an interval of 0.2 Hz. The phase difference between two adjacent frequencies was . For each subject, the data included six blocks of 40 trials corresponding to all 40 flickers indicated by a visual cue in a random order. The stimulation duration in each trial was five seconds. The dataset can be used as a benchmark dataset to compare the methods for stimulus coding and target identification in SSVEP-based BCIs. Through offline simulation, the dataset can be used to design new system diagrams and evaluate their BCI performance without collecting any new data. The dataset also provides high-quality data for computational modeling of SSVEPs. The dataset is freely available from http://bci.med.tsinghua.edu.cn/download.html.
Autors: Yijun Wang;Xiaogang Chen;Xiaorong Gao;Shangkai Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 1746 - 1752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bootstrapped PMHT with Feature Measurements
Abstract:
The probabilistic multi-hypothesis tracker (PMHT), a tracking algorithm of considerable theoretical elegance based on the expectation-maximization algorithm, will be considered for the problem of multiple target tracking with multiple sensors in clutter. In addition to position observations, continuous measurements associated with the unique, constant—and statistically unknown—feature of each target are incorporated to jointly estimate the states and features of the targets for the sake of tracking and classification, leading to a bootstrapped implementation of the PMHT. In addition, the information matrix for the stacked vector of states for all the targets at all the time steps during the observation time is derived.
Autors: Qin Lu;Katherine Domrese;Peter Willett;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Krishna Pattipati;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2559 - 2571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bridgeless Controlled Rectifier for Single Split-Phase Systems
Abstract:
An unidirectional single-phase three-wire rectifier is proposed in this paper. Such topology is composed of a noncontrolled leg, two controlled legs, and a capacitor bank. A suitable model, pulse-width modulation, and control strategies of the system are proposed as well. The control strategy includes the synchronization method, in which it imposes the grid currents with the same phase angle of the voltages generated by the rectifier. This method ensures sinusoidal grid currents and mitigates the zero-crossover distortions normally caused by the use of diodes. A comprehensive comparison with two conventional configurations is also presented in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are also presented for validation purposes.
Autors: Nustenil Segundo de Moraes Lima Marinus;Euzeli Cipriano dos Santos;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Nady Rocha;Nayara Brandão de Freitas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4708 - 4717
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Circular Polarizer Based on Cross-Shaped Composite Frequency Selective Surfaces
Abstract:
A cross-shaped composite with frequency selective surfaces is applied in the design of a broadband polarizer. The structure is multilayer, and the unit cell of each layer consists of a composite cross and a metal strip. The design takes advantage of both the similar amplitude and the stable phase difference of nearly 90° of the two orthogonal components of transmitted waves. The bandwidth of the polarizer reaches 74%, from 5.15 to 11.20 GHz, which is able to generate circular-polarization waves from incident linear waves. A sample polarizer is fabricated and tested. According to the measurement results, the polarizer operates from 5.75 to 11.20 GHz at normal incidence. In addition, its working frequency band can still cover the range of 5.80 to 11.00 GHz when the incident angle increases to 20°.
Autors: Wei Zhang;Jian-Ying Li;Jian Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5623 - 5627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband VHF/UHF-Loaded Dipole Antenna in the Vicinity of a Human Body
Abstract:
A broadband dipole antenna with a very simple low-cost mechanical structure is proposed. This dipole of the height of 173 cm with inductor/resistor (LR) loading circuits is designed to operate in the frequency range of 30–512 MHz—hence a 17:1 bandwidth (178%). By choosing the optimized location of LR loads, the radiation pattern is controlled. Meanwhile, the VSWR 1:3.5 is adjusted by an input matching circuit, tuning a number of LR loads, and using a transmission line transformer. The impedance matching is better than −6.5 dB in whole frequency bandwidth. The antenna gain is gradually increased from −20 dBi at 30 MHz to −2 dBi at 512 MHz. The manufactured prototype is presented along with its measured characteristics which map well onto software simulated counterparts. The antenna is considered to be used in portable applications. Therefore, the simulations and the measurements are conducted near the human body. A simple model of the adult human body at the frequency band of the proposed antenna is used, which helps to study the effects of the human on the antenna performance. Moreover, the electromagnetic exposure on the human body is investigated. Experimental evidence is presented to verify the conclusion.
Autors: N. Amani;A. Jafargholi;R. Pazoki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5577 - 5582
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband, Rectangular, and Self-Sustained Optical Frequency Comb Generation Employing Recirculation Frequency Shifter
Abstract:
To generate a self-sustained rectangular optical frequency comb (OFC) with tunable spacing and bandwidth, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme by using an optoelectronic oscillator employing recirculation frequency shifter (RFS) loop. In this scheme, the oscillating signal is separated to drive the Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM) in the oscillation loop and the inphase/quadrature modulator in the RFS loop separately. Then more than 50-tone OFCs, which have a rectangular spectral profile and the flatness better than 6 dB, are obtained with 8-GHz spacing and 10-GHz spacing by tuning the center frequency of the microwave filter respectively. Besides, the phase noise of the driving signals are both lower than 110 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency.
Autors: Jingliang Liu;Anni Liu;Jian Dai;Yue Zhou;Jianqiang Li;Yitang Dai;Feifei Yin;Kun Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Centralized UFLS Scheme Using Decision Trees For Small Isolated Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a centralized underfrequency load-shedding (UFLS) scheme using a decision tree to decide whether and how much load needs to be shed. UFLS schemes play an important role in protecting the integrity of small isolated power systems. Centralized UFLS schemes continuously measure and process critical system variables and act on the feeder breakers according to the system state. The decision determines the optimal amount of load to be shed by means of dichotomous tests applied to measured input variables related to the pre- and post-contingency state of the system. The applicability of the centralized UFLS scheme is shown for a Spanish small isolated power system.
Autors: David Lopez;Lukas Sigrist;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 1888 - 1893
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Circuit-Driven Design Methodology for a Circular Polarizer Based on Modified Jerusalem Cross Grids
Abstract:
This paper presents an accelerated methodology to design a circular polarizer based on modified Jerusalem cross unit cells. The proposed three-layer planar polarizer features a high transparency to both TE and TM polarized fields while providing a quadrature phase difference between them, as required for the generation of circularly polarized fields. The structure is designed employing a circuit-driven approach in which two independent equivalent circuits describe the behavior of TE and TM modes through the polarizer. Featuring a unit cell volume of , the polarizer offers axial ratios of less than 3 and 1 dB over 20% and 7% bandwidths around 20 GHz, respectively, with an insertion loss less than 0.4 dB. Full-wave numerical simulations and experimental measurements verify not only the performance of the proposed polarizer but also the accuracy of the circuit-driven approach and its ability as a design tool.
Autors: Mehdi Hosseini;Sean Victor Hum;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5322 - 5331
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Clustering Algorithm for Communication-Aware Scheduling of Task Graphs on Multi-Core Reconfigurable Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, a clustering algorithm called the Reconfigurable Dominant Sequence Clustering (ReDSC), is proposed. The experiments show that ReDSC reduces the parallel run time efficiently by 30 percent. Moreover, an empirical comparison of ReDSC with its peer in the multi-processor model, i.e., DSC algorithm, is provided and the results demonstrate the 35 percent improvement of ReDSC over DSC. Then, a hardware implementation of a dynamic scheduler for run-time communication-aware scheduling of hardware tasks is proposed. The proposed scheduler makes use of the ReDSC algorithm for allocating tasks to the processing reconfigurable cores, dynamically considering the communication costs. The simulation results illustrate the benefits of the proposed scheduler as compared to that of other static and basic schedulers in the technical literature.
Autors: Amin Yoosefi;Hamid Reza Naji;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2718 - 2732
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Front-End With Integrated Magnetoresistive Sensors for Biomolecular Recognition Detection Applications
Abstract:
The development of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors has demonstrated significant advantages in nanomedicine, particularly for ultrasensitive point-of-care diagnostics. To this end, the detection system is required to be compact, portable, and low power consuming at the same time that a maximum signal to noise ratio is maintained. This paper reports a CMOS front-end with integrated magnetoresistive sensors for biomolecular recognition detection applications. Based on the characterization of the GMR sensor's signal and noise, CMOS building blocks (i.e., current source, multiplexers, and preamplifier) were designed targeting a negligible noise when compared with the GMR sensor's noise and a low power consumption. The CMOS front-end was fabricated using AMS technology and the magnetoresistive sensors were post-fabricated on top of the CMOS chip with high yield (). Due to its low circuit noise (16 ) and overall equivalent magnetic noise (), the full system was able to detect 250 nm magnetic nanoparticles with a circuit imposed signal-to-noise ratio degradation of only 1.4 dB. Furthermore, the low power consumption (6.5 mW) and small dimensions () of the presented solution guarantees the portability of the detection system allowing its usage at the point-of-care.
Autors: Tiago Costa;Filipe A. Cardoso;José Germano;Paulo P. Freitas;Moisés S. Piedade;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 988 - 1000
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Frontend for Scintillators Readout by Photodiodes for Nuclear Physics Experiments
Abstract:
We designed a CMOS frontend for the readout of scintillators coupled with silicon photodiodes for nuclear physics experiments. The preamplifier features a continuous-reset feedback and an input pMOS transistor. The designed input dynamic range is 90-MeV silicon equivalent. The frontend has been integrated in single channel and multichannel versions up to 16-channel application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in the C35B4C3 AMS technology. The measured integral-non-linearity over the whole dynamic range is below 0.5%. The intrinsic rise time (10%–90%) of the preamplifier is of the order of 3 ns over the entire dynamic range and is below 50 ns when coupled with a 130-pF photodiode. We qualified the spectroscopic performance by acquiring spectra of a mixed nuclei source and of different sources (137Cs and 60Co) with a CsI(Tl) scintillator crystal coupled with a silicon p-i-n diode 300--thick readout by the developed ASIC.
Autors: A. Castoldi;C. Guazzoni;T. Parsani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2678 - 2682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Eulerian-Lagrangian Data Representation for Large-Scale Applications
Abstract:
The Eulerian and Lagrangian reference frames each provide a unique perspective when studying and visualizing results from scientific systems. As a result, many large-scale simulations produce data in both formats, and analysis tasks that simultaneously utilize information from both representations are becoming increasingly popular. However, due to their fundamentally different nature, drawing correlations between these data formats is a computationally difficult task, especially in a large-scale setting. In this work, we present a new data representation which combines both reference frames into a joint Eulerian-Lagrangian format. By reorganizing Lagrangian information according to the Eulerian simulation grid into a “unit cell” based approach, we can provide an efficient out-of-core means of sampling, querying, and operating with both representations simultaneously. We also extend this design to generate multi-resolution subsets of the full data to suit the viewer’s needs and provide a fast flow-aware trajectory construction scheme. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using three large-scale real world scientific datasets and provide insight into the types of performance gains that can be achieved.
Autors: Franz Sauer;Jinrong Xie;Kwan-Liu Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2248 - 2261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Bandpass Wilkinson Power Divider With Ultra-Wide Band Harmonic Suppression
Abstract:
A Wilkinson power divider (WPD) with bandpass property and an ultra-wide band harmonic suppression is proposed in this letter. The frequency-selecting coupling structure is embedded to the conventional quarter-wavelength transmission line, which can realize an ultra-wide harmonic suppression with three transmission zeros. Short-ended meander line stubs are shunted at the both output ports for dc block and provide an extra transmission zero for the passband. The proposed WPD operates with a −20 dB bandwidth from 1.74 to 3.71 GHz with an ultra-wide stopband to suppress the dc, , , and harmonic components. The proposed WPD has a compact size of 14.65 mm mm (.
Autors: Yang Wang;Xiao-Yu Zhang;Fu-Xing Liu;Jong-Chul Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 888 - 890
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Gate Control and Voltage-Balancing Circuit for Series-Connected SiC MOSFETs and Its Application in a DC Breaker
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel compact circuit combining function of gate control and voltage balancing for series-connected silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Two series-connected SiC MOSFETs with the proposed circuit only require a single standard gate driver to achieve the gate control and voltage balancing during both steady-state and switching transition. Moreover, the proposed circuit is only composed of ten passive components. Therefore, the proposed circuit provides a low-cost and highly reliable method to increase the blocking voltage of the SiC MOSFET. The operation principles of the proposed circuit are theoretically analyzed. In addition, the high-blocking-voltage device is not only required in switching-mode power supply (SMPS) but also in dc-breaker applications. The proposed circuit is then modified to make it suitable to the dc-breaker applications. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed circuit in both SMPS and dc-breaker applications.
Autors: Yu Ren;Xu Yang;Fan Zhang;Kangping Wang;Wenjie Chen;Laili Wang;Yunqing Pei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8299 - 8309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Model with Spin-Polarization Asymmetry for Nanoscaled Perpendicular MTJs
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to introduce a compact model for perpendicular spin-transfer torque (STT)-magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) implemented in Verilog-A to assure easy integration with electrical circuit simulators. It takes into account the effects of voltage-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, temperature-dependent parameters, thermal heating/cooling, MTJ process variations, and the spin-torque asymmetry of the Slonczewski spin-polarization function in the switching process. This translates into a comprehensive modeling that was adopted to investigate the writing performance under voltage scaling of a STT- magnetic random access memory array implemented at three different technology nodes. Obtained results show that scaling from 30- to 20-nm node allows a write energy saving of about 43%, while the supply voltage that assures the minimum-energy write operation increases.
Autors: Raffaele De Rose;Marco Lanuzza;Massimiliano d’Aquino;Greta Carangelo;Giovanni Finocchio;Felice Crupi;Mario Carpentieri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4346 - 4353
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Analysis on Fully Integrated Spectral Broadening of Kerr Frequency Combs
Abstract:
Microresonator-based frequency combs have potential to achieve on-chip frequency metrology. To obtain high-power comb lines at f and 2f for self-referenced stabilization, we evaluate the feasibility of building a fully integrated comb generator with spectral broadening. Comparing two types of nonlinear waveguides based on Si and chalcogenides, we find that the system feasibility relies on integrated waveguide amplifiers. If with a high-gain amplifier, a dispersion-engineered chalcogenide waveguide is preferred. Otherwise, an Si waveguide performs better. Considering the immaturity of both on-chip amplification technologies for ultrafast pulses and hybrid integration of multiple nonlinear materials, it could be concluded that in near future it is not practical to achieve fully on-chip f-2f self-referenced comb stabilization via subsequent spectral broadening of a Kerr frequency comb. Alternatively, direct generation of octave-spanning Kerr combs via dispersion engineering still remains attractive.
Autors: Jing Wang;Yuhao Guo;Henan Liu;Guifang Li;Lin Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compliant 3-Axis Fiber-Optic Force Sensor for Biomechanical Measurement
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of a flexible, multi-axis, intensity modulated-based fiber-optic force sensor for concurrently measuring normal and shear forces. The proposed sensor was prototyped to measure the three force components by monitoring the variation of the light intensity induced by a deformation as a result of the applied force. One end of the sensor incorporates three orthogonal reflective planes. The other end brings three pairs of fibers; one fiber connected to an LED, and the other to a light-to-voltage (LTV) converter in each pair. Upon the application of the force, the distance between the planes and the fiber tips changes, thus, the LTV voltage changes, enabling the simultaneous measurement of forces along three normal axes utilizing only one set of force measurement unit. The fabricated sensor was tested in both static and dynamic loading conditions as the experimental results have confirmed that the prototype has the capability to accurately measure the normal and shear forces in real time ranging from 0 to 1000 N and 0 to 140 N along the z, x, and y axes, respectively. The feasible applications of the sensor are ground reaction force measurements and robot–human collision detection. Sensor performance was evaluated for the cross-talk effects, which were found to be less than 5%. A nonlinear Hammerstein–Winer model is proposed to characterize the linear and nonlinear behavior of the sensor. The optimized results have shown a reduction of over 40% in the root mean-square errors in comparison with the linear estimation models.
Autors: Osama Al-Mai;Mojtaba Ahmadi;Jacques Albert;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6549 - 6557
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Comparison of Multiparty Secure Additions with Differential Privacy
Abstract:
This paper considers the problem of secure data aggregation (mainly summation) in a distributed setting, while ensuring differential privacy of the result. We study secure multiparty addition protocols using well known security schemes: Shamir's secret sharing, perturbation-based, and various encryptions. We supplement our study with our new enhanced encryption scheme EFT, which is efficient and fault tolerant.Differential privacy of the final result is achieved by either distributed Laplace or Geometric mechanism (respectively DLPA or DGPA), while approximated differential privacy is achieved by diluted mechanisms. Distributed random noise is generated collectively by all participants, which draw random variables from one of several distributions: Gamma, Gauss, Geometric, or their diluted versions. We introduce a new distributed privacy mechanism with noise drawn from the Laplace distribution, which achieves smaller redundant noise with efficiency. We compare complexity and security characteristics of the protocols with different differential privacy mechanisms and security schemes. More importantly, we implemented all protocols and present an experimental comparison on their performance and scalability in a real distributed environment. Based on the evaluations, we identify our security scheme and Laplace DLPA as the most efficient for secure distributed data aggregation with differential privacy.
Autors: Slawomir Goryczka;Li Xiong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 463 - 477
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Framework for Spectrum Sensing in Non-Linear and Generalized Fading Conditions
Abstract:
We derive a comprehensive analytical framework for the ED over generalized, extreme, and non-linear fading conditions which addresses the topic completely. This is carried out for both conventional and diversity receptions and it is based on the area under the ROC curve (AUC), which is an efficient performance measure that is widely used in physical sciences and engineering. This differentiates the considered methodology from the aforementioned routine approaches and additionally provides generic results on the arbitrary derivatives of the MGF of useful generalized processes. The asymptotic behavior of the derived expressions is also analyzed providing direct and concrete insights on the role and effect of the involved parameters on the ED performance. The offered analytic results are subsequently employed in quantifying the performance of ED over various types of fading conditions, which exhibits that ED performance is significantly degraded by even slight variations of the severity of fading. To this end, it is shown that the detrimental effects of fading can be effectively mitigated with the aid of square-law combining and switch-and-stay combining methods, as a low number of diversity branches can ensure sufficient and holistic performance improvement even in severe fading conditions.
Autors: Paschalis C. Sofotasios;Alireza Bagheri;Theodoros A. Tsiftsis;Steven Freear;Ali Shahzadi;Mikko Valkama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 8615 - 8631
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Lookup Table Based FCS-MPC for PMSM Drives Fed by Matrix Converters
Abstract:
Finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) is an interesting alternative for the control of drive systems. However, FCS-MPC requires a large amount of calculation, because it uses all feasible voltage vectors of a power converter for prediction and evaluation. This is an obstacle for its application when the number of voltage vectors of power converter is increased. The computational burden is more challenging when the control objectives are increased. At the same time, matrix converter is an attractive alternative to conventional back-to-back converters with dc link. However, implementation of FCS-MPC for a matrix converter is computationally expensive due to the 27 feasible voltage vectors of the matrix converter. In this paper, a Lookup table is used to reduce the candidate voltage vectors that make the FCS-MPC computationally efficient for matrix converter-fed permanent-magnet synchronous motors. This approach is implemented experimentally and is compared with the conventional approach to evaluate its performance.
Autors: Mohsen Siami;Davood Arab Khaburi;Marco Rivera;Jose Rodríguez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7645 - 7654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Conflict-Free Replicated JSON Datatype
Abstract:
Many applications model their data in a general-purpose storage format such as JSON. This data structure is modified by the application as a result of user input. Such modifications are well understood if performed sequentially on a single copy of the data, but if the data is replicated and modified concurrently on multiple devices, it is unclear what the semantics should be. In this paper we present an algorithm and formal semantics for a JSON data structure that automatically resolves concurrent modifications such that no updates are lost, and such that all replicas converge towards the same state (a conflict-free replicated datatype or CRDT). It supports arbitrarily nested list and map types, which can be modified by insertion, deletion and assignment. The algorithm performs all merging client-side and does not depend on ordering guarantees from the network, making it suitable for deployment on mobile devices with poor network connectivity, in peer-to-peer networks, and in messaging systems with end-to-end encryption.
Autors: Martin Kleppmann;Alastair R. Beresford;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2733 - 2746
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Context-Aware Trust Framework for Resilient Distributed Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Dynamic Settings
Abstract:
Cognitive radios enable dynamic spectrum access where secondary users (SUs) are allowed to operate on the licensed spectrum bands on an opportunistic noninterference basis. Cooperation among the SUs for spectrum sensing is essential for environments with deep shadows. In this paper, we study the adverse effect of insistent spectrum sensing data falsification (ISSDF) attack on iterative distributed cooperative spectrum sensing. We show that the existing trust management schemes are not adequate in mitigating ISSDF attacks in dynamic settings where the primary user (PU) of the band frequently transitions between active and inactive states. We propose a novel context-aware distributed trust framework for cooperative spectrum sensing in mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHN) that effectively alleviates different types of ISSDF attacks (Always-Yes, Always-No, and fabricating) in dynamic scenarios. In the proposed framework, the SU nodes evaluate the trustworthiness of one another based on the two possible contexts in which they make observations from each other: PU absent context and PU present context. We evaluate the proposed context-aware scheme and compare it against the existing context-oblivious trust schemes using theoretical analysis and extensive simulations of realistic scenarios of mobile CRAHNs operating in TV white space. We show that in the presence of a large set of attackers (as high as 60% of the network), the proposed context-aware trust scheme successfully mitigates the attacks and satisfy the false alarm and missed-detection rates of and lower. Moreover, we show that the proposed scheme is scalable in terms of attack severity, SU network density, and the distance of the SU network to the PU transmitter.
Autors: Aida Vosoughi;Joseph R. Cavallaro;Alan Marshall;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9177 - 9191
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control Scheme for Automatic Level Crossings Under the ERTMS/ETCS Level 2/3 Operation
Abstract:
Level crossing (LC) safety is a crucial issue for railway operators and infrastructure managers. Accidents at LCs give rise to serious material and human damage, while seriously impacting the reputation of railway safety. In particular, some typical scenarios are behind the main part of train-car collisions, which occur at LCs. On the other hand, European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the standard railway control-command and signaling system that is currently being implemented throughout Europe and elsewhere. The aim is to ensure railway interoperability while enhancing safety and competitiveness of the railway transportation. ERTMS specifications only provide a rough description when dealing with LC control. This paper elaborates on a functional control architecture for automatic LCs in the context of ERTMS operation Levels 2 and 3. Indeed, these operation levels ensure a continuous knowledge of train location thanks to the Global System for Mobile Communications—Railways link between the trains and the Radio Block Center. Hence, the established LC control scheme aims to ensure an optimal LC command based on the information regarding the train location and, thereby, prevent some potential risky scenarios and improve the global safety at LCs. To achieve this, a generic methodology is employed. First, a formal behavioral model is developed using the time Petri net (TPN) notation. Then, the problem is formalized on the basis of the established TPN, in such a way as to carry out a sound and trustworthy analysis. The various steps of the developed approach are detailed and illustrated in the course of this paper. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that seeks to elaborate a control strategy of automatic LC in the ERTMS operation context.
Autors: Mohamed Ghazel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2667 - 2680
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cooperative Operation of Novel PV Inverter Control Scheme and Storage Energy Management System Based on ANFIS for Voltage Regulation of Grid-Tied PV System
Abstract:
In this paper, the voltage regulation problem in low-voltage power distribution networks integrated with increased amount of solar photovoltaics (PV) has been addressed. This paper proposes and evaluates the cooperative performance of a novel proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control scheme for PV interfacing inverter based on intelligent adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and an ANFIS-based supervisory storage energy management system (EMS) for regulating the voltage of three-phase grid-connected solar PV system under any nonlinear and fluctuating operating conditions. The proposed ANFIS-based PID control scheme (ANFISPID) dynamically controls the PV inverter to inject/ absorb appropriate reactive power to regulate the voltage at point of common coupling (PCC) and provides robust response at any system worst case scenarios and grid faults. And the proposed ANFIS-based supervisory EMS controls the charge/discharge of the energy storage system when there is voltage deviation to cooperate with ANFISPID in PCC voltage regulation. The proposed ANFISPID-based PV inverter control scheme and ANFIS-based supervisory EMS are developed and simulated in MATLAB/ Simulink environment and their dynamic cooperative performances are compared with cooperative performances of conventional PID-based PV inverter control scheme and state-based EMS.
Autors: Nasif Mahmud;Ahmad Zahedi;Asif Mahmud;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2657 - 2668
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coupling Between the Facet Finite Element and Reluctance Network Methods in 3-D
Abstract:
A 3-D finite-element method mesh is converted to a reluctance network through an original magnetostatic formulation based on facet shape functions interpolation of the magnetic induction. This network is coupled with a standard reluctance network, characterizing a 0-D system and solved by a circuit solver approach.
Autors: Anderson S. Nunes;Olivier Chadebec;Patrick Kuo-Peng;Patrick Dular;Gerard Meunier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Current-Dependent Switching Strategy for Si/SiC Hybrid Switch-Based Power Converters
Abstract:
Hybrid switches configured by paralleling Silicon (Si) Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFET) have been verified to be a high-efficiency cost-effective device concept. In this paper, a current-dependent switching strategy is introduced and implemented to further improve the performance of Si/SiC hybrid switches. This proposed switching strategy is based on a comprehensive consideration of reducing device losses, reliable operation, and overload capability. Based on the utilization of such Si/SiC hybrid switches and the proposed switching strategy, a 15-kW single-phase H-bridge inverter prototype was implemented and tested in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the performance of the hybrid switches and the new switching strategy.
Autors: Jiangbiao He;Ramin Katebi;Nathan Weise;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8344 - 8352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DAC With an Impedance Attenuator and Distortion Analysis Using Volterra Series
Abstract:
An impedance attenuator is implemented to reduce digital-to-analog converter (DAC) distortion, and two techniques to further reduce the distortion are discussed: the first is to use cross-coupled capacitors to cancel nonlinear currents; the second is to optimize the common-mode bandwidth of the differential amplifier for cancellation of distortion. To support these techniques, DAC distortion has been analyzed with the Volterra series, and the analysis is compared with simulation results and measurement data. The analysis uncovers a previously unknown nonlinear cancellation mechanism for the DAC and confirms the proposed techniques. Each technique can contribute 3–6 dB of improvement, and about a 6-dB improvement when combined. The 0.708-mm2 DAC is fabricated in a 28-nm metal-gate digital CMOS process with the proposed impedance attenuator, and it achieves −89 dBc of average HD3 at a 5-MHz input frequency and sampling rate of 230.4 MHz.
Autors: Sang Min Lee;Namsoo Kim;Derui Kong;Dongwon Seo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2929 - 2938
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decoupled Adaptive Noise Detection Based Control Approach for a Grid Supportive SPV System
Abstract:
A grid supportive two-stage three-phase four-wire solar photovoltaic (SPV) system is presented in this paper, wherein a boost converter is used as a first stage to serve the function of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and a four-leg voltage source converter (VSC) is used to feed the extracted SPV energy, along with supporting distribution system for improvement in the power quality. Unlike conventional SPV inverters, the proposed solar energy conversion system provides extra functionalities such as balancing of grid currents, reactive power compensation, mitigation of harmonics, and neutral current elimination in grid side neutral conductor. An extra feed-forward term is added in the control loop to provide fast dynamic responses. The PV array voltage is continuously adjusted using a boost converter to achieve MPPT. A control approach employing decoupled adaptive noise detection (DAND) algorithm is used for controlling the four-leg grid-tied VSC. The DAND algorithm is a simple approach using two multipliers, one integrator, and one summer per phase for detection of useful component of load current. The proposed control algorithm gives features such as simple structure, fast convergence, frequency adaptive detection, and good steady-state performance. The grid currents are found adhering to an IEEE-519 standard, even under nonlinear and unbalanced loads at common point of interconnection.
Autors: Bhim Singh;Chinmay Jain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4894 - 4902
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Descriptor Approach to Robust Leader-Following Output Consensus of Uncertain Multi-Agent Systems With Delay
Abstract:
In this technical note, a descriptor approach to leader-following output consensus of multi-agent systems with both stationary and dynamic leaders is given in the presence of transmission delay and model uncertainty. The proposed method can deal with stable and unstable agents described by general linear models. To this end, a new proportional-derivative-integral (PID) consensus protocol for the closed-loop multi-agent system is proposed under a directed graph. Applying this consensus protocol to the multi-agent system leads to a time-delay closed-loop equation of neutral type. To deal with the resulting neutral system, a descriptor model transformation is used to derive delay-dependent sufficient conditions for the existence of the consensus protocol in terms of certain linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The application of the proposed method is illustrated in a teleoperation system. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Ala Shariati;Mahdi Tavakoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5310 - 5317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differential Electrochemical Readout ASIC With Heterogeneous Integration of Bio-Nano Sensors for Amperometric Sensing
Abstract:
A monolithic biosensing platform is presented for miniaturized amperometric electrochemical sensing in CMOS. The system consists of a fully integrated current readout circuit for differential current measurement as well as on-die sensors developed by growing platinum nanostructures (Pt-nanoS) on top of electrodes implemented with the top metal layer. The circuit is based on the switch–capacitor technique and includes pseudodifferential integrators for concurrent sampling of the differential sensor currents. The circuit further includes a differential to single converter and a programmable gain amplifier prior to an ADC. The system is fabricated in technology and measures current within with minimum input-referred noise of and consumes from a supply. Differential sensing for nanostructured sensors is proposed to build highly sensitive and offset-free sensors for metabolite detection. This is successfully tested for bio-nano-sensors for the measurement of glucose in submilli molar concentrations with the proposed readout IC. The on-die electrodes are nanostructured and cyclic voltammetry run successfully through the readout IC to demonstrate detection of .
Autors: Sara S. Ghoreishizadeh;Irene Taurino;Giovanni De Micheli;Sandro Carrara;Pantelis Georgiou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1148 - 1159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digitally Dynamic Power Supply Technique for 16-Channel 12 V-Tolerant Stimulator Realized in a 0.18- μm 1.8-V/3.3-V Low-Voltage CMOS Process
Abstract:
A new digitally dynamic power supply technique for 16-channel 12-V-tolerant stimulator is proposed and realized in a 0.18-μm 1.8-V/3.3-V CMOS process. The proposed stimulator uses four stacked transistors as the pull-down switch and pull-up switch to withstand 4 times the nominal supply voltage (4 × V DD). With the dc input voltage of 3.3 V, the regulated three-stage charge pump, which is capable of providing 11.3-V voltage at 3-mA loading current, achieves dc conversion efficiency of up to 69% with 400-pF integrated capacitance. Power consumption is reduced by implementing the regulated charge pump to provide a dynamic dc output voltage with a 0.5-V step. The proposed digitally dynamic power supply technique, which is implemented by using a p-type metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS) inverter with pull-down current source and digital controller, greatly improves the power efficiency of a system. The silicon area of the stimulator is approximately 3.5 mm2 for a 16-channel implementation. The functionalities of the proposed stimulator have been successfully verified through animal test.
Autors: Zhicong Luo;Ming-Dou Ker;Tzu-Yi Yang;Wan-Hsueh Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1087 - 1096
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Double-T-Type Compensation Network and Its Tuning Method for IPT System
Abstract:
This paper presents a new design strategy for an S-LCC-type compensation network in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems to achieve constant voltage output. It was found that four resonant elements (three capacitors and one inductor) can compose two symmetric T-type resonant tanks, which is well-known for its impedance transformation characteristic and reciprocity between voltage source and current source. A simplified analytical technique is used to calculate the voltage gain and parameters for each resonant element. Besides, the proposed tuning method for an S-LCC network has negligible response to high-order harmonics, allowing wide range of output voltage regulation and easy implementation of zero voltage switching. To aid designers in practical design and circuit debugging, sensitivity of one critical resonant element is analyzed. To verify the analysis, a 165 W prototype with 50 mm gap and fixed voltage transfer ratio was fabricated and tested. An overall 90% efficiency was achieved from dc 70 V input to dc 30 V output.
Autors: Yijie Wang;Guangyao Shi;Yousu Yao;Jose Marcos Alonso;Guo Weifeng;Xiaosheng Liu;Dianguo Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4757 - 4767
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DSE-Based Power System Frequency Restoration Strategy for PV-Integrated Power Systems Considering Solar Irradiance Variations
Abstract:
With power networks undergoing an unprecedented transition from traditional power systems to modern electric grids integrated with renewable energy sources, maintaining frequency stability of generators in modern power systems has become one of the major concerns. Targeting this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel frequency restoration strategy in photovoltaics (PV)-connected power systems using decentralized dynamic state estimation technique and PV power plant as a contingency power source. When a sudden increase in load demand occurs, the output power of PV panels is increased in order to compensate for the shortage of real power capacity of the generator, in order to restore the frequency of a certain generator bus bar. An unscented Kalman filter-based decentralized dynamic estimation is utilized in this study to estimate the frequency of a selected generator bus bar with local noisy voltage and current measurement data acquired by using phasor measurement units. Solar luminous intensity may vary over a period of time in different seasons, weather conditions, etc., which causes the variations in the output power of PV power plants. This irradiance uncertainty is also considered in this study. The proposed control strategy not only incorporates the frequency deviations of a generator bus-bar, but also takes into account the tie-line power deviations under disturbances. Simulation results demonstrate the capacity of proposed control schemes in restoring the frequency of generator bus-bars and also maintaining the tie-line power flowing between adjoining areas at it scheduled value.
Autors: Shenglong Yu;Lijun Zhang;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;Tyrone Fernando;Kit Po Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2511 - 2518
Publisher: IEEE
 

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